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Parenthetical referencing Essay

Strategic Organisation Module Module Syllabus Learner experience This module focuses on organisational design, development and performance as a strategic response to the modern business environment. You will be introduced to the concepts underlying new forms of organisation designed to enhance competitive position and improve performance and growth. In particular, strategic organisation is explained in the context of the special demands and opportunities presented by the global economy and advances in technology.

Additionally, this module includes introductory information on academic integrity, citing, referencing, and participating in discussions that will aide you throughout your programme. Module aims and objectives The aims of the module are to develop knowledge and understanding about organising and managing in contemporary conditions of society and industry. Specifically, the module focuses on management and organisational performance through the relationship among strategy, organisation, and organisational environment. The module also addresses foundational topics for student success throughout the academic programme.

This module is the first in your master’s programme. There are some items that will be found within the online classroom which may be new to you as an online student such as Module Aims, Learning Outcomes, Discussion Questions, and Hand-in Assignments. Throughout the first two weeks of this module there are additional explanations and preparatory information provided to assist in guiding you through the instruction. There is a transition in week three that begins the module content specifically related to Strategic Organisation. In addition, if at any time you have questions during the class, please contact your instructor.

Aims The specific aims of this module are to ensure that students can: • • • • Manage the academic requirements of online learning successfully; Appreciate the nature and role of management in modern organisations; Understand why organisation is integral to the effective performance of organisations; Model organisation performance, taking account of the relationships between corporate strategy and features of the organisation such as people, structure, routines, and culture. Learning outcomes By the end of the module the student will be able to: •

Participate in and contribute to an academic community through on-line discussion and assessments; whilst applying writing style conventions and academic integrity to academic writing; Analyse and evaluate scholarly resources and writing for logic and supporting evidence; Understand the nature and purpose of business organisation;

Identify the dynamics that shape organisational form, conduct, and performance in contemporary environments; Analyse the factors that make organisation a key strategic element in business performance; Assess the importance of organisation in the implementation of corporate and business strategy; Evaluate alternative strategies for managing people and processes in organisations. • • • • • •

The learning outcomes listed above will be measured through your completion of the weekly assignments, either Discussion Questions or Hand-in Assignment, in the module. Learning strategies You will be studying this module through a combination of self-study and online interactions.

The self-study materials introduce the full range of topics that need to be covered, although some additional detail will arise through discussion and collaboration between students and instructors. One of the strengths of an online learning program such as this is the high level of student interaction, where students are encouraged to share their own experiences online for the benefit of the others.

Each week of the module has detailed learning objectives, indicating the topics and level of competence that you should achieve on completion of that part. Assignments include discussion questions, hand-in assignment exercises, and a longer project. Weekly Notes Each week’s theme is made up of several topics. Beginning in Week 3, these are introduced and explained in turn in the recorded lecture, which is also available as printed text.

You can listen to the lecture as many times as you want and download it to your computer or other devices. Recommended reading We have indicated the pages in your textbooks that you should read with each topic in the weekly theme. Occasionally, we have also recommended journal articles that are available in the online library for you to study.

We advise that you begin each week by reading the indicated materials in full, as this will provide you with a broad understanding of the subject matter required to complete the assignments and discussions successfully. Online interactions You will have regular online interaction with other students and the instructor in order to help consolidate your understanding of theoretical concepts and to develop your skills through discussion and exercises.

The content of these online contact sessions will relate to the materials covered for each week and will include Discussion Questions set by the module instructors and Hand-in Assignment questions, both of which will be assessed.

Text and software The required texts for the Strategic Organisation module are provided in the weekly Readings folder as module content. Textbooks Child, J. (2005) Organization: contemporary principles and practice. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Roberts, J. (2004) The modern firm: organizational design for performance and growth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Journal articles 1. Simon, H. , 1995. Organizations and markets. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 5 (3), pp. 273–294. 2. Yasuf, Y. , Gunasekaran, A. , & Abthrope, M. 2004. Enterprise information systems project implementation: A case study of ERP in Rolls-Royce.

