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Oxygen Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Investigate Concentration of Substrate on Catalase enzyme

1. Aim/Prediction. Aim of this experiment is to investigate concentration of substrate on catalase enzyme, as well to see how they work in different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Prediction would be, that the filter paper discs that were used, will rise up to the surface in a time in the tube of different concentration of hydrogen peroxide. And in different concentrations the time will be different. As higher the concentration would be, the less time it would take for the filter paper discs to rise to the surface. 2. Experimental design. Independent variable – is the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, in this experiment will be used 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 %vol from a stock solution. Dependent variable –…

The Catalase Lab

Conclusion- The Researcher’s hypothesis, “If more catalase is added then more oxygen (kPa) will be produced in a faster rate because there is more catalase to react upon” and “if less catalase is added then less oxygen (kPa) will be produced in a slower rate because there is less catalase to react upon.” It was supported by the data obtained because the data obtained showed us that the data of the 5 filter paper obtained showed a faster reaction rate and there was an 85.5 kPa increase (See Analysis). The data of the 1 filter paper obtained showed a slower reaction rate of 12 kPa average increase. Based on the regular result of the 2 filter paper that showed a…

Oxygen & University

Represented by the symbol O, the element known as Oxygen exists in standard temperature and pressure conditions as a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas known as dioxygen, which is essentially made up of two oxygen atoms bound together. It possesses an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p4 and is the third most abundant element by mass after hydrogen and helium, and constitutes 21% of the Earth’s atmosphere. (Elmsley, 2001; Cook & Lauer, 1968) Oxygen has three naturally occurring isotopes: 16O, 17O and 18O. While 16O is the most abundant, the other isotopes are not to be overlooked as they have significant effects on the properties of dihydrogen oxide, also known as water. H218O is not only heavier, to the extent…

Concept Homeostasis with Reference to the Control

Explain the concept homeostasis with reference to the control of heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature and blood glucose. In this assignment I will be introducing a formal report that is based on an investigation into how the body responds to exercise and which analyses the results from the investigation. The investigation involves myself and other pupils in my class. I will be doing the Harvard step test. the other pupils in my class will be monitoring my heart rate, breathing rate and temperature before and after the test. The actual word homeostasis means “steady state”. Homeostasis describes how the body regulates its process to keep its internal conditions as stable as possible. Homeostasis is necessary because human cells are…

When I Lost a Friend

Jason was the bravest fire-fighter I had ever worked with. He used to say that no matter how rich you are, no matter how strong you are, if you do not risk your life for others, you are not a man. Once, we were supposed to attend day-shift but our boss called Jason and myself and told us to work the night-shift instead. As we went in at seven o’clock in the evening, we made a cup of coffee and started checking the fire trucks. At around ten o’clock, the siren rang and we were informed that our assistance was required as there was a burning house. Six trucks, including two ladder trucks, emerged from the garages and we sped…

Chemiluminescence of Luminol

Introduction In this experiment, luminol was mixed with hydrogen peroxide (an oxidising agent) resulting in chemiluminescence. The experimentis designed to see how the duration of luminescence is affected by varying temperatures. It has been made to be deliberately inaccurate, so another objective would be to see whether subjective observations can be improved by repetition and averaging. Chemiluminescence is the production of light from a release of energy in a chemical reaction without the aid of heat. The light produced is due to electrons being given an excess of energy and this energy being released as the electrons revert to their ground state, a luminescent light being given off as a result. An important use of this reaction is in forensic…

The Oxygen- Carbon Cycle

The carbon-oxygen cycles are actually two independent cycles. However, both these cycles are interconnected as well as interdependent on each other to some extent. There are four processes involved in the completion of the carbon-oxygen cycle. Oxygen-carbon cycle processes are: * Photosynthesis Plants undergo photosynthesis that helps them produce energy and food for themselves. During photosynthesis, plants take in carbon dioxide (CO2) and absorb water (H2O) with the help of their roots. The chlorophyll present in the leaves and the energy from the sun, helps convert CO2 and H2O into O2, sugar and water vapor. Oxygen (O2) is released by the plants as bi-product into the atmosphere. * Respiration Just as plants carry out photosynthesis, animals carry out respiration. Respiration…

Cyanobacteria: Oxygen and Aerobic Respiration

Cyanobacteria’s big advantage over other early life forms was their ability to perform photosynthesis. They contain a blue photo reactive pigment that can absorb the energy from the sunlight and use it to produce nutrients for the cell. During this process, water molecules are broken down into oxygen and hydrogen atoms which are then released in the air. In the very early days of life, Earth was populated only by anaerobic bacteria that didn’t need oxygen to survive. When cyanobacteria first made their appearance and started engaging in their photosynthetic reactions, large amounts of oxygen were suddenly released in the atmosphere. This lead to what is known as the Great Oxygenation Event, which took place around 2.5 billion years ago….

