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Partial fulfilment of the Requirement Essay

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction

Nowadays, we are experiencing diseases which is caused by insects like mosquito. To name some are Dengue, Hemorrhagic Fever, and Malaria wherein if not treated early it can cause death. Mosquitoes are all around the corner of our environment. They are not that big but can cut off life. To control the mosquitoes, different mosquito repellent are made and the laboratory chemicals are effective but they are quite expensive and not environmental friendly. Chemicals also are harmful to our health; it may cause a sudden death in case of improper handling. In the rural barangays there are common herbal plants used by rural folks in exterminating harmful insects like mosquitoes. And so the research was conceptualized to detect the insecticidal effect of Alliums cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) on mosquitoes and make a mosquito repellent out of onion and garlic, a not expensive repellent that everyone especially the poor ones can afford.

Garlic and Onion contains allicin that is capable of repelling mosquitoes and allicin is inimical to mosquitoes. Another reason is garlic and onion has also a strong odour that overwhelms the mosquito’s sense of smell and prevents from finding their prey (us).

Statement of the Problem

This study will be conducted to examine if there is an insecticidal effect in the extract of Allium sativum (Garlic) and Allium cepa (Onion) on mosquitoes and to make a repellent out of it that will be guided with the following questions: * Is there an insecticidal effect in the extract of Allium sativum (Garlic) and Allium cepa (Onion) on mosquitoes? * Is the extract of Allium cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) effective as a mosquito repellent?

Objectives

Generally, the study aims to determine if there is an insecticidal effect of Allium cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) on mosquitoes.
Specifically, the study aims to know if the extract of Allium cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) is effective on repelling mosquitoes.

Significance of the Study

The study can help in repelling mosquitoes for it will examine the insecticidal effect of Allium cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) on mosquitoes. This study will be helpful to people especially those living with many mosquitoes around them for it will be easy for them to make it and it’s safe. And the repellent will be an environmental friendly. It can also help lessen the dengue and malaria outbreak.

Scope and Limitations

The study will be conducted from November 2012 to December 2012. It will be conducted on a cool warm dry room. The effectiveness of this repellent will be applicable to the place where the experiment will be conducted.

Hypothesis

There will be no insecticidal effect of Allium cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) on mosquitoes. The extract of Allium cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum will not be effective as a mosquito repellent.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Recently, our country is suffering from different kinds of outbreak just like dengue and malaria outbreak and this is caused by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are around us, they are small but they can cause death if you are bitten with it. To control these insects some of us buy expensive insecticide though it is effective it is also harmful. Harmful to our health because it contain chemicals that if mishandled can cause to death. It’s not also environmental friendly.

Herbal repellent are commonly used by rural barangays where the people find it difficult for them to buy commercially available insecticides for mosquitoes, and so the researcher was conceptualize to examine if there is an insecticidal effect of Allium cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) on mosquitoes and to make a repellent that is effective to repell mosquitoes, a non-toxic repellent, an environmental friendly and a cheaper mosquito repellent.

Onion and Garlic has an allicin that is capable of repelling mosquitoes and other insects. The allicin which is released by Allium cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) are inimical by mosquitoes. The another reason why Garlic and Onion can repell mosquitoes is their strong smell that overwhelms the mosquito’s and prevent them from finding their prey (us).

Onion

Onion is the common name for herbaceous, cold season plant Allium cepa, which is characterized by an edible, rounded bulb composed of concentric, fleshy, tightly packed, and an enlarged leaf basses. Onion is also the name of this edible bulb, which is commercially valuable and known for its pungent oil that departs a strong taste.

Onion are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world’s cultures. The whole plant is edible and is used as food in some form or other. They are now available in fresh, frozen, canned, caramelized, pickled, powdered, chopped and dehydrated formed. Onion can be used, usually chopped our sliced, in almost every type of food, including cooked foods and fresh salads and as spicy garnish. In European cultures they are rarely eaten on their own, but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. Depending on the variety, an onion can be sharp, spicy, tangy, pungent mild or sweet.

Onion contains allicin that is capable of repelling mosquitoes. Onions can also repel mosquitoes because of its strong odour and its spicy flavour which mosquitoes hate. Commonly a red onion is used by repelling mosquitoes.

Garlic

garlic is plant grown for its sharp-tasting bulb, which is used to season foods. Some plants related to garlic including the onion also have strong flavour. The garlic bulb consists of parts called cloves. The cloves may be eaten or used for planting. A brittle papery covering called a tunic grows around each cloves] and around the whole bulb. There are several important components of garlic that have been identified, and many more that have not. Alliin is an odourless sulphur-containing chemical derived from the amino acid cysteine.