International Journal of Production Economics, 87 (3), pp. 251-266. 3. Gibbons, R. 1998. Incentives in organizations. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12 (4), pp. 115–132. 4. Nadler, D. , & Tushman, M. , 1999. The organization of the future: strategic imperatives and core competencies for the 21st century. Organizational Dynamics, 28 (1), pp. 45– 60. You will be able to access these online in the Liverpool University Library at http://www. liv. ac. uk/library/ohecampus/index. htm. You will need an audio player, such as Windows Media Player, if you want to listen to the recorded version of the lecture. (The text version is also provided for use if you do not have an audio player.

) Overview of module work • Students are required in all weeks(Weeks 1–10) to submit: o Individual Discussion Question answers (DQI) o 3–5 meaningful Discussion Question Follow-on postings (DQF) in response to fellow student submissions • Hand-in Assignments (HA) in weeks 2, 4, 5, 6 and 9 • A project proposal in Week 7, an outline in Week 8, and a completed Module Project (MP) in Week 10 Discussion Questions (Initial responses are 28 percent of total module grade;

Follow-on Participation is 25 percent of total module grade) Weeks 1 and 2 Discussion Questions Your first Discussion Questions in Week 1 and Week 2 of the module are introductory in nature covering foundational material designed to assist you in the online learning environment. Use these Discussions to establish relationships with your peers and master the required citing and referencing guidelines that apply throughout the module.

A typical answer should have about 500 words, but it is the quality of the answer that matters, not the number of words. Just as in the below guidelines for Weeks 3 through 10 Discussions, you are required to participate with follow-on postings to your peers’ answers, making 3–5 significant Discussion Question follow-up postings in addition to your initial response.

Week 1 Discussion Question explanation The Discussion Question in Week 1 of the module will be focused on content from your specific masters-programme as it relates to a current strategic issue in your field of study or professional area. This material will enable you to gain a holistic understanding of the programmme and how this particular module is relative to the overall programme goal.

Week 2 Discussion Question explanation The Discussion Question for Week 2 of the module will focus on content related to academic integrity as it is relative to your masters programme and your professional experience. This question will assist in the transition from Week 1 and 2 foundational materials to the Strategic Organisation module material upcoming in Week 3. Weeks 3 through 10 Discussion Questions Beginning in Week 3, your Discussion Questions will focus on concepts related to Strategic Organisation.

A typical answer should have about 500 words, but it is the quality of the answer that matters, not the number of words. To ensure your success throughout this module and the Masters programme it is essential to complete and thoroughly respond to each Discussion Question.

Answers will be submitted to the weekly Discussions folder Turnitin Links, and also posted in the module Discussion Board. You must submit your initial response to the Discussion Question(s) by the end of Day 3 (Saturday). Following the 3 out of 7 days rule, you are required to participate with follow-on postings to your peers’ answers, making 3–5 significant Discussion Question follow-up postings in addition to your initial response for each Discussion Question by the end of Day 7 (Wednesday). Your total Discussion Board participation must occur on at least 3 individual days during each week. Follow-up postings should be significant contributions to the Discussion.

You may wish to respond to your colleagues’ postings in one or more of the following ways: • • • • • Ask a probing question. Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting. Offer and support an opinion or suggestion. Validate an idea with your own experience. Expand on the ideas in your colleague’s posting. Hand-in Assignments (19 percent of total module grade).

You must submit your answer to the Hand-in Assignment (HA) for five of the ten weeks by the end of day 7 (Wednesday). A typical answer should have between 500 and 1,000 words, but it is once again the quality of the answer that matters, not the number of words. Answers will be submitted to the weekly Assignments folder, but are not to be posted in the module Discussion Board.

For both the DQ and the HA, satisfactory answers will demonstrate clear understanding of the topics and issues related to the assignment. Good answers will be able to explain the reasons in more depth. Excellent answers will be able to raise appropriate critical questions. Weak answers will demonstrate only a partial grasp of what is important in the context of the assignment. Instructors will provide feedback about these assignments in their weekly feedback to students.

The following table provides an example weekly flow of activities. Example Weekly Activities Days 1 -2 Thursday Friday Review the Weekly Information and Learning Resources Day 3 Saturday Initial DQ Response Due Days 4 -6 Sunday Monday Tuesday Add Follow-up Postings Work on Hand-in Assignment (if applicable) Day 7 Wednesday • Total of 3-5 Follow-up Postings should have been posted by this Day • Hand-in Assignment Due Final Projects End of module assessment: 1500–2000 word assignment (28 percent of total module grade).

