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PDHPE study notes for preliminary exam Essay

What does health mean to individuals?

Health is the interaction between the physical, social, emotional, mental and spiritual dimensions. Many terms have emerged to express the nature of health, such as well-being, wellness, health, status, and state of being. Health is dynamic, changing over time and means different things to different people during different times in their life. Health can be viewed as relative in relation to another period of time or in relation to one’s potential. Different perceptions of health may explain the nature of particular health issues and how best to intervene. The health continuum ‘measures’ a person’s health at any one moment in time. Out health status changes in relation to our circumstances.

The public health approach looks to develop solutions to social health problems. Media can impact on a person’s health in a positive and/or negative way. Most young Australians rate their health from good to excellent. However, some other groups of Australians experience poorer health. Education provides young people with knowledge, understanding and skills about health. What influences the health of individuals?

The determinants of health include individual, socio-cultural, socio-economic and environmental factors. Many factors influence the health of individuals and these factors can either protect health or place it as risk. Some determinants can be modified, such as where one lives, while others cannot, such as age. Health is socially constructed.

Most Australians have experiences improving standards of health; however, there exists a large gap between the rich and the poor. The conceptual framework of health illustrates how one group of determinants can influence and determine the nature of another group of determinants. Individual factors that influence health include genetics and knowledge, skills and attitudes. Socio-cultural factors that influence health include family, peers, media, religion and culture. Socio-economic factors that influence health include employment, education and income. Environmental factors that influence health include geographic location, access to health services and access to technology. What strategies help to promote the health of individuals?

Health promotion aims to help people improve their health and is the responsibility of individuals, communities and all levels of government. Health is a shared responsibility among individuals, community, health professionals, health services institutions and governments. A variety of health promotion approaches and strategies are used to target particular groups to improve their health. Strategies employed promotion are enabling, in the implementation of health are enabling, creating environments that are supportive of health and advocating to create essential conditions for health. The Ottawa Charter provides a framework for the implementation of health promotion areas.

The principles of social justice include equity, diversity and supportive environments. How do the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems of the body influence and respond to movement? The bones of the axial skeleton (cranium, vertebral column, rib, sacrum and coccyx) provide bases of attachment for the bones of the appendicular skeleton (bones of the pelvis, legs, shoulder girdle and arms). The major bones of the body articulate at synovial (movable) joints and allow movement to occur. Muscles pull on bones to bring about movement. Muscles work in pairs: while one muscle contracts (acts as the agonist) the opposite muscle will relax (acts as the antagonist). Some muscles also act as stabilisers. Isotonic contractions feature a change in muscle length. In a concentric isotonic contraction, the muscle shortens to bring the bones closer together, while in an eccentric isotonic contraction, the muscles lengthen, thereby increasing the distance between the bones.

The tension created in an isometric contraction neither shortens nor lengthens the muscles involved. The respirator system facilitates the movement of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) from areas of high pressure to one of low pressure in an attempt to equalise the pressure. Pulmonary circulation circulates blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart. Systemic circulation pumps blood from the left side of the heart to the body tissues and then back to the right side of the heart. Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts on the walls of blood vessels. The circulatory system is comprised of the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries and the blood. What is the relationship between physical fitness, training and movement efficiency? The eleven components of fitness are health related (necessary for the efficient functioning of the body) and skill-related (of importance to movement performance).

There are five health-related components of fitness: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition. There are six skill-related components of fitness: power, speed, agility, coordination, balance and reaction time. There is a clear relationship between physical fitness, health and performance. The FITT principle (Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type) can be applied to any exercise program based on improving aerobic fitness. The body demonstrates five immediate physiological responses to exercise. These are changes to heart rate, ventilation rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and lactate levels. These changes occur to allow the working muscles to receive an increased supply of oxygen and nutrients and to remove wastes, such as carbon dioxide and water. How do biomechanical principles influence movement?

Performance can be enhanced through understanding the basic biomechanical principles that underpin movement. Measuring how far, how fast or how consistently a body moves can help athletes improve their speed, velocity and acceleration rate. Maintaining balance and stability is vital in all sporting activities. The broader the base of support, the more stable an object or performer becomes. Efficient biomechanical techniques reduce the negative effects of drag and resistance on performance in fluid environments. An object will float if the force pushing it up (the buoyant force) is equal to or greater than the force pushing it down (gravity).

A body that is partially or totally immersed in a fluid will experience buoyancy that is equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displaced by that body. Force can divert or slow the movement of an object upon which it acts. Understanding how to apply and absorb force effectively can improve performance. What are the main priorities for assessment and management of first aid patients? Performing a situational analysis of an emergency first aid solution involves establishing what has happened, preparing a ‘plan of attack’, performing what you have planned, and making use of resources. When approaching a casualty, beware of hidden dangers, assess the casualty, consider your personal safety first and then treat the casualty on site. The primary survey and secondary survey are used to properly assess a casualty’s condition and to allow for better action when treating the casualty.

The steps in the primary survey can be remembered using the acronym DRSABCD: Danger, Response, Send for help, Airway, Breathing, Compressions, and Defibrillation. The primary survey helps the first aider to establish the casualty’s condition and, if the condition is life threatening, identify the appropriate actions to be taken. The steps in managing injuries can be remembered using the acronym STOP: Stop, Talk, Observe, and Prevent further injury. The secondary survey requires observation of signs and symptoms to identify injuries. It involves checking for injuries to the head, spine, chest, abdomen, pelvic area and limbs. Crisis management involves determining what first aid actions need to be taken. It may require the use of rescue breathing and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The treatment of bleeding, shock, neck and spinal injuries are of high priority. Removing a casualty from danger and referring them to medical assistance are vital and especially important when the casualty is unconscious. How should the major types of injuries and medical conditions be managed in first aid situations?

Cuts are generally treated with pressure and elevation to help limit blood loss and by resting the casualty. Fractures and dislocations often occur from heavy impacts. When treating the casualty, it is essential to limit his or her movement and have the casualty seek medical assistance as soon as possible. It is important that a first aid person learns how to apply slings, splints and bandages. This will help ensure the person can effectively manage a range of injuries. Heart attack, stroke, diabetes, epilepsy, asthma, anaphylaxis and poisonings are common medical conditions encountered in first aid emergency situations. A first aid person needs to learn how to manage these conditions. The pressure immobilisation technique and application of cold compress or hot water are common methods used to treat bites and stings. Education provides young people with knowledge, understanding and skills about health. What does exercise mean to different people?