Experiment 8: Acetylsalicylic Acid Experiment

Introduction: Commonly used as Aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid is an analgesic (pain reliever), which is one of the products of the esterification reaction between salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. This esterification occurs since the hydroxyl group from the salicylic acid reacts with acetic anhydride to form an ester. In this experiment, we will be able to recreate this acid catalyzed reaction, using sulfuric acid as our catalyst in order to produce acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid. The final product of this reaction will be some crystals, which will be mainly composed of acetylsalicylic acid. In order to purify our products, we will have to add water to our crystals so that the acetylsalicylic acid can be dissociated from impurities. Using a…

Isopentyl Acetate Synthesis

The synthesized product, isopentyl acetate, is made by the reaction of isopentyl alcohol and glacial acetic acid with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as the catalyzing agent. The crude ester produced in lab was isopentyl acetate, because first, the product smelled of bananas and second, the IR spectrum for the product shows that the product is isopentyl acetate. As for the purity of the product, the distillation of the crude ester showed that its boiling point was supposed to be 130°C – 140°C and the boiling points of the impurities that could have been in the crude ester have lower boiling points. Therefore, since the crude product had a boiling point of 124°C, it indicated that there were some impurities in the…

Acetic Acid: Molecular Formula and Molecular Weight

Acetic acid is a weak acid which is probably most famous for being the primary acid in vinegar. In fact, acetic acid has a wide range of uses beyond sprinkling on salads, and it is produced in large volumes all over the world. People have been working with this acid in a number of contexts for centuries, with acetic acid being one of the substances explored by alchemists, the predecessors of modern chemists. This organic acid can be prepared in varying concentrations. In pure form, it is known as glacial acetic acid because it crystallizes in cool temperatures. This form of the acid is extremely corrosive and can be hazardous to work with, requiring special precautions for protection. Vinegar, by…

Exercise and Heart

Introduction Aim: Finding out how exercise affects the heart rate and breathing rate. Hypothesis: Exercise exists in different forms and has many benefits; it improves the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, development of bones, strengthens muscles and the lungs capacity plus it can make you feel good. There are different exercises and intensities for different benefits. Lower intensity exercises are not designed to work the body as hard. As a result less oxygen is needed and less waste is in excess. However even low intensity exercises require more substances to be carried out than if your body was in its resting state. Therefore different concentrations of substances are required for different intensities of exercise. In effect this affects your heart…

Dissolved Oxygen Laboratory Report

1. Based on the dissolved oxygen values for the three distilled water samples at different temperatures, it appears that there is a relationship between water temperature and DO concentration. It appears based on the averages of the class data that the lower the temperature of the water, the higher the DO concentration, although only to a certain point. There appears to be no significant difference between the DO concentration of the water at room temperature or when heated. 2. The DO concentration of the distilled water at room temperature is higher than that of the seawater, where the average for the distilled water is 4. 03 mg/L and for seawater is 3. 48 mg/L. This is likely to be due…

Biology Worksheet

1. Define science – Science is the development of concepts about the natural world , often by using the scientific method 2. Define multicellular organism – are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform various functions. 3. Identify the 3 domains of living things. Which domains include one-celled organisms with no nucleus? a) Organized, Homeostatic & Reproduce. b) Bacteria & Archaea 4. Modern taxonomists (scientists who classify organisms) no longer use the classification of the kingdom of Protists. List the three other kingdoms of Eukarya. Plants, Fungi & Animals 5. List and give a brief explanation of the steps of the scientific method. The steps of a scientific method make up an orderly way…

Aluminum: The 13th Element on the Periodic Table

One of the many elements on the periodic table is Aluminum. Aluminum is the 13th element, and it is located in period two and group thirteen. Aluminums symbol is Al and it has an electron configuration of [Ne] 3s2 3p1. Aluminum also has an atomic mass of 26.982 and its atomic number is 13. This element was discovered by Hans Christian Oersted in the year of 1825, and was named by the English chemist Sir Humphry Davy (Helmenstine, 2012). Its name ‘Aluminum’ came from the Latin words ‘alumen’ or ‘alum’, which is an astringent and dyeing mordant. Originally, Davy called it “Alumium’ but the publishers later changed it to Aluminum, and that’s how it remains in the United States (N/A,…

