A. Hook: The Eiffel tower is a beautiful structure known around the world. Located on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France, the Eiffel Tower is one of the most well-known structures in the world. Over 200 million people had visited the Eiffel Tower, since its inception.
B. Thesis: The Eiffel Tower illustrates the philosophy of Humanism. We can see this connection to humanism because of The World Expo, The usages of the tower, and the Logical design plans behind it. These aspects connect to humanism because of Logical thought and reasoning, and also Confidence in mankind and his abilities, and focusing on government and making society better.
C. Blueprints 1. World Exhibition 2. Usage in WWI 3. Stunts and Science 4. Logical Design
II. General Background
A. Dates of Construction: The construction work of Eiffel Tower started on January 26, 1887 and was completed on March 31, 1889. The tower was built in sections, the base pieces being the first. There were rods in cement in the ground to help plant the tower in place. In all there were 18,038 pieces joined by two and a half million rivets.
B. Architect: Gustav Eiffel The man behind the Eiffel Tower was Gustave Eiffel, known from his revolutionary bridge building techniques, as employed in the great viaduct at Garabit in 1884. These techniques would form the basis for the construction of the Eiffel Tower. He was also known for the construction of the Statue of Liberty’s iron framework.
C. Materials used: Puddle Iron (Wrought Iron) weighs 7,300 tons. Over all (Non-Metal) 10000. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm (7.1 in) because of thermal expansion of the metal on the side facing the sun.
D. Preservation Efforts: Maintenance of the tower includes applying 50 to 60 tons of paint every seven years to protect it from rust. 4 tons of dusters & cleaning cloths, 10,000 doses of cleaning items, 400 liters of detergents and 25,000 bin bags are needed to clean Eiffel Tower
III. World Exhibition (Loyrette N.P)
A. It was originally looked upon as a temporary structure, built for the 1889 World’s Fair. The World’s Fair coincided with the centenary of the French Revolution.
B. The Eiffel Tower was the entrance arch to the World’s Fair and it was one of a number of designs entered as part of a competition. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel’s company won the competition and so the the Tower became known as the Eiffel Tower.
C. It was held during the year of the 100th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, an event traditionally considered as the symbol for the beginning of the French Revolution. The fair included a reconstruction of the Bastille and its surrounding neighborhood, but with the interior courtyard covered with a blue ceiling decorated with fleur-de-lys and used as a ball room and gathering place. D. The world’s fair and the Eiffel tower show why it connects to humanism. The world’s fair was to show how great mankind and his abilities are. The Eiffel tower was created as the opener/showstopper of the fair. The Eiffel tower shows that mankind is able to achieve great things, like the tower.
IV. Usage in WWI (Mills NP)
A. During World War II, the Germans hung a sign on it that read: “Deutschland Siegt Auf Allen Fronten” (“Germany is victorious on all fronts”) This usage connects to humanism because the Germans were putting high emphasis and value on man
B. The use in WWI Also shows how the tower connects to humanism. The fact that the Germans hung their sign on top of the tower, and the fact that people do insane stunts off of the tower shows how the tower portrays the trait that mankind is confident in his abilities.
V. Science in the tower (Pereira N.P)
A. Over the years, the Eiffel Tower has been the site of numerous high-profile stunts, ceremonial events and even scientific experiments. In 1911, for instance, the German physicist Theodor Wulf used an electrometer to detect higher levels of radiation at its top than at its base, observing the effects of what are now called cosmic rays.
B. The day after the Tower was inaugurated; Gustave Eiffel installed a meteorology lab on the third floor. He also had a passion for aerodynamics and performed a series of observations on falling bodies (dedicated equipment was installed from 1903 to 1905). He then imagined “an automatic device sliding the length of a stretched cable between the second level of the Tower and the ground”. He had a small wind tunnel built at the foot of the tower. From August to December 1909 he carried out five thousand tests. In addition, Gustave Eiffel encouraged others to perform experiments on the Tower: Foucault’s pendulum, the mercury manometer, physiology studies and radio contact were other experiments done with the tower
C. The scientific experiments with the tower and its designer show how it connects to humanism. Its connection to humanism is the aspect Strong focus on logic, reasoning and rationale and also confidence in man and his abilities. These are the aspects because science shows the logic and reasoning while the experiments also show how they were confident in their abilities.
VI. Logical Design (David N.P)
B. Lifts/elevators yo-yo up and down the north, west and east pillars to the tower’s three platforms; change lifts on the 2nd level for the final ascent to the top, from where views extend up to 60km. (There’s wheelchair access to the 1st and 2nd levels.) If you’re feeling athletic, you can take the south pillar’s 1665 stairs as far as the 2nd level.
C. Researchers have found that Eiffel used empirical and graphical methods accounting for the effects of wind rather than a specific mathematical formula. It sways only 6-7 cm. During the storm of 1999, it moved approximately 13 centimeters from its initial position.
D. The logical design of the tower show that it connects to humanisms ascpect of Logical thought and reasoning. Gustav Eiffel had to think about what the Tower was going to endure, while he was making the designs.
VII. For the People (Loyrette N.P)
A. The tower has two restaurants: Le 58 tour Eiffel, on the first floor ( 311 ft above sea level) and the Le Jules Verne, a gastronomical restaurant on the second floor, with a private lift. This restaurant has one star in the Michelin Red Guide. In January 2007, the multi-Michelin star chef Alain Ducasse was brought in to run Jules Verne. The fact that the Eiffel tower has accommodations for people like this one shows its connection to humanism
VIII. How I made my project
A. I decided to paint a picture of the Eiffel tower for my project. I bought a canvas and painted the entire thing blue. I found different angles of the Eiffel tower and decided to go with a underneath/side view of the tower. It took me about 2 hours to get the picture done and another hour of painting and outlining.
a. The Eiffel tower, one of the greatest constructions in the world, connects to humanism many different ways. The uses in WWI, the scientific experiments, the design of the tower, and the reason for maing the tower all show aspects of humanism. Logical design, confidence in man, striving to make society better are all ways that the Eiffel tower connects to humanism. b. Now when you think of the Eiffel tower, you’ll think of its history, It’s meaning, and Its beauty. Thank you.