The purpose of the Final Project is to apply the concepts and techniques of the module to the analysis of real-world situations or problems. Students are expected to use diverse sources of information and to carry out an original analysis rather than summarise or rehash existing work. You will submit an individual project (IP) in Weeks 7 and 8. The IPs are components of the Final.

Project intended to help you plan your work and give you the benefit of your instructor’s feedback before your Final Project is due in Week 10. In Week 7, you will submit a Project Proposal, which will convey the resources you will use for your research and the organization you are proposing for your project. In Week 8, you will submit an Annotated Outline of your research sources. In Week 10, you will address the comments from your instructor and submit your Final Project. More details on each stage of the project are found in the weekly areas. Assessment The table below outlines the mandatory contribution in each category and the range of grades scales that applies to each component.

Component DQ Initial Response DQ Participation Hand-in Assignment Wk 1 X Wk 2 X Wk 3 Wk 4 Wk 5 Wk 6 X X X X Wk7 X Wk8 X Wk9 X Wk10 X Component Weight 28% (2. 8% per DQ) 25% (2. 5% per DQ) 19% (3. 8% per Assignment) 28% (Wks 7, 8: 7%) (Wk10: 14% X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Final Project X X X For general information on assessment and grading, please consult the Student Handbook section pertaining to Grading at http://success. ohecampus. com/index. php? mod=dcp&act=navigationindex&navigationid=3691. Syllabus by Week ————–Week 1 ————–Participating in the global classroom Topics • • Describe a strategic issue and its global impact on an organisation Contribute to an academic community through online Discussion.

Workload Self-study for Week 1: o Complete Account Registration • How to register for your University of Liverpool network account (PDF) o o Read, sign, and submit the Academic Honesty Declaration Read the following resources: • Master’s study cycle handout (PDF) • Sample online discussion interaction (PDF) Discussion Question: o Post your initial response both to the Discussion folder and to the Turnitin link provided by Saturday (Day 3) o DQ1 is due on Saturday (Day 3) o Review responses by other students and make 3 – 5 meaningful posts o Required Participation (minimum 3 out of 7 days in addition to the initial Discussion Question response) ————–Week 2 ————–Outlining arguments for scholarly discourse Topics • •

Analyse the principles of academic integrity Construct logical arguments and academic writing skills Workload Self-study for Week 2: o o o Turnitin tutorial presentation How to read a Turnitin originality report (PDF) About the draft Turnitin link in your first module (PDF) The University of Liverpool (n. d. ) Guide to referencing and developing a bibliography [Online]. Available from: http://www. liv. ac. uk/library/ohecampus/referencing/referencing. htm (Accessed: 15 June 2010). The University of Liverpool (n. d. ) Study support: what you need to know about plagiarism [Online]. Available from http://www. liv. ac. uk/library/ohecampus/study/plagiarism. htm (Accessed: 15 June 2010).

The University of Liverpool (n.d. ) Plagiarism, collusion, and fabrication of data [Online]. Available from http://www. liv. ac. uk/students/student-administration-centre/policiesprocedures/plagiarism-collusion. htm (Accessed: 15 June 2010). The University of Liverpool (n. d. ) Plagiarism, collusion, and the fabrication of data: guidelines for staff and students [Online]. Available from http://www. liv. ac. uk/tqsd/pol_strat_cop/plagiarism_collusion_fabrication_staff_student_g uidelines_20. pdf (Accessed: 15 June 2010). Purdue Online Writing Lab (n. d. ) Safe practices [Online]. Available from: http://owl. english. purdue. edu/owl/resource/589/03/ (Accessed: 15 June 2010).

Logical argument and outlining For this weeks Hand-in Assignment, you must develop an outline for a logical scholarly argument related to Strategic Organisation. These resources from Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab (OWL) will help with this assignment. You should search the Purdue OWL site for additional information on scholarly writing as you need it. • • Purdue Online Writing Lab (n. d. ). Types of outlines and samples [Online]. Available from: http://owl. english. purdue. edu/owl/resource/544/03/ (Accessed: 15 June 2010). Purdue Online Writing Lab (n. d. ). Developing strong thesis statements [Online]. Available from: http://owl. english. purdue. edu/owl/resource/588/01 (Accessed: 15 June 2010).

