There are many ways in which factors in children’s home background which may lead to differences in achievement between ethnic groups. The first way is from cultural deprivation, with the socialisation experience of children, values, expectations and norms transmitted at home. Driver and Ballard 1979 argued that high achievement in some Asian groups might be linked to the presence of close knit extended families.
However with some ethnic groups many tend to have low income, which may explain why black pupils tend to underachieve as many children from low income black families lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences. Some cultural deprivation theorists argue that many children from low-income black families lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences. Evidence suggests that those ethnic groups who tend to underachieve also tend have low incomes.
The Joseph Rowntree Foundation 2007 estimated that 70% of Bangladeshi and over 50% of Pakistani children grow up in poverty, compared to 20% of the white population and 30% of Indians. Unemployment is 3 xs higher in African and Bangladeshi/Pakistani people than for whites and Pakistanis are 2x more likely to be in unskilled/semi skilled jobs compared to whites which can lead to material deprivation. Moynihan 1965 said that many black families are headed by lone mothers and may experience poor care due to the lack of money.
Some may have material deprivation because they cannot afford to pay for books and other materials that the child needs to do their work, and many may not have the room to do their work if they live in a cramped home meaning they may not be able to concentrate. This becomes a vicious cycle as if the child receives inadequate socialisation which equals in them failing at school meaning they may become an inadequate parent, which will repeat. Also some theorists say that some black children are socialised into a subculture that instils a fatalistic ‘live for toady’ attitude that does not value education and leaves them unequipped for success.
There are other factors which effect different group’s educational achievement, with there being ways in which the education system may encourage separation between children of different ethnic backgrounds, such as labelling and teacher racism, many teachers label their students and sociologists found out that many teachers labelled black children as disruptive and they didn’t want them in their class. Troyna and Williams describe the curriculum in British schools as ethnocentric because it gives priority to white culture and the English language which causes separation between white pupils and other ethnic pupils.
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