Perkin Reaction

Introduction: The name of this reaction is called the Perkin’s reaction. The reaction was first used by William Perkin to create phenylcinnamic acids (Johnson). It is very similar to the aldol condensation which is followed by elimination. In this reaction E and Z isomers of phenylcinnamic acid are created using benzaldehyde and acetic anhydride. The intermediate product is acetic phenyl acetic anhydride. Benzaldehyde is an aromatic compound that Results: The reaction involves the use of benzaldehyde with acetic anhydride which gave the phenylacetic acid which would be used with in the farther steps of the reaction to produce the E and Z phenylcinnamic acid. The mechanism for this reaction can be seen in figure 1. Table 1 includes all spectroscopic…

Alternative Nostril Breathing Versus Nmal Breathing

After conducting a mini “study” of whether alternate nostril breathing helps people with sleep issues as opposed to normal breathing at bed time, it was concluded that, yes, alternate nostril breathing at bed time does help to relax a person and put them in a more sound sleep than normal breathing. In the personal study conducted, three nights were done under normal breathing circumstances and three nights with the alternate nostril breathing technique applied. The three nights done under normal breathing proved to be more restless and more rousing during sleep than the three where the alternate nostril breathing (ANB) technique was done. Under the influence of the ANB, less restlessness and a more sound sleep were observed. All in…

Corrosion Pillowing in Aircraft Fuselage Lap Joints

Nicholas C. Bellinger,∗ Jerzy P. Komorowski,† and Ronald W. Gould‡ National Research Council Canada, Institute for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada DOI: 10.2514/1.18589 This paper presents the results of studies that have been carried out at the National Research Council Canada on the effect that corrosion pillowing has on the structural integrity of fuselage lap joints. Modeling of corrosion pillowing using finite element techniques showed that the stress near the rivet holes increased to the material (Al 2024T3) yield strength when the corrosion present was above 6% thickness loss. In addition, the analysis showed that pillowing resulted in a stress gradient through the skin thickness, which suggested that semi-elliptical cracks with high aspect ratios could form. During teardowns…

Decreasing Fossil Fuels

Over the past century America has continuously used its own fossil fuel resources and paid handsomely for additional supplies, in the race to stay current with modern technology and life .The possession of this resource has made the United States a very prosperous and powerful nation. The same fossil fuels that’s has made America such a powerhouse are the same that are damaging the environment and economy they have enabled. It is imperative that we decrease our dependency on fossil fuels, or it is inevitable that our economy and environment will suffer tremendously. With these fuels being such a crucial and essential part of Americas livelihood and status, it brings us to the question .What are fossil fuels? According to…

Physiology of Two Named Body Systems

Energy metabolism is where the nutrients oxygen and glucose are took in and delivered the organs. Energy is needed in order for our body to be able to function. Energy helps break down molecules and to build new molecules. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood and blood vessels. The cardiovascular system is the major transport of materials to and from the cells. Blood is carried from the heart around the body via the arteries and the blood is then carried back to the heart via the veins. The capillaries connect the arteries to the veins; the function of the capillaries is too supply the cells with nutrients and oxygen. The cardiovascular system is responsible for the transport of…

Energy Transfers

The nucleotide ATP (adenosine triphosphate) maintains both catabolic and anabolic reactions. Catabolic reactions e.g. respiration are where larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones with energy being released, and anabolic reactions e.g. photosynthesis are where smaller molecules are built up into larger ones which require energy. Catabolism provides the energy for organisms to synthesise larger molecules in its anabolic reactions. To release energy, ATP is hydrolysed into ADP and Pi (an inorganic phosphate) which releases energy that can be used for energy requiring reactions such as photosynthesis. However to maintain the organisms anabolic reactions, ATP must be continually synthesised by condensation reactions where ADP is added onto a phosphate molecule. This process is helped by energy transferred from catabolic…

Carbon, Phosphorus, and Nitrogen Cycles

Humans impact the cycles in different ways. All three elements are affected by us as humans and our activities. Humans can either hurt the ecosystem or we can help it. The cycles include in our ecosystem are Nitrogen, Carbon, Phosphorus. They are all important to us and all living things to go hand in hand to survive on earth and to work together to produce new materials. All three of the cycles have been tremendously sped up by our human impacts. The carbon cycle is very significant to us as humans; it’s made up of several processes from our forests to our oceans. The cutting down of our trees, the carbon cycle is in danger or being disrupted. It has…

Effects of Exercise

In this assignment I will be reviewing the different effects of exercise on the body system including the acute and long term using the pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise physiological data which I collected based on interval and continuous training method. I will also be including the advantages and disadvantages of these, also the participants’ strengths and areas where they can improve on. -Effect of exercise on the musculoskeletal system As Andre began to exercise, this had an effect on he’s bones; this is because he was putting more stress on them than usual which resulted in them getting thicker. Also exercise had an effect on he’s joints because the joints now became more flexible and he wasn’t getting anymore pains…

How Much Is the Effect of Acid Rain Environment?