Looking ahead: citation and reference styles A citation and reference style is one means for colleagues in a discipline to ‘speak the same language’ when presenting discoveries and analyses. Moreover, it is a method for distinguishing your original contributions to the field from the contributions of others. Each Liverpool programme uses a specific citation and reference style. Begin familiarising yourself with the style for your programme, Harvard Referencing style, so that you may apply it to your Discussion and Hand-in Assignments starting with this week. • The University of Liverpool (n. d. ) Guide to referencing and developing a bibliography [Online]. Available from: http://www. liv. ac. uk/library/ohecampus/referencing/referencing.

htm (Accessed: 15 June 2010). To explore topics related to Harvard referencing download the provided PDF. Supplemental Resources Citing and referencing Following is a supplemental resource students may wish to purchase or access to help them with the citing and referencing style required in their programme of study. The text below includes several topics related to academic writing, citing and referencing. It focuses on Harvard referencing, with brief mentions of OSCOLA, APA, MLA, and MHRA referencing. • Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2008) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. (7th ed. ). Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Pear Tree Books. OR • Pears, R. & Shields, G.

(2010) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. (8th ed. ). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd. Additional information on Turnitin • Key questions students ask about Turnitin http://turnitin. com/static/resources/documentation/turnitin/sales/Answers_to_Questions_ Students_Ask. pdf Discussion Question: o Submit your response to the Turnitin link and also post it on the Discussion Board o Review responses by other students and make an additional 3–5 meaningful comments by Day 7 of Week 2 Hand-in Assignment: o Submit responses to Hand-in Assignment to the weekly Assignments folder Reminder: In Week 2, the initial Discussion Question response is due on Saturday.

Your 3-5 significant discussion question follow-up postings and are due by the end of Day 7 of Week 2 (midnight Wednesday, your time zone). ————–Week 3 ————–The nature and purpose of business organisation Topics • The purpose of business organisation • Structural, processual, and boundary-crossing elements • Types of business organisations • Motivation and coordination • Organisation as an alternative to the market • Characteristics of scholarly writing and academic originality • Resource validity for inclusion in university work • Reference list for articles which uses a citation style Workload Self-study for Week 3: o Read or listen to the Lecture Notes Read the following pages in your textbook: Child, J.

(2005) Organization: contemporary principles and practice. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. (Ch. 1 3-6, 6-9, 15-17, 9-14, 17-23). Roberts, J. (2004) The modern firm: organizational design for performance and growth (Chapter 3, pp. 88–103). One of your main tasks for this week is to become familiar with the online library and how to search its holdings.

The following Web site is to the home page for the library for online students. Make sure to bookmark this page or add it to your Favorites for easy access during your programme. • The University of Liverpool (n. d. ) Library homepage [Online]. Available from http://www. liv. ac. uk/library/ohecampus (Accessed: 15 June 2010).

Peer review Peer-reviewed resources have met the highest academic standard. Use the following resource to familiarise yourself with the differences between types of resources. • ProQuest (2004) Scholarly journals, trade publications, and popular magazines [Online]. Available from http://uppermerionhslibrary. wikispaces. com/file/view/peervsscholarly. pdf/31480977/peer vsscholarly. pdf (Accessed: 15 June 2010).

• The University of Liverpool (n. d. ) Library homepage [Online]. Available from http://www. liv. ac. uk/library/ohecampus (Accessed: 15 June 2010). The Web site also contains detailed tutorials on how to use and navigate the online library. •

Purdue Online Writing Lab (n. d. ) Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing [Online]. Available from: http://owl. english. purdue. edu/owl/resource/563/01/ (Accessed: 15 June 2010) Purdue Online Writing Lab (n. d. ) Paraphrase: Write it in your own words [Online]. Available from:http://owl. english. purdue. edu/owl/resource/563/02/ (Accessed: 15 June 2010).

• Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarising One of those characteristics is the way the author uses citing, referencing, quoting and paraphrasing in the article. The resources below offer clarification on quoting, paraphrasing and summarising so that you may identify them more readily as you read an article. • •

Purdue Online Writing Lab (n. d. ) Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing [Online]. Available from: http://owl. english. purdue. edu/owl/resource/563/01/ (Accessed: 15 June 2010). Purdue Online Writing Lab (n. d. ) Paraphrase: Write it in your own words [Online]. Available from: http://owl. english. purdue. edu/owl/resource/563/02/ (Accessed: 15 June 2010).

Supplemental Resources Roberts, J. (2004) The Modern Firm: Organizational Design for Performance and Growth (Chapter 3, pp. 74-88). Oxford: Oxford University Press Roberts, J. (2004) The Modern Firm: Organizational Design for Performance and Growth (Chapter 3, pp. 103-115). Oxford: Oxford University Press Roberts, J.

(2004) The Modern Firm: Organizational Design for Performance and Growth (Chapter 3, pp. 75). Oxford: Oxford University Press The following University of Liverpool online library resources will help you to become more familiar with the online library and how to search its holdings: • The University of Liverpool (n. d. ) Library guidelines [Online]. Available from http://www. liv. ac. uk/library/ohecampus/help/guidelines. htm (Accessed: 15 June 2010). The University of Liverpool (n. d. ) Library help and advice [Online]. Available from http://www. liv. ac. uk/library/ohecampus/help/help. htm (Accessed: 15 June 2010).

The University of Liverpool (n. d.) Tips for searching the library [Online]. Available from http://www. liv. ac. uk/library/ohecampus/help/search. htm (Accessed: 15 June 2010). • • • The University of Liverpool library exercises. These exercises will help you review how to do basic library tasks. http://liv. ac. uk/library/ohecampus/ILM/Part%208%20%20Library%20Exercises.

pdf#zoom=85&statusbar=0&navpanes=0 Discussion Question: o Submit your response to the Turnitin link and also post it on the Discussion Board o Review responses by other students and make an additional 3–5 meaningful comments by Day 7 of Week 3 Reminder: In Week 3, the initial Discussion Question response is due on Saturday.

Your 3-5 significant discussion question follow-up postings and are due by the end of Day 7 of Week 3 (midnight Wednesday, your time zone). ————–Week 4 ————–Strategic organisation to meet new challenges Topics • • • • •

The need for strategic reorganisation Hypercompetition in the global business environment The impact of new technologies on organisation Implications of the knowledge-based economy Organisation as a strategic act Workload Self-study for Week 4: o Read or listen to the Lecture Notes o Read the following pages in your textbooks: Child, J. (2005) Organization: contemporary principles and practice (Chapter 2, pp. 25–43, 45-52). Roberts, J.

(2004) The modern firm: organizational design for performance and growth (Chapter 1, pp. 1–30). Discussion Question: o Submit your response to the Turnitin link and also post it on the Discussion Board o Review responses by other students and make an additional 3–5 meaningful comments Hand-in Assignment: o Submit responses to Hand-in Assignment to the weekly Assignments folder ————–Week 5 ————–Integration as a strategic response Topics • • • • • The need for integration in the business organisation Difficulties of integration and the cost of failure Creating dynamic capability through integration Managing the process of integration The role of team working.

Workload Self-study for Week 5: o Read or listen to the Lecture Notes o Read the journal article, available in the on-line library and linked to under Weekly Readings: Yasuf, Y. , Gunasekaran, A. & Abthorpe, M. , 2004. Enterprise information systems project implementation: A case study of ERP in Rolls-Royce. International Journal of Production Economics, 87 (3), pp. 251-266.

o Read the following pages in your textbook: Child, J. (2005) Organization: contemporary principles and practice (Chapter 4, pp. 79-108). Discussion Question: o Submit your response to the Turnitin link and also post it on the Discussion Board o Review responses by other students and make an additional 3–5 meaningful comments Hand-in Assignment: o Submit responses to Hand-in Assignment to the weekly Assignments folder ————–Week 6 ————-

Strategic control and motivation Topics • • • • • Motivating people in organisations Strategies for control Theories and concepts of reward Performance measurement and indicators Incentives and reward policies Workload Self-study for Week 6: o Read or listen to the Lecture Notes o Read the journal article, available in the on-line library and linked to under Weekly Readings: Gibbons, R. (1998) ‘Incentives in organizations’, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12 (4), pp. 115–132. o Read the following pages in your textbooks: Child, J.

