I.Federalist and Republican Mudslingers
A.The Federalists labored many handicaps
1.The Alien and Sedition Acts hosted many enemies
2.The Hamiltonians split from them
3.Swelled the public debt when making unnecessary war preparations and added taxes B.John Adams became known as “the Father of the American Navy.” C.The federalists took fire on Jefferson becoming a victim of a “whispering campaign”
II.The Jeffersonian “Revolution of 1800”
A.Jefferson narrowly squeaked through victory
1.The 3/5 clause of the constitution was decisive in Jefferson’s victory in 1800 2.Won dead-lock with Burr because some of the Representatives hoped for moderation from Jefferson C.John Adams was the last Federalist president
D.Jefferson claimed the election a revolution
1.But the election was no revolution in the sense of a massive popular upheaval or an upending of the political system
2.Peaceful transfer of power
E.Jefferson’s mission was to restore the republican experiment, to check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue set under the Federalists
III.Responsibility Breeds Moderation
A.In his address, he declared that all Americans were Federalists, all were Republicans, implying that Americans were a mixture. He also pledged “honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none.” B.He started the precedent of sending messages to Congress to be read by a clerk C.There were two Thomas Jeffersons
1.The scholarly private citizen who philosophized in his study 2.The harassed public official who discovered that bookish theories worked out differently in practical politics D.Jefferson dismissed few public servants for political reasons, to the dismay of his office-seeking friends
A.Jefferson pardoned those who were in jail under the Sedition Act, and the government cancelled many fines B.In 1802, the neutralization law of 1802 was enacted reducing the requirement of 14 years of residence to 5 years C.Except for repealing the excise tax, the Jeffersonians left the Hamiltonian framework mostly the same D.Jefferson’s restraint pointed towards the two-party system that was later to become a characteristic feature of American politics
V.The “Dead Clutch” of the Judiciary
A.The Judiciary Act of 1801 was on of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress 1.Aroused bitter resentment by Jeffersonians because it as seen as an attempt by the ousted party to establish itself into 1 of the 3 powerful branches of gov B.Marbury v. Madison (1803)
1.William Marbury had been one of the “midnight judges” He had been named justice of peace for D.C., but when,Sec of State, James Madison decided to suspend the position, Marbury sued for its delivery 2.Marshall dismissed the case, but he said that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional, thus suggesting that the Supreme Court could determine the constitutionality of laws
VI.Jefferson, A Reluctant Warrior
A.One of Jefferson’s first actions was to reduce the military establishment to a mere police force of 2500 officers and men 1.Critics called it penny pinching but for Jeff it was really about republican ideals 2.However, the pirates of the North African Barbary States were still looting U.S. ships, and in 1801, the leading officer of Tripoli indirectly declared war when he cut down the flagpole of the American consulate. a.Jefferson reluctantly sent the navy out to them
b.After 4 years of fighting, Jefferson succeeded in obtaining a treaty of peace from Tripoli in 1805 for $60,000.
VII.The Louisiana Godsend
A.In 1800, Napoleon induced the king of Spain to cede to France the Louisiana Territory 1. If Spain had the territory it posed no real threat, but if France had it they would have to fight to get it B.In 1803, Jefferson sent Monroe to Paris to join forces with Livingston to quiet the clamor of the West 1.They were instructed to get New Orleans and as much land as possible to its East for $10 million 2.If they failed they would go to Britain to open negotiations for an alliance C.Instead, Napoleon offered to sell New Orleans and the land west of it, Louisiana, for a bargain of $15 million, abandoning his dream of a French North American empire. 1.It was due to the rebellion in Haiti, led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, which had been unsuccessful, but had killed many French troops due to yellow fever 2.The decision to sell Louisiana was also because Napoleon needed cash to renew his war with Britain.
Louisiana in the Long View
A.With the Louisiana Purchase secured at one bloodless stroke the western half of the richest river valley in the world and laid the foundations of a future major power B.The purchase established for future expansion: the acquisition of foreign territory though purchase C.In spring of 1804, Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to explore the northern part of Louisiana 1.A 2 ½ years expedition
2.Yielded a rich harvest of scientific observations, maps, knowledge of the Indians in the region, and adventure stories.
VIII.The Aaron Burr Conspiracies
A.Long Term Effect: The Louisiana Purchase greatly expanded