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Patterns and trends in health among society Essay


Women’s life expectancy is higher than men; women typically live five years longer than men (Stretch and Whitehouse 2012. In 2002, life expectancy at birth for females born in UK was 81 years, compared with 76 years for males. This contrasts with 49 and 45 years respectively at the turn of the last century in 1901(Sikin, L undated). Another reason why women live longer could be because men tend to smoke and drink more alcohol than women in general. Men also take more risk than women; Women have less chance in getting cardiovascular disease, like heart attack and stroke.

Women usually develop these problems usually in their 70s and 80s, about 10 years later than men, who develop them in their 50s and 60s (Blue, L 2008). Another reason why women live longer could be because men in their late teens and 20s go through something called ‘’testosterone’’ (Blue, L 2008). Testosterone is when the level of hormones is high and changeable, this can create dangerous behaviors. For e.g. they may not wear seatbelts; they drink alcohol and they can become aggressive. These kinds of behaviors can lead to higher death rates for males.

Men also take risk more than women; expert claims that men take more risk, making them twice as adventurous and carefree than female. However in 2011 bps state that woman often takes more risk than men. Psychological Science – a journal of the Association for Psychological Science – has shown the reality of what type of person is prone to taking chances is more complicated than first thought. The study found that despite stereotypes, females sometimes take more risks than men and adolescents can be as cool-headed as any other demographic. (3). they have found out that men are prone to financial gambles and women often take social risks.

Another reason why women life expectancy is higher because men tend to do dangerous sports such as rugby, surfing, motorcycle racing and skiing. In 2002 statistic said that females born in the UK live up to 81 years, whereas males live up to 76 years. This contrast with 49 and 45 years respectively at the turn of the last century in 1901 (2).

This is a table is from 2007-2009 about life expectancy in different parts of the UK.

In the UK, males and females expect to spend more than 80 per cent of their lives in very good health or general health from birth. Falling to around 57 per cent at the age of 65 (1). In recent years males are taking care of their health more than females. However in today’s society it is believed that female’s health has improved more than males.

Social class

Statistic produced a biases picture. They believe that people in the lowest social class work in dangerous industries. This causes higher rates of illness. Therefore it is not the class but age and employment of people that causes high levels of illness and lower life expectancy.



All ethnic minorities have higher rates of still births, perinatal moralities (death within 1 week), and neo-natal mortality (within 1 month). Ethnicity backgrounds tend to have shorter life expectancy. Children from Asian families have higher rates of getting rickets. Only Afro-Caribbean’s and Pakistanis continue to show ‘excess mortality throughout infancy’ (Whitehead 1992). Afro-carribeans more likely to be admitted to mental health units, men more so than women and more likely to be sectioned. Once there they are more likely to receive harsh treatment e.g.- electro-shock therapy, anti psychotics.

Geographical location
The black report

Blue, L (2008) Why Do Women Live Longer Than Men [online] Available at: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1827162,00.html


Sikin, L (undated) Life expectancy [online] Available at: http://www.agediscrimination.info/statistics/Pages/LifeExpectancy.aspx

The telegraph (2012) Men twice as likely to take risks [online] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/evolution/9005552/Men-twice-as-likely-to-take-risks.html

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