(2005) Organization: contemporary principles and practice (Chapter 1, pp. 17-18; Chapter 5, pp. 111-135; Chapter 6, pp. 137-154; Chapter 7, 156-174). Roberts, J. (2004) The modern firm: organizational design for performance and growth (Chapter 4, pp. 161-176 required;

Chapter 4, pp. 118-176 supplementary). Discussion Question: o Submit your response to the Turnitin link and also post it on the Discussion Board o Review responses by other students and make an additional 3–5 meaningful comments Hand-in Assignment: o Submit responses to Hand-in Assignment to the weekly Assignments folder ————–Week 7 ————–Strategic organisation for innovation and growth Topics • • • • •

The need for new forms of organisation Acquisition-based growth strategy Encouraging and exploiting innovation Organising effective research and development Monitoring and incentivising innovation Workload Self-study for Week 7: o Read or listen to the Lecture Notes o Read the journal article, available in the on-line library and linked to under Weekly Readings:

Nadler, D. A. , & Tushman, M. L. (1999) ‘The organization of the future: Strategic imperatives and core competencies for the 21st century’, Organizational Dynamics, 28 (1), pp. 45–60. o Read the following pages in your textbooks: Child, J. (2005) Organization: contemporary principles and practice (Chapter 16, pp. 377–387). Roberts, J. (2004) The modern firm: organizational design for performance and growth (Chapter 6, pp. 245–280).

Discussion Question: o Submit your response to the Turnitin link and also post it on the Discussion Board Review responses by other students and make an additional 3–5 meaningful comments Individual Project: o Prepare and hand in a proposal including the nature of the project, the sources of information on the cases to be analysed and the most important concepts and techniques to be applied o Submit your proposal to the weekly Assignments folder ————–Week 8 ————–

Strategic organisation for performance Topics • • • • • Restructuring for increased strategic responsiveness Strategic organisation of the value chain Benefits and costs of diversification Internal organisation for performance measures The importance of complementarity Workload Self-study for Week 8: o Read or listen to the Lecture Notes o Read the following pages in your textbooks: Child, J. (2005) Organization: contemporary principles and practice (Chapter 3, pp. 59–77). Roberts, J. (2004) The modern firm: organizational design for performance and growth (Chapter 5, pp. 191–241).

Discussion Question: o Submit your response to the Turnitin and also post it on the Discussion Board o Review responses by other students and make an additional 3–5 meaningful comments Individual Project: o Prepare an annotated outline of the Project Report indicating the gist of each section in the report along with a list of references on the cases studied and the concepts and techniques applied. o Submit your outline to the weekly Assignments folder ————–Week 9 ————–Network forms of organisation Topics • • • •

The benefits and problems of outsourcing The importance of strategic alliances Strategic advantages of virtual organisations Managing virtual organisations Transnational organisation in the global economy Workload Self-study for Week 9: o Read or listen to the Lecture Notes o Read the journal article: Simon, H.

(1995) ‘Organizations and Markets’ Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 5 (3), pp. 273-294 o Read the following pages in your textbook: Child, J. (2005) Organization: contemporary principles and practice (Chapter 8, pp. 179–193; Chapter 9, 196-219; Chapter 10, 222-237; Chapter 11, 240-271). Discussion Question: o Submit your response to the Turnitin link and also post it on the Discussion Board o Review responses by other students and make an additional 3–5 meaningful comments Hand-in Assignment: o Submit responses to Hand-in Assignments to the weekly Assignments folder ————–Week 10 ————–Managing organisational change Topics • • • • •

Strategic drivers of organisational change Different approaches to organisational change Managing the process of planned change Issues in implementing strategic reorganisation Overcoming resistance to change Workload Self-study for Week 10: o Read or listen to the Lecture Notes o Read the following pages in your textbook: Child, J. (2005) Organization: contemporary principles and practice (Chapter 12, pp. 277–306). Roberts, J. (2004)

The modern firm: organizational design for performance and growth (Chapter 7, pp. 281–287). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Discussion Question: o Submit your response to the Turnitin link and also post it on the Discussion Board o Review responses by other students and make an.


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