Exercise can involve a wide range of activities, including leisure and recreation pursuits and competitive and non-competitive sports. Regular exercise improves fitness and thus our overall health. People’s attitude towards fitness have changed in recent years as a result of changing lifestyles, more leisure time and increasing levels of disease associated with sedentary lifestyles. Fitness is a commodity; it’s a good or service that requires careful consideration before purchase. Increased technology has reduces the amount of time that needs to be spent on daily chores and, as a result, has decreased the amount of incidental physical activity in which we participate. While the amount of available leisure time has increased, physical activity levels have decreased. What are the ways people choose to exercise for fitness?

People may choose to improve their fitness by participating in either individual or group fitness activities. A person’s lifestyle and personal circumstances have a strong influence on his or her fitness choices. Individual fitness activities allow for flexibility in timing that is based around the participant’s commitments. Group fitness activities involve activity with other people and are often chosen with the view to establish greater social connections and provide motivation to continue with the program. What influences people’s choice of fitness activities?

Fitness activities can be undertaken in a range of setting, including in the home, at community facilities, in fitness centres, with personal trainers, with exercise clubs and with cultural groups. The setting chosen will reflect the needs and personality of the participant. When choosing an exercise setting, participants need to consider their needs and abilities to ensure they choose a setting that will help them to continue exercising in that environment. Fitness products and services are heavily advertised and promoted in an effort to attract consumers. Consumers must be discerning in their choice of products and services and check the accuracy of the information that is provided to them. There are many motivating factors and barriers to participation in fitness activities. The fitness industry attempts to overcome many of these barriers and provide environments when consumers are give support and motivation to help them maintain their programs.

Better health for individuals:

Health: health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, also including the ability to lead a socially and economically productive lifestyle. Four dimensions of health:

Physical health: Refers to the physical condition of the body. Indicators of good physical health include efficient functioning of the body, body weight, fitness levels and resistance to disease. Social health: Refers to your interaction with your peers, family, friends and others. Good social health means being able to establish and maintain positive relationships.

Mental health: (a.k.a. emotional health) Refers to your ability to deal with stressful situations, your feelings, emotions and self-worth. Positive mental health is important for enhanced self-esteem and conflict resolution. Spiritual health: This varies from person to person. One person may view spiritual health as having an affinity to their particular religion. Others may view spiritual health as being in tune with themselves or their sense of purpose and meaning in life. Perceptions of health as social constructs:

The NSW BoS defines a social construct as ‘a concept that has meaning and shared understanding based on people’s way of seeing, interpreting, interrelating and interacting’. Each individual’s perception of health will therefore reflect their own unique circumstances, upbringing and environment. When health is perceived as a social construct, it allows us to consider the factors that influence an individual’s behaviour.

It provides opportunities to address the issues of health inequities and social justice for all sectors of all communities. It challenged the motion that health is solely and individual’s responsibility. Viewing health as a social construct recognises that health varies from individual to individual and social context in which they live. It allows us to consider the factors that influence an individual’s behaviour. It provides an opportunity to address the isues of health inequities and social justice for all sectors of the population. The determinants of health:

An individual’s health is determined by a range of factors acting in various combinations. Some factors have the potential to impact a person’s health more than others and some factors are not modifiable. Individual factors: knowledge and skills, attitudes, genetics. Sociocultural factors: family, peers, media, religion, culture. Socioeconomic factors: employment, education, income.

Environmental factors: geographic location, access to health services, technology. The degree to which an individual can modify their health determinants varies greatly. For example, the significant issue of age is a factor in which the individual has no control over, whereas an individual’s attitude to accessing health care may be modified quite effectively. Health promotion:

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health. To reach a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify and to realise aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment. Health is therefore, seen as a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living.

Health is a positive concept emphasising social and personal resources, as well as physical capabilities. Effective health promotion acknowledges that individuals need support and resources from the community, government and environment to achieve and maintain good health. Each of these groups is responsible for health promotion: Individuals

Community groups/schools
Non-government organisations
International organisations (e.g. WHO, United Nations, etc.) The traditional approach to improving the health status of individuals was to provide improvements to medical treatment, drugs and public health. Effective health promotion now recognises that a range of approaches and strategies are needed to address the wide range of health determinants in additional to an ongoing commitment to medical advancement. Holistic approach to fitness:

Fitness industries are realising that they are able to sell a whole package to their clients. Holistic approaches to life are being bandied about in the glossy brochures and through the mouths of membership managers up and down the country. The fitness industry are realising that fitness is not all about exercise. Gyms can provide a haven from the extremes of modern living and that they can do as much for the emotional side of human experiences as they can for the physical. Preventative medical approaches:

Preventative medical approaches specifically aim to treat and prevent disease by addressing physiological risk factors. These approaches can be categorised into three distinct actions: Primary prevention: targets populations, including those without obvious risk factors. Secondary prevention: targets sections of the population reporting increased risk (e.g. family history). Tertiary prevention: targets those people already affected by disease and aims to avoid recurrence of allowing the disease to become chronic. Public health approaches:

These approaches are broad strategies that address social and environmental health determinants to affect improved health status. Examples of public health approaches include health promoting schools and workplace health promotion. The Ottawa Charter as an effective health promotion framework: The thirtieth WHO (World Health Assembly), held in 1977, had highlighted the importance of promoting health so that all the international citizens had an “economically productive” level of health by the year 2000. The Ottawa Charter contains five action areas for health promotion: 1. Developing personal skills

2. Creating supportive environments
3. Strengthening community actions
4. Reorienting health services
5. Building healthy public policy
Develop personal skills:
Health promotion supports personal and social development through providing information, education for health and enhancing life skills. By so doing, it increases the options available to people to exercise more control over their own health and over their environments, and to make choices conductive to good health. Enabling people to learn throughout life, to prepare them for all of its stages and to cope with chronic illness and injuries is essential. This has to be facilitated in school, home, work and community settings. Action is required through educational, professional, commercial and voluntary bodies, and within the institutions themselves. Create supportive environments:

Our societies are complex and interrelated. Health cannot be separated from other goals. The inextricable links between people and their environment constitute the basis for a socioecological approach to health. The overall guiding principle for the world, nations, regions and communities alike is the need to encourage reciprocal maintenance – to take care of each other, our communities and our natural environment. The conservation of natural resources throughout the world should be emphasized as a global responsibility. Changing patterns of life, work and leisure have a significant impact of health. Work and leisure should be a source of health for people.

The way society organise work should help create a health society. Health promotion generates living and working conditions that are safe, stimulating, satisfying and enjoyable. Systematic assessment of the health impact of a rapidly changing environment – particularly in areas of technology, work, energy production and urbanisation is essential and must be followed by action to ensure positive benefit to the health of the public. The protection of the natural and built environments and the conservation of natural resources must be addressed in any health promotion strategy. Strengthen community action:

Health promotion works thought concrete and effective community action in setting priorities, making decisions, planning strategies and implementing them to achieve better health. At the heart of this process is the empowerment of communities, their ownership and control of their own endeavours and destinies. Community development draws on existing human and material resources in the community to enhance self-help and social support, and to develop flexible systems for strengthening public participation and direction of health matters. This requires full and continuous access to information, learning opportunities for health, as well as funding support.
Reorient health services:

The responsibility for health promotion in health services is shared among individuals, community groups, health professionals, health service institutions and governments. They must work together towards a health care system which contributes to the pursuit of health. The role of the health sector must move increasingly in a health promotion direction, beyond its responsibility for providing clinical and curative services. Health services need to embrace an expanded mandate which is sensitive and respects cultural needs.

