Any home can have cockroaches. They are scavengers and a health hazard. While walking on spoiled food in garbage containers, they pick up various bacterial organisms on their legs that they can later deposit on uncovered food. Cockroaches themselves are not implicated in the transmission of any diseases. However, many disease-causing organisms can grow and multiply in their guts and can then be deposited on silverware, plates etc. during defecation. For example, cockroaches can pick up disease-causing bacteria like Salmonella on their legs and later deposit them on foods and cause food poisoning. People continuously exposed to dust containing cockroach feces and crushed body parts become sensitized and may show allergic reaction and asthma after repeated exposure to such dust. (http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/ehs/ehscroach.shtml# american)
Pest repellent plants are herbs, flowers and vegetables naturally capable of driving away pests, insects and animals through normal organic chemical means. Their leaves and other plant parts contain organic compounds that confuses or pushes away harmful pests. Pandanus amaryllifolius is a tropical plant in the Pandanus (screwpine) genus.
The plant is rare in the wild, but is widely cultivated. It is an upright, green plant with fan-shaped sprays of long, narrow, bladelike leaves and woody aerial roots. The plant is sterile, flowers only very rarely, and is propagated by cuttings. In Southeast Asia, Pandan leaves are used widely as a flavoring and also used as a source of fragrance. However, the same fragrance that attracts people is found to be repulsive to cockroaches. Many people in the Pandan’s native region use the leaves to repel insect pests. The researcher preferred to used pandan leaves because of its availability and to determine its effect in cockroaches in different preparation of mixture.
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to produce an effective pest repellant using the extract of Pandan leaves. Specifically, this investigatory project aims to: (1.) To know the effectiveness of Pandan extract in different treatment:
1.1 T1- Control
1.2 T2- Boiled extract of Pandan leaves
1.3 T3- Fermented extract of chopped Pandan leaves
1.4 T4- Mixed extract of boiled and fermented Pandan leaves
(2.) Find out the significant difference in the effect of different treatments in terms of:
2.1 Pest Intolerance
2.2 Number of cockroaches repelled
Significance of the Study
If the study “Production of pest repellent using Pandan Leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius) against Home Cockroach” was conducted and successfully proven, the following person will benefit: To the home owners: The infested house will decrease the population of cockroaches with little or no expense at all. It also helps to avoid diseases that we can get in cockroaches like food poisoning, allergies, dysentery and typhoid. To the community and environment: This will help our community to realize that plants in the environment are not only a herbal plant, food flavorings or a display in our backyard but also to decrease the population of pests. It also helps the environment to conceive how some plants in their environment can alter into useful products To the future researchers: The result of this study will serve as their guide in conducting the experiment related to this.
Scope and Limitation
This study will be conducted to make an effective cockroach repellent through extracting Pandan leaves. The researchers use the method of fermentation and boiling to get the Pandan leaves’ extract. Significant differences on the effectiveness of those formulated solution will be also considered. This study will focus on determining effectiveness of the Pandan leaves in different treatments. The study will be conducted on November to December 2012 at Ramirez residence.
Review of Related Literature
It is said that taxi drivers in Singapore and Malaysia keep bunches of pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in their taxis to ward off cockroaches. An analysis of the volatile essential oils of P. amaryllifolius by MacLeod and Pieris (1982) revealed that this species contains mainly terpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (6-42%), as well as a major aroma component – 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) (Yoshihashi, 2002). The presence of essential oils, i.e. mixtures consisting predominantly of mono- and sesquiterpene derivatives, accounts for the insect-repellent and attractant properties associated with some aromatic plants (Herout, 1970; Rice, 1983). Previous studies have established significant repellent activity of P. amaryllifolius against American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana L.) (Ahmad et al, 1995), but similar effects against other species of cockroaches have not yet been looked into.
Pandan leaves contain a number of essential oils and chemicals that cockroaches find unpleasant. Terpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons make up between 6 and 42 percent of the oils in these leaves, according to the National University of Singapore researchers. Pandan also contains 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, or 2AP, a substance that repels both American and German cockroach species in test studies. (Pandan Leaves for Insect Repellent | eHow.com http: //www.ehow.com/info 872 662_pandan-leaves-insect-repel lent.html) While pandan leaves contain substances repellent to cockroaches, they actually discourage these pest at a lower rate than other plants from the same geographical region.
Pandan leaves are less potent than lemongrass, cinnamon, clove, ginger and turmeric, requiring a greater concentration of their essential oils to have the same effect. Chemically-extracted oils tend to produce a greater repellent effect than the leaves themselves, but the extraction process sometimes degrades the repellent chemicals. The Singapore study recommends using a combination of 2AP and pandan essence for best effect. (Pandan Leaves for Insect Repellent | eHow.com http: //www.ehow.com/info 872 662_pandan-leaves-insect-repellent.html)
A 12”x 16” plastic container will be used in the study. A 3” diameter plate will be placed at the center. It is sprayed by the treatment placing the bait on the plate. Ten (10) sprays for each treatment. Five (5) cockroaches will be placed at the container. Home cockroaches (American Cockroach, German cockroach, Oriental cockroach) utilized in the study were gathered at Florague’s residence.
The following treatments that will be use in this study are the following:
T1 – Baygon (Control)
T2 – Boiled extract of Pandan leaves
T3- Fermented extract of chopped Pandan leaves
T4- Mixed extract of boiled and fermented Pandan leaves
Preparation of Different Pandan Extract
A. Preparation for Boiled Extract of Pandan Leaves
Collect 2-3 (10g) leaves of pandan in the garden and wash. Put the leaves into 100ml of water. Boil it for 3 minutes. Let it cool for 5 minutes. Pour the mixture in the sprayer. B. Preparation for Fermented Extract of Chopped Pandan Leaves Collect 2-3 (10g) leaves of pandan in the garden. Wash the leaves and chop it using knife or bolo. Add 100 ml of water and mix thoroughly. Pour the mixture in a container. Wait for 24 hours. Pour the mixture in the sprayer. C. Preparation for Mixed extract of Boiled and Fermented Pandan leaves Mix 50ml of boiled extract pandan leaves and 50ml of fermented extract of chopped pandan leaves. Pour the mixture in the sprayer.
Data to be gathered
The following data will be gathered;
1. Pest Intolerance (mins). This is determined by measuring the time when the cockroach comes into the bait and when it leaves. 2. Number of cockroaches repelled. This is measured by counting the cockroaches repelled by the treatment.
G.D. Palmer. 2009. Pandan Leaves for Insect Repellent <URL: http://www.ehow.com /info_8725662_pandan- leaves-insect- repellent.html> Accessed 19 July 2012 Li J. and Ho S.H. (2003). Pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) As A Natural Cockroach Repellent <URL: http://www3.ntu.edu.sg/eee/urop/congress 2003/Proceedings/abstract/NUS_FoS/TDP%20USP/Li%20Jingmei.pdf> Accessed 19 July 2012 New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Environmental Health Services <URL: http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/ehs/ehscroach.shtml# american> Accessed 15 July 2012
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