When garlic bulbs are crushed, alliin is converted into another compound called allicin. Allicin appears to be one of the primary active compounds that gives garlic its characteristic odor and many of its healing benefits. However, allicin is not absorbed effectively by the human body. To combat this problem, aged garlic is fermented to break allicin down to usable compounds. These compounds are water-soluble sulphur compounds (S-ally cysteine and others) and an amount of oil-soluble sulphur compounds.

Alicia is a powerful compound of garlic. If the garlic releases an illicit it is inimical to mosquitoes. They have therefore evolved to avoid garlic, another reason why garlic can repel mosquitoes is that the strong smell of garlic overwhelms the mosquito’s sense of smell and prevents them from finding their prey (us).

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Materials

Alliums cape (Onion) and Alliums stadium (Garlic) will be the main components of the repellent and will be the source of illicit. Cayenne pepper will be added to onion and garlic to make it spicier. Liquid dish soap will be needed to make the repellent fragrant. In getting the extract of Onion and Garlic, blender will be used. A sprayer is also needed wherein the repellent will be placed.

Test Organism

Fifty mosquitoes will be collected and must be distributed equally to five containers for the five set-ups. Mosquitoes will serve as the test organism.

Test Procedure

In making the repellent, chop into small pieces the onion and garlic without peeling. Place the chopped onions and garlic at the blender with the cayenne pepper. Then place a 250 mol amount of water. Blend on a slow speed to a milky consistency. After blending place the extract of onion and garlic pin a empty bottle sprayer. Wait an hour to add 50mL liquid dish soap for the extract will be odorous. Then shake well.

In determining the insecticidal effect, there will be five set up. The first repellent will have 100g of onion and garlic. Second set up will have 100g of onion and 70 g of garlic. Third setup will have 70g of onion and 100g of garlic. The fourth set-up will have 100g of onion and 100g of garlic and liquid dish soap will not be added. And the fifth set-up will be a commercial insecticide to determine is what is more effective.

One set-up will be sprayed at the one container with mosquitoes and the researcher will record how long will all the mosquitoes die and how many mosquito will die in one 30 sec, 1 min, 1 min and 30 sec, and 2 min. The other set-ups will also undergo this procedure.

RESEARCH PLAN
Student’s Name| Kamille Joy P. Tamanu| Year Level | IV| School| Camalaniugan National High School|
School Address| Dugo, Camalaniugan, Cagayan|
Title of Project| Insecticidal Effect of Allium cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum on Mosquitoes| Tel. /Fax. No| (078)-844-2036|
Project Adviser| Rowena Arellano|
This year’s experiment began|
Conducted the work at School and Home|

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials
Allium cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) will be the main components of the repellent and will be the source of allicin. Cayenne pepper will be added to onion and garlic to make it spicier. Liquid dish soap will be needed to make the repellent fragrant. In getting the extract of Onion and Garlic, blender will be used. A sprayer is also needed wherein the repellent will be placed.

Test Organism

Fifty mosquitoes will be collected and must be distributed equally to five containers for the five set-ups. Mosquitoes will serve as the test organism.

Test Procedure

In making the repellent, chop into small pieces the onion and garlic without peeling. Place the chopped onions and garlic at the blender with the cayenne pepper. Then place a 250 mL amount of water. Blend on a slow speed to a milky consistency. After blending place the extract of onion and garlic pin an empty bottle sprayer. Wait an hour to add 50mL liquid dish soap for the extract will be odorous.

Then shake well.

In determining the insecticidal effect, there will be five set up. The first repellent will have 100g of onion and garlic. Second set up will have 100g of onion and 70 g of garlic. Third setup will have 70g of onion and 100g of garlic. The fourth set-up will have 100g of onion and 100g of garlic and liquid dish soap will not be added. And the fifth set-up will be a commercial insecticide to determine is what is more effective.

One set-up will be sprayed at the one container with mosquitoes and the researcher will record how long will all the mosquitoes die and how many mosquito will die in one 30 sec, 1 min, 1 min and 30 sec, and 2 min. The other set-ups will also undergo this procedure.

Bibliography
Book
O.A Lorenz Academic American Encyclopaedia 1994 Vol.9, pp.48
O.A Lorenz Academic American Encyclopaedia 1994 Vol.14, pp.390-391
Anton A. Redneck, World Book 2006, Vol.8, pp.44
George R. Hughes, World Book 2006, Vol.14, pp.163
Internet Sites
http://www.philippineherbalmedicine.org/garlic.htm
http://www.philippineherbalmedicine.org/onion.htm
http://organicgardeningweb.com/Recipe%20book/Pesticide%20Recipes/Garlic%20Spray.htm
http://recipegoldmine.com/house/all-purpose-insect-spray.html


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