This mandate should support the needs of individuals and communities for a healthier life, and open channels between the health sector and broader social, political, economic and physical environmental components. Reorienting health services also requires stronger attention to health research as well as changed in professional education and training. This must lead to a change of attitude and organisation of health services, which refocuses on the total needs of the individual as a whole person. Building health public policy:

Health promotion goes beyond health care. It puts health on the agenda of policy-makers in all sectors ad at all levels, directing them to be aware of the health consequences of their decisions and to accept their responsibilities for health. Health promotion policy combines diverse but complementary approaches including legislation, fiscal measures, taxation and organisational change. It is coordinated action that leads to health, income and social policies that foster greater equity.

Joint action contributes to ensuring safer and healthier goods and services, healthier public services, and cleaner, more enjoyable environments. Health promotion policy required the identification of obstacles to the adoption of healthy public policies in non-health sectors, and ways of removing them. The aim must be to make the healthier choice the easier choice for policy-makers as well. Principles of social justice:

Social justice is a principle which encourages fair and equitable distribution of resources and services to all sectors of the population. It acknowledges the Australia is diverse in terms of multiculturalism, socioeconomic status and geographic location and this often creates inequities in health status. Social justice is a fundamental principle of health promotion and aims to address inequities and empower all Australians to lead full and healthy lives. Medicare is one example of the Australian government supporting social justice and ensuring that all Australians, regardless of socioeconomic status, religion, gender or race, have access to basic medical care. Supportive environment:

It is crucial for an individual to develop their personal skills if they are going to overcome any negative influence their environment may have on them. Developing personal skills supports the notion of supportive environments by empowering individuals through the teaching of knowledge and skills, which they can pass on to others in their environment. If a parent is educated about healthy food habits, they will provide nutritious foods for their children, which will reduce the chance of them developing a diet-related illness such as diabetes. Equity:

Equity involves allocating resources fairly so everyone has the same opportunity to achieve good health. This does not necessarily mean allocating the same resources to all sectors of the population, as some disadvantaged groups may require additional funding to enable a similar health outcome to be achieved. Diversity:

By acknowledging the diverse population groups that make up the Australian population, health promotion can recognise the particular needs of different groups and develop strategies to suit.

The body in motion:
Skeletal system:
The average adult human body consists of 206 bones. They range in shape and size and serve several functions: A support network for the attachment of muscles.
Protection of internal organs.
Allows movement to occur when muscles contract.
A storage house for minerals such as calcium.
Produces blood cells from within the bone marrow.
Directional anatomical terms:

Anatomical position: the individual stands erect facing frontward with their palms facing forward. Superior: towards the head; e.g. the hip is superior to the knee. Inferior: away from the head; e.g. the foot is inferior to the knee. Anterior: towards the front of the body; e.g. the sternum is anterior to the lungs. Posterior: towards the back of the body; e.g. the clavicle is posterior to the sternum. Medial: towards the midline of the body; e.g. the tibia is on the medial side of the leg. Lateral: away from the midline of the body; e.g. the fibula is on the lateral side of the body. Proximal: towards the body; e.g. the elbow is proximal to the hand. Distal: away from the body; e.g. the hand is distal to the elbow. Structure and function of synovial joints:

A joint is a place where two or more bones meet. Joints can be divided into three types: Fixed or immovable (such as the joints found in the skull).
Cartilaginous or slightly moveable (such as the vertebral column). Synovial or freely moveable (such as those found in the limbs). Characteristics:
Synovial membrane
The inner membrane of tissue that lines a joint. The synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid. Synovial fluid
Lubricates the joint and reduce the friction between bones in joints. Tendons
Connects muscle tissues to the bones.
Connects bone to bone to form a joint.
Cartilage acts as a cushion between joints, to prevent the bones from rubbing against each other and reduce friction in the joint with movement.

Synovial joints:
Ball and socket
Hinge joint
Joint actions:
Flexion: bending or decreasing the angle at a joint.
Extension: straitening or increasing the angle at a joint.
Adduction: moving a body part towards to centre or midline.
Abduction: moving a body part away from the midline.
Circumduction: moving a joint in a circular motion. It can take place at joints that flex, extend, adduct or abduct. Rotation: turning or twisting a bone along its axis.
Dorsiflexion: only takes place at one joint, and it involves moving the toes towards the shinbone. Plantarflexion: only takes place at one joint, and it involves moving the toes away from the shinbone. Muscular system:

There are over 600 muscles in the average adult human body. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal: mainly attached to bones, it causes movement to occur. Skeletal muscle is striated (striped in appearance) and voluntary. Cardiac: the muscle associated with the heart. Cardiac muscle is striated and involuntary. Smooth: this muscle lines the walls of internal organs (e.g. stomach). It is non-striated and predominantly involuntary.

The function of muscle tissue is to produce movement, provide stabilisation and generate heat for the muscle to function correctly. It had four special characteristics: Contractibility: ability of the muscle to contract or shorten in length when stimulated. Extensibility: ability of the muscle to extend or lengthen when stimulated. Excitability: ability of the muscle to collect and acknowledge stimuli. Elasticity: ability of the muscle to return to its resting state after lengthening or shortening has occurred. Major muscles involved in movement:

Skeletal muscle consists of two main types of fibre, which are hereditary and help to determine the type of sports and activities you are best suited to: Slow twitch (red fibres): contract slowly, produce less force, fatigue slowly and are suited to aerobic (distance) events of activities. Fast twitch (white fibres): contract quickly, produce a great deal of force, fatigue quickly and are suited to anaerobic (speed/power) events or activities. Muscle relationship:

In order for a muscle to move a joint, it must span that joint. Muscles are arranged in pairs around joints so that when one muscle moves a joint, another moves it back. A muscle moves a joint by contracting, whilst its partner is relaxing. The name given to the two muscles is the ‘antagonistic pair’. The agonist is the muscle or muscle group that contracts to cause movement. The antagonist is the muscle or muscle group that relaxes to allow movement. Stabilisers are muscles that work at a joint to help stabilise it. This allows other muscles to work more effectively. Types of muscle contractions:

Isometric: muscle contraction without appreciable shortening or change in distance between its origin and insertion. Isotonic: muscle contraction without appreciable change in the force of contraction; the distance between the muscle’s origin and insertion becomes lessened. The two types of isotonic contractions are concentric (tension develops in the muscle and the muscle shortens) and eccentric (tension develops in the muscle and the muscle lengthens). Respiratory system:

Every cell in the body needs oxygen. The respiratory system takes oxygen from the atmosphere and positions it where it can diffuse into the blood. The close interplay that exists between the cardiovascular and respiratory system causes them to be jointly referred to as the cardiorespiratory system. The route of air:

Air is drawn into the lungs as a result of the combined expansion of the rib cage and the lowering of the diaphragm; in normal breathing it is lowered about 1 cm; in heavy breathing it can be lowered up to 10 cm. When the lungs are expanded in this state, atmospheric pressure, the pressure outside the body, is higher than the pressure in the lungs. Air flows from the higher to the lower pressure areas and into the lungs through a system of channels that begins with the oral cavity (mouth) and the nasal cavity (nose). The air flow then continues through the trachea (the windpipe), passed the pharynx and larynx, and into the bronchi which are two large tubes, one for each lung.

Finally, stemming from the main bronchi are smaller bronchi and tiny bronchioles, much like branches and twigs stemming from a tree trunk. Arriving at the bronchioles, the air has yet to unload its cargo of oxygen. The start of this task is taken on by vast armies of tiny, expandable, thin-walled, clustering sacs called alveoli. There are estimated to be about 300 million of these small air sacs in an average-sized adult. This is to increase the surface area of the lungs to allow for more efficient gaseous exchange. The alveoli constitute the bulk of lung tissue; it is their substance that makes the lungs soft and spongy. When the lungs expand or contract, it is the alveoli that are expanding or contracting. It is from the alveoli that the blood receives its oxygen. Gaseous exchange:

Gases move from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. When this happens in the body, it is known as ‘gaseous exchange’. When gaseous exchange takes place between the lungs and the blood, it is known as external respiration. Circulatory system:

The circulatory system is a transport system that transports food, oxygen and nutrients around the body. It also helps to remove waste products from the body. The three parts of the circulatory system is the blood, the heart and the blood vessels (arteries and veins). Components of blood:

The three main functions of blood are to transport oxygen and nutrients, protect organs and regulate body temperature. Component:
Special features:
Plasma (55%)
Made of primarily water.
Straw coloured liquid.
Dissolves minerals, salts, nutrients, proteins, hormones and waste products which are normal for tissue function. Red blood cells
Formed in bone marrow.
Iron and haemoglobin.
Flat, disk-like shape.
Large surface area for oxygen absorption.
Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide around the body.
White blood cells
Formed in bone marrow and lymph cells.
Can change shape.
Phagocytes and lymphocytes.
Fight infection and disease.
Form antibodies to remember and attack specific diseases.
Tiny structures made from bone marrow.
No nucleus.
Clotting cells to stop blood loss when blood vessels are damaged.

Blood is an integral component of the cardiovascular system, the fluid that flows through the vessels, that is pumped by the heart. Blood accounts for about 8% of total body weight. Blood consists of 55% plasma. Plasma is mostly water (90%), but also includes dissolved nutrients, proteins, salts, glucose, hormones, gases and waste products. The function of plasma is to transport these substances as well as the blood cells and their contents around the body. Blood cells make up 45% of blood volume, and 95% of these are red blood cells. The RBCs main function is to carry oxygen and it does this through the presence of a protein called haemoglobin.

RBCs are made in the marrow of bones. White blood cells or leukocytes come in five different forms, but they all have a similar function, which is to protect the body from disease. WBCs are made in the bone marrow. Platelets are also formed in the bone marrow, and they are small cells that have the important function of clotting the blood. If a person cuts themselves or gets a nose bleed, a protein in the plasma called fibrinogen, constructs long fibres that form a mesh across a hole. The platelets block this mesh and form a clot. If this clot is exposed to the air, it will form a scab. This is the bodies’ way of protecting itself from losing blood, but also preventing germs entering the body.

Structure and function of the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries: The heart is one of the major organs of the cardiorespiratory system. It is a hollow, fist sized muscle that lies just to the left of centre in the thorax. Blood enters the right atrium through two large veins, the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava. The blood is deoxygenated and is bluish in colour. The right atrium contracts and pushes blood through to the right ventricle. This in turn contracts and pushes blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. When the blood reaches the lungs, it receives oxygen and turns bright red. This oxygenated blood then flows back to the heart and enters through the left atrium via the pulmonary veins.

This chamber also contracts and pushes blood to the left ventricle. When this chamber contracts, blood is pushed out of the aorta to circulate around the body. Arteries push blood away from the heart. Blood is pushed through arteries by surges of pressure cause when the heart contracts. The pressure lessens as the blood travels further from the heart. The speed of blood flow slows as pressure decreases. Veins have thinner walls than arteries. Because the pressure of the heartbeat is too low in the veins to push the blood back to the heart, it is assisted in the following ways: Muscles surrounding the veins tighten and contract.

Valves prevent the blood from moving back to where it came from. The pumping action of the heart creates a sucking action in the veins close to the heart. Through hydrostatic pressure (there is an attraction between molecules of fluids moving in a particular direction). Capillaries are:

Fed by arterioles (small arteries).
Microscopically thin.
Found in clusters called capillary networks.
Fitness is defined as the body’s ability to meet the everyday stresses and demands of an individual’s lifestyle. While the fitness levels will vary depending on the individual, there is agreement on the different components that make for a healthy body (health related components) and what components make for a good sporting performance (skill related components). Health related components of physical fitness:

The health related components of physical fitness describe the different aspects that make for good health and wellbeing. Cardiorespiratory endurance: the ability of the cardiorespiratory system to work effectively during exercise for extended periods of time. Muscular strength: the ability of the body to exert force in one maximal effort. Muscular endurance: the ability to repeatedly contract for extended periods of time. Flexibility: the range of movement at a particular joint/s.