Acid rain is mixed with certain chemicals, including Hydrocarbons. Nitrogen Oxides are created naturally from bacteria, volcanoes and lightening. From the burning of fossil fuels we get chemicals like Sulphur Dioxide, Sulphur Trioxide and Carbon Dioxide. When Carbon Dioxide is mixed with water we get Carbonic Acid. When Nitrogen Oxides are mixed correctly with water it can create Nitric Acid. When Sulphur Dioxide is mixed with water it creates Sulphurous Acid. And when Sulphur Trioxide is mixed with Sulphur Dioxide and water it can create the lethal Sulphuric Acid. Ozone Depletion also impacts on this as its releasing CFC’s which then add to the impact from acid rain.  Acid rain can corrode metal structures such as railway tracks and overhead…

Improving Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Ionic Liquids

Previously we showed that CO2 could be used to extract organic molecules from ionic liquids without contamination of the ionic liquid. Consequently a number of other groups demonstrated that ionic liquid/CO2 biphasic systems could be used for homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Large differences in the solubility of various gases in ionic liquids present the possibility of using them for gas separations. More recently we and others have shown that the presence of CO2 increases the solubility of other gases that are poorly soluble in the ionic liquid phase. Therefore, a knowledge and understanding of the phase behavior of these ionic liquid/ CO2 systems is important. With the aim of finding ionic liquids that improve CO2 solubility and gaining more information to…

The Lungs

When air enters the lungs, it travels down the bronchus, which divides like a tree, which gets smaller and smaller. At the end of each tiny branch, or bronchiole, is a structure called alveoli. Alveoli are like little balloons of air sacks. Alveoli are full of oxygen-rich air that has been drawn into the lungs during inspiration. This oxygen needs to get into the blood, so that the cardiovascular system can fulfil its role of transporting the oxygen to the working cells. This movement of oxygen takes place in the alveoli, where a capillary can always be found close by, and the oxygen can move from one place to another that is from the lungs into the blood. The capillary…

Copper Corrosion

In this experiment, I will be testing the corrosion rate of copper wire after leaving them in different liquids with different pH levels. By doing so I will be able to determine which pH level corrodes copper the fastest. I will conduct this experiment by pouring 250mL of different liquids with different pH levels in cups, followed by an iron strip placed into the cup. A stopwatch will be timing how long it takes the iron strip to fully corrode. The cups will be placed in the same environment right next to each other in order for the cups to be in the same temperature. All of the cups will be the same type of cup to make sure the…

Life Limiting Illness

Sam (name changed to protect confidentiality) is a nine month old boy who was born at 26 weeks and diagnosed with chronic lung disease. He was sent home on 0.3 litres (L) of oxygen per minute with the view of gradually weaning this down as he grew stronger. When I joined the community nurse visiting Sam at home, he had been weaned down to 0.1L of oxygen per minute, so was now having his time on oxygen weaned down; from continuous oxygen eventually to none. The community nurses follow the trust’s nursing assessment guidelines which are based on The Twelve Activities of Daily Living (Roper et al, 1983). This model allows nurses to organise and prioritise care effectively for each…

Mr. and Mrs. Pitt: A Troubled Relationship from the Start

In the renowned fantasy novel Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix by J.K. Rowling, Albus Dumbledore says, “indifference and neglect often do much more damage than outright dislike.” The play, Angels in America, A Gay Fantasia on National Themes by Tony Kushner, presents several relationships of characters. The relationship of Joe and Harper Pitt in particular plays a vital role in his play. By not making the effort to fix the problems in their relationship, Joe and Harper have finally grown so distant from each other that it is impossible to fix it. Kushner uses many different writing techniques to present that Joe and Harper have a failing marriage. He uses tone and dialog to show that Harper…

Oxygen and Trees

Trees occupy an important place in the life of man. The trees provide us flowers, fruits, fodder for animals, wood for fire and furniture and provide cool shadow from scorching sun. They give us so many such good things and yet expect nothing in return. Trees give us fruits for food and flowers for pleasure. They provide us timber (wood) for building our houses and making furniture. They provide us wood for fuel. They supply sleepers for the railway line. Many trees provide us medicinal products such as quinine and eucalyptus. In fact, most of the medicines that we use ultimately come to us through trees and vegetation. Trees play an important role in purifying the air around us. They…