Body composition: the relative percentages of tissues, in particular, fat in our body. Skill related components of physical fitness:

Skill related components of physical fitness involve functional aspects of fitness which are necessary for sporting performance. Power: the combination of strength and speed in an explosive movement. Speed: the quickness of movement. Distance covered compared to time taken. Agility: the combination of balance, coordination and speed. Coordination: the interaction between the brain and the muscles, resulting in efficient body movement. Balance: our ability to maintain equilibrium. Static balance means maintaining equilibrium while the body is stationary, and dynamic balance means maintaining equilibrium while the body is moving. Reaction time: the period of time between the mind realising the presence of a stimulus and the body making the appropriate response. FITT principle:

The FITT principle is an integral component of any aerobic training program. It can form the basis of a training program for elite athletes, people wishing to improve their aerobic fitness or lose weight. Before starting an exercise program, everyone should go through some form of pre-screening. Frequency: how often you exercise (average is 2-3 times per week. Elite athletes can train up to 6 times per week). Intensity: how hard you exercise. It’s recommended that you should maintain your heart rate between 50-85% of its maximum (maximum heart rate is calculate by 220 – your age). Time: how long you exercise (minimum recommended is 15-20 minutes, however, greatest results occur when training lasts for long than 30 minutes). Type: the kind of exercise you do. The type of training should suit an individual’s needs and abilities. Immediate physiological responses to training:

These are changes that take place during exercise. They occur to ensure muscles are supplied with oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products such as carbon dioxide. Heart rate
The rate at which the heart beats.
Ventilation rate
The rate of respiration.
Stroke volume
The volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each beat. Cardiac output
The volume of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle of the heart. Lactate levels
The normal endpoint of the anaerobic breakdown of glucose in the tissues. The lactate exits the cells and is transported to the liver, where it is oxidized back to glucose. In the setting of decreased tissue oxygenation, lactic acid is produced as the anaerobic cycle is utilized for energy production.

Linear motion: occurs when an object and all its parts (e.g. human body) travel in the same distance at the same speed over the same distance. An example is running. Velocity: describes the speed and direction of an object.

Speed: how fast an object is moving, and is determined by dividing the distance covered by the time taken. Acceleration: the ability to develop speed quickly. It is the rate at which speed changes in relation to time. Acceleration is final velocity minus initial velocity divided by time. Momentum: the quality of motion that a body or object passes, and is determined by its mass multiplied by velocity. Balance and stability:

The centre of gravity is sometimes referred to as the centre of weight or centre of balance of an object. It may be located within an object (e.g. a cricket ball) or outside the body of an object (e.g. a wedding ring). All particles of an object are attracted towards the centre of the earth by gravity. The culmination of all these forces acts upon one point, which is referred to as the centre of gravity. The line of gravity is a straight line drawn from an object’s centre of gravity to the ground. An object is more stable if the line of gravity is positioned in the centre of the base of support. The base of support of an object is the region that surrounds the outside perimeter of the object when it is in contact with a surface. If an object has a narrow based of support, only a small force is required to make that object lose its balance, and vice versa. Fluid mechanics:

Fluid mechanics relate to forces in air and water environments and provides an understanding of how these forces affect performance. Flotation: an object’s ability to float is determined by the interaction of two forces (i.e. the force of gravity pulling the object towards the earth and a buoyancy force which forces the object up). This buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displayed by that body.

Centre of buoyancy: the point through which the resultant of all buoyant forces on an immersed hull are assumed to act; the centre of mass of the displaced water. Fluid resistance: when a swimming moves through a fluid environment, they will experience fluid resistance. This resistance is sometimes referred to as drag force and occurs as a result of friction between the body’s surface and the fluid. Efficient swimmers minimise this drag by streamlining their body shape and minimising turbulence.

Fitness choices:
Meaning of exercise:
The reasons people participate in exercise varies from person to person. To some, exercise may be considered hard work and seen as a chore, while others embrace exercise for enjoyment, health and fitness benefits. Exercise itself is a specific form of physical activity because it’s planned, structured and consists of repetitive bodily movements. Exercise as a form of physical activity:

Physical activity includes all human movement that expends energy. Exercise can be defined as physical activity, which is specifically planned to develop or maintain physical fitness. While the benefits of physical activity are well documented, modern lifestyle and technological advances have reduces the amount of physical activity necessary to carry out our day to day functions. To counteract this inactivity, there has been a trend towards more organised, structured physical activity and we have witnessed the boom of the fitness industry and the expansion of home exercise equipment. Exercise and its relationship to fitness:

People will have different opinions on what ‘being fit’ means to them. For some it will mean that they can compete at sport at a competitive level, while others feel fit if they have enough energy to get through a day’s work. Whatever level of fitness is required for day to day activities, exercise has a direct, positive relationship to both the health related components and the skill-related components of fitness. Regular, vigorous exercise can improve: Cardiorespiratory fitness.

Muscular endurance.
Body composition.
Reaction time.
Changing attitude to fitness:

There have been some improvements in the level of physical activity in recent years and there is increasing discussion and planning to address the epidemic of obesity. Health promotion and education has increasingly targeted the fitness of the Australian population with varying success. The expansion of the fitness industry and society’s obsession with looking attractive has seen additional pressure to be active and maintain physical fitness. An individual’s attitude to fitness can change, but are generally influenced by: The age of a person.

Peer group.
Cultural background.
Socioeconomic status.
Exercise history.
Fitness as a commodity:
Since the 1970s, there has been a global expansion of fitness related businesses. The industry is competitive with providers constantly uploading facilities, equipment and services to gain membership and win market share. Fitness centres today provide a range of services that meet the ever-changing needs of their clients. These services include: Personalised fitness programs.

Group exercise programs.
Weight loss/gain programs.
Personal trainers.
Exercise DVDs.
Nutritional advice.
Equipment based on the latest technology.
What are the ways people choose to exercise for fitness?
Individual fitness activities:
Power walking/running.
Weight training programs.
Tai chi.
Emerging individual fitness activities.
Group fitness activities:
Pump/step/spin classes.
Circuit training.
Team games.
Exercise for specific groups, e.g. exercise for pregnancy, children, fitness,
gentle exercise for the aged. Emerging group fitness activities.
Settings for exercise:
The environment in which people choose to exercise varies according to their needs. These may include availability of facilities, costs, availability of time and lifestyle. Exercise at home
Community facilities
Fitness centre’s and personal trainers
Exercise clubs
Cultural groups
Advertising and promotion:
Advertising is a very persuasive medium. At best, it can provide information and encourage people to become active and get fit. At worst, it can mislead and cause people to waste time and money of services and equipment, which do not meet their needs. Businesses use advertising and promotion to target and entice customers to buy their products or service and it is important that customers scrutinise and research the validity of claims made by businesses. How do you know who to believe?: ask questions. Is the product or service endorsed by groups such as the Heart Foundation and the Australian Fitness Industry? Does the person providing the service have qualifications in a related field?

Promotional techniques: can be found on TV, infomercials, magazines, newspapers, Internet, telemarketing, direct marketing and limited offer memberships. Accuracy of information: many services and products offer information that’s misleading. Before purchasing, ask questions to determine the legitimacy of the produce or service’s claim. Ethics of advertising: the Code of Practice aims to prevent misleading advertising in the fitness industry and to ensure the customer obtains a high quality product or service. Motivators and barriers to participation:

Access to facilities.
Convenience of use.
Feelings about fitness and exercise.
Exercise as a priority.
Influence of other responsibilities.

First aid:
Setting priorities for managing a first aid situation and assessing the casualty: First aid is the initial care of a person in distress. The aim of first aid is to: Preserve life.
Protect the unconscious.
Prevent a casualty’s condition from becoming worse.
Promote the recovery of a casualty.

Danger: to me, to other people in the immediate area and to the casualty. Response: is the casualty conscious? To check for consciousness, ask name, squeeze their hand. Send for help: call 000, ask bystanders to call 000 and ask for further help. Airway: is the airway open and clear of foreign objects? If not, clear and open the airway with two fingers in a sweeping motion. Breathing: is the chest rising and falling? Can you hear or feel air from the mouth or nose? CPR: if there are no signs of life present (not breathing, not moving) apply CPR. CPR involves giving 30 compressions at a rate of approximately 100 compressions per minute, followed by two rescue breaths (30:2). Defibrillator: attach (if available) and follow voice prompts. STOP:

Stop: stop movement.
Talk: established what happened, where it hurts, if it’s happened previously, etc. Observe: physical state: swollen, tender, painful, deformed. Bear weight? Stand? Walk? Compare to the other limb. Prevent further injury: direct casualty to medical assistant. Don’t unnecessarily move casualty. Whole body assessment:

After applying DRSABCD or STOP, the patient should be checked for further injury by using a whole of body assessment. The patient should be checked from head to toe to determine the nature and extent of any other injuries. If the patient is unconscious, whole of body assessment must occur in recovery position (left side) to maintain an open airway. The process of a whole body assessment usually involves three steps: Questioning the casualty and witnesses about the incident.

Continuing to check the casualty’s vital signs.
Conducting a head to toe examination.
Bleeding may be caused by cuts, abrasions, contusions and lacerations. Bleeding causes the body’s blood pressure to drop and if left unchecked can result in shock and eventually death. Signs and symptoms can be used to determine the type of bleeding: Arteries produce bright red blood which may spurt.

Veins produce are darker flow which is not as forceful.
Capillaries ooze.
Management includes using DRSABCD, PER (Pressure, Elevation and Rest), do not give anything orally, and reassuring the casualty. Shock:
Shock is a condition where the body closes off the blood supply to the extremities (arms, legs, skin) to ensure enough oxygen reaches vital organs (heart, lungs, brain). It can lead to the collapse of the entire circulatory system and is caused by loss of body fluids (e.g. bleeding, burns, etc.). Signs and symptoms include: Paleness; cold, clammy skin.

Weak, rapid pulse.
Rapid, shallow breathing.
Management includes using DRSABCD, reassuring casualty, raising legs above level of the heart, keeping the casualty comfortable and not allowing the casualty any food or drink. Neck and spinal injuries:

Neck and spinal injuries are commonly caused by falls, sporting injuries, car accidents and jumping into shallow pools. These injuries may result in paraplegia or quadriplegia. Signs and symptoms include: Pain at or below site of injury.

Loss of movement.
Lack of movement below site of injury.
Tingling in the hands or feet.
Management includes using DRSABCD, reassuring casualty, loosening tight clothing, not moving them, supporting the head so that the neck is not flopping, applying a cervical collar is available and seeking medical attention. Unless it’s absolutely necessary, the patient should never be moved. If the situation arises where the patient does need to be moved, ensure: DRSABCD is followed.

Injuries have been treated where possible.
The patient is reassured.
Head and neck movement is kept to a minimum.
The following methods can be used to move the patient:
Drag method.
Human crutch method.
Four-handed seat method.
Chair lift.
Fireman’s carry.
Care of the unconscious casualty:
If a patient loses consciousness, medical assistance should be sought. While waiting for medical assistance, the first aider should: Place the casualty in the recovery position (left side).
Check breathing and pulse regularly.
Support head and neck.
Attend to any other injuries the patient may have.
Keep them warm.
Management of injuries:
Type of injury:
Signs and symptoms:
Fractures: can be closed (skin unbroken), open (bone protrudes) or complicated (damage to organs). Sound from bone breaking.
Pain at site.
Swelling and deformity.
Loss of power.
Difficult to achieve normal range of movement.
Control bleeding.
Immobilise with a sling or splints.
Observe for shock and treat if necessary.
Seek medical attention.

Type of injury:
Signs and symptoms:
Dislocations: refers to the bone being dislodged from the joint. Swelling.
Inability to move.
Apply ice.
Elevate if possible.
Seek medical attention.

Type of injury:
Signs and symptoms:
Head injuries and concussions:
Blurred vision.
Loss of memory.
Change in size of one pupil.
Bleeding from nose or ears.
Abnormal response to commands.
Support then head and neck.
Keep airway open.
If conscious, lay in lateral position.
Do not apply pressure to a bleeding head if a skull fracture is suspected. Seek medical attention.

Type of injury:
Signs and symptoms:
Eye injuries:
Irritation to the eye.
Pain to the eye itself.
Inability to open.
Rubbing and removal of embedded objects must be avoided.
Lay in the lateral position.
Cover both eyes.
Seek medical attention.

Type of injury:
Signs and symptoms:
Nasal injuries:
Instruct casualty to breathe through the mouth.
Blowing the nose should be avoided.
Assume sitting position with head and shoulders leaning forward. Apply pressure with index finger and thumb to the soft part of the nose just below bone. Apply pressure for 10 minutes or until bleeding stops.

Seek medical attention.

Type of injury:
Signs and symptoms:
Burns: these can be caused by fire, chemicals, electricity and radiation.
Severe pain.
Possible swelling.
Remove casualty from the danger or the danger from the casualty. DRSABCD.
Hold burnt area under cold running water.
Remove jewelry and clothing only if it’s not stuck to the skin. Seek urgent medical attention.
Note: do not break blisters or apply creams, lotions or adhesive dressings.

Type of injury:
Signs and symptoms:
Teeth injuries:
Bleeding from the mouth.
Dislodged tooth.

If the tooth has been loosened, keep it in place and seek immediate dental advice. If the tooth has been knocked out, re-implant and splint to an adjacent tooth using aluminum foil, if possible. If not, place in milk or clean with the casualty’s saliva and seek urgent dental assistance. Most teeth can be saved if the root is not handled, hygiene is observed and attention is immediate. Type of injury:

Signs and symptoms:
Electrical wires may be visible.
Cool burnt area under running water.
Seek urgent medical attention.

Type of injury:
Signs and symptoms:
Chest injuries: these may range from bruised or fractured ribs to lung injuries. Pain, usually on breathing and coughing.
Difficulty in breathing.
Tenderness when touched.
Place in a comfortable position.
Encourage shallow breathing.
Pad the injured area.
Seek urgent medical advice.

Type of injury:
Signs and symptoms:
Abdominal injuries: these are injuries to the stomach and pelvis caused in such instances as car crashed and tackles. Shock.
Pain in region.
Nausea or possibly vomiting.
Difficulty in breathing.
Possible blood in the urine or coming from the anus.
Loosen clothing in area, for example, belts.
Lie patient on their back. Slightly elevate shoulders and bend the knees. Do not allow the casualty to consume food or drink.
Seek urgent medical attention.

Applying bandages, splints and slings:

For many injuries, bandages, splints and slings are required. Bandages are used to reduce blood flow, immobilise a body part or as a padding. Slings and splints are used to immobilise, protect and support injured body parts. The common types of slings are collars and cuff, arm and elevation. Collar and cuff sling: used to raise the arm when the hand or forearm has sustained a laceration. Arm sling: used to support injuries to the forearm and arm.

Elevation sling: used when an individual has sustained a shoulder or collarbone injury. It can also be used to slow the flow of blood loss.
Management of medical conditions:
Medical condition:
Signs and symptoms:
Heart attack: a life threatening condition in which the heart ceases to function due to inadequate blood supply. Discomfort in the middle of the chest.
Possible pain in arm and neck.
Irregular pulse.
Shortness of breath.
Seek urgent medical help.

Medical condition:
Signs and symptoms:
Stroke: caused by a sudden blockage of blood to the brain.
Slurred speech.
Blurred vision.
Pupils may be irregular in size.
Loss of movement.
Possible seizures.
Possible loss of consciousness.
Seek urgent medical help.

Medical condition:
Signs and symptoms:
Diabetes: a condition where the body is unable to either produce or regulate the insulin required to maintain normal blood sugar levels. Prior to treatment:
Loss of body weight despite increased appetite.
Increased urination.
Increased thirst and hunger.
Possible palpitations.
Rapid pulse.
Profuse sweating.
Rapid pulse.
Drowsiness, possibly progressing to unconsciousness.
Smell similar to acetone on breath.
Need to urinate frequently.

Meals at irregular intervals.
Eat complex carbohydrates as opposed to simple carbohydrates. Regular exercise.
Appropriate timing of insulin.
Avoid large amounts of fat.

Seek urgent medical help.
If conscious, administer glucose and drink as required.
Do not attempt to give glucose or drink to an unconscious patient.

Seek urgent medical help.
If conscious, allow the self-administration of insulin.

Medical condition:
Signs and symptoms:

Epileptic seizures: seizures triggered by an abnormally high discharge of electrical activity to the brain. They range from the more serious tonic-clonic characterised by spasms and loss of consciousness to petit mals or ‘absence’ seizures. Some petit mals may go almost unnoticed because the person may appear ‘vacant’ or ‘absent’ for a short period. More serious seizures can be recognised by: Rigid body.

Tightened jaw.
Some mouth frothing.
Possible loss of bladder control.
Loss of consciousness.
Place in lateral recovery position.
Remove dangerous objects.
During sleep, ensure that the airway is fully open and that the patient is breathing. Check pulse.
Time the seizure.
Seek medical help.

Medical condition:
Signs and symptoms:
Asthma: a condition whereby breathing difficulties are experience due to constriction of the airways in the lungs. Tightness in chest.
Sweating and paleness.
Fast, shallow breathing.
Hunched body posture.
Excessive throat clearing.
Laboured breathing.
Difficulty in exhalation.
Increased pulse rate.
Wheezing noises.
Reassure the person.
Assist with medication.
Monitor breathing.
Provide water for them to drink.
Encourage controlled breathing and relaxation.
Use 4 x 4 x 4 technique.
Seek medical help if their condition deteriorates.

Medical condition:
Signs and symptoms:

Anaphylaxis: a severe and sudden allergic reaction that occurs when a susceptible person is exposed to an allergen. The reaction appears within about 20 minutes and can rapidly become life threatening. The most common allergens are foods such as nuts and soy, and insect stings such as bee and wasp. Breathing difficulties.

Swollen tongue and possibly swollen face, lips and eyes.
Difficulty talking.
Swelling or tightness in the throat.
Loss of consciousness.
Wheeze or persistent cough.
Hives, welts or body redness.
Vomiting, abdominal pain.

Remove the trigger and minimise the effects of co-factors; e.g. spit out food, remove the string, etc. Implement the individual’s anaphylaxis management plan if known. Students in NSW schools who are known to be at risk should have an individual health-care plan providing details of an emergency response. The plan may require the use of an EpiPen by trained staff. Seek urgent medical assistance (ambulance).

Medical condition:
Signs and symptoms:
Poisons: substances that are harmful if taken into the body. They can be
taken or absorbed in a number of ways, including swallowing, injection, inhalation, or being absorbed through the skin. Headache.

Blurred vision.
Breathing difficulties.
Abdominal pain.
Tight chest.
Breath smells of fumes or other odours.
Possible change in skin colour.
If the person is unconscious:
Seek urgent medical attention.
If the person is conscious, determine the type of poison and treat accordingly. If the substance is unknown:
Do not induce vomiting.
Seek urgent medical attention.
If substance is corrosive (such as acids):
Do not induce vomiting.
Give milk or water.
Seek urgent medical advice.
If the substance is medicinal or general:
Induce vomiting.
Seek urgent medical help.

Medical condition:
Signs and symptoms:
Bites and stings:

Bee and wasp

Redback spider

Funnel-web spider


Note: poison hotline number: 13 11 26
(13 x 2 = 26)

Puncture marks.
Double vision (diplopia)
Rapid pulse.
Tightness in chest/breathing difficulties.

Sharp pain at site of the bite.
Possible swelling.

Stinging pain at the site.
Rapid pulse.

Intense pain at the site of bite.
Profuse sweating.
Cold skin.
Sense of numbness.
Breathing difficult.
Abdominal pain.

Localised sting marks.
Breathing difficulties.

Reassure patient.
Apply pressure immobilisation bandage over the site of the bite and beyond. Immobilise affected area.
Do not elevate.
Call for medical help.

Remove sting by scraping or flicking sideways (do not squeeze). Apply ice.
Monitor for allergic reactions.
Seek medical advice.

Reassure the person.
Apply ice.
Seek medical advice.

Reassure the person.
Apply pressure bandage over the bitten area and extend down the limb. Seek urgent medical attention.

Immerse the area in hot water to help alleviate the pain.
Seek medical attention.

Medical condition:
Signs and symptoms:
Exposure to heat and cold:
Heat exhaustion: condition caused by dehydration. It is usually experienced by athletes working in hot, humid conditions.

Heatstroke: a serious condition of extreme dehydration. It is characterised by a breakdown of the temperature regulatory mechanism and subsequent rapid rise in internal body temperature.

Hypothermia: medical condition caused by exposure to very low temperatures, as might be experienced if trapped in a snow storm.

Rapid, weak pulse.
Clammy, pale skin.
Profuse sweating.
Extreme thirst.
Dilated pupils.
Loss of coordination.

Disorientation leading to possible unconsciousness.
Marked increase in core body temperature.
Rapid pulse.
Hot, dry skin.
Lack of sweat despite exertion.
Rapid breathing.
Constricted pupils.
Possible respiratory and cardiac arrest.

Weak pulse.
Slurred speech.
Slow responses to instructions.
Shallow breathing.

Rest in cool, shaded area.
Provide cool water.
Apply ice to head, neck and other areas to cool the body.
Seek medical assistance.

Seek urgent medical help.
Rest in shade.
Cool the body with wet towels and ice.
Provide plenty of water.
Do not wrap in blankets.

Warm slowly.
Protect from elements: wet grounds, wind and rain.
Remove any wet clothing and replace with warm blankets. If possible, place casualty in a sleeping bag. Provide warm fluids to drink.
Do not use artificial measures such as electric blankets and hot water to provide extra heat. Seek medical attention.

Physical environment:
The physical environment may be responsible for causing the initial injury. It’s important that preventative measures be put in place so that further injury to bystanders and people administering first aid does not occur. Traffic accidents:

As a first aid provider, you may be required to render assistance at the scene of a road traffic accident. If so, remember; be calm and methodical in your actions. Consider your safety and that of bystanders and the casualty.

Always take time to have a good look at the scene before you approach. Approach the scene methodically, keeping away from traffic. Examine the scene – give yourself time to think about your next action. There are many things to consider, including: Is the vehicle stable; will it role or move?

Is there spilt fuel?
Is there any risk of fire?
Are power poles involved?
What about oncoming traffic?
If a van or truck; is the load safe?
DO NOT touch anything until you are sure that it is safe.
If there are any casualties, you will need to consider:
What are your initial impressions?
How many casualties?
Are they walking around?
Any obviously dead?
Any trapped?

Ensure that any vehicle involved is safe. Don’t touch the vehicle unless you are certain it is safe to do so. Check the vehicle is not in contact with an electrical power source. If you attempt to gain entry, do not wrench open the door unless you know that it’s not in contact with the casualty. In certain circumstances, casualties have become impaled or entrapped by contact with a door. Be careful of broken glass if you insert your head through a window. Make sure that you can gain effective entry beside and behind the casualty.

Beware of sharp metal and broken glass. Perform a primary examination of the casualties. Use any helpers to move the casualties with minor injuries (‘walking wounded’) away from the scene to a safe place. This will give you more room to attend to the more serious cases. Always try to have a responsible person to help you attend to serious casualties – it helps to have assistance and support. Water environments:

The rescuer must be aware of:
Their own physical limitations, such as their ability to swim. The desperation of a drowning person and their potential to cause difficulty to the rescuer. Hazardous objects under the water and not visible to the observer. Dangerous rips and currents.

Changes in weather conditions.
Water temperature.
Protective strategies that need to be used include:
Sending for help immediately.
Not placing yourself at risk if you are not sure that you can perform the rescue safely. Using ropes, branches and flotation devices where possible.
Entering unknown waters carefully.

There is no point jumping into a situation carelessly and ending up a casualty yourself. Think before you act, especially when it comes to water. Do not provide the next first aider at the scene with two casualties instead of one. Electricity:

Faulty appliances and damaged electrical leads should be disconnected at the power point and fixed or replaced by an electrician. Never stack power points. Use a power board or have an extra power point installed. Stacked power points can cause fires. Before you or your family do any major digger in the yard, you should ring Dial Before You Dig on 1100 to make sure there are no underground cables near your property. If you hit one, you could be electrocuted, as well as possibly interrupting the power to your suburb. Infection control and protection:

There is the potential, within a variety of emergency situations, for first aiders to be exposed to blood-borne viruses. Hepatitis viruses (including Hep B and C) and HIV/AIDS are among the more common blood-borne viruses that may be encountered. Exposure to these can be prevented and managed by following the principles of a three-step risk management process: 1. Hazard identification.

2. Risk assessment.
3. Risk control.

Diseases can enter through the mouth, nose, eyes, ears or breaks on the skin. They’re spread through coughing or sneezing, touch, exchange of body fluids, cuts or abrasions by contaminated objects, etc. To minimise the risk of getting an infection, wear protective clothing such as goggles, face masks or shields and latex gloves. If you suspect you have come into contact with contamination of any sort, wash area with soap and water and contact a medical professional as soon as possible. If any cuts or abrasions you might have come into contact with bodily fluids, run under warm water and wash with soap. Firmly dry the area and apply a firm, dry bandage. HIV/AIDS:

To prevent transmission of HIV/AIDS, the first aider should implement the following strategies: Use latex disposable gloves.

Resuscitation masks should be used before commencing rescue breaths. Surfaces contaminated with blood need to be cleaned immediately. Wash hands and any other parts of the body that had contact with the patient with warm water and soap. Medical personnel should wear eye goggles.

Blood borne viruses (Hep B and C):
Hepatitis is a disease that inflames and damages the liver. It encompasses three viruses (hep A, B and C). Like HIV/AIDS, hepatitis must be transmitted from an infected person to a non-infected person. Hep B is found in blood, semen, vaginal fluids and in small amounts of saliva. Hep C is found in the blood. The usual mode of transmission for hepatitis is unprotected sex, sharing needles or by sharing contaminated tattooing or body piercing equipment. To prevent the transmission of hepatitis, the first aider should implement the same preventative strategies as with HIV/AIDS. Legal implications:

Various Australian states and territories (excluding QLD and TAS) exclude from liability a person where, in an emergency, they help a person who is, or risks being, injured. Such protection from a civil liability for an act or omission exists as long as: The person rendering assistance does so in good faith (acting honestly, without fraud, collusion, or participation in any wrongdoing). The person’s action was without expectation of reward or payment. The person was not responsible for the injury in relation to which the assistance was provided. The person’s capacity to exercise reasonable care and skill was not significantly impaired by being under the influence of alcohol or drugs. The person exercises reasonable care and skill.

The person does not impersonate a health care or emergency services worker or a police officer or otherwise falsely represents that he or she has skills or expertise in connection with the rendering of emergency assistance. In addition, each Australian jurisdiction had legislation, which provides protection for volunteers of charitable, religious, educational and benevolent community organisations. Such volunteers are protected from civil liability for acts or omissions made or done in good faith within the scope of the activities organised by the community organisation. Moral obligations:

Duty of care describes the legal duty owed by one person to another to act in a certain way. As a first aider, you have a duty of care towards your casualties to exercise reasonable care and skill in providing first aid treatment. If you choose to provide first aid assistance, you have a duty to use your knowledge and skills in a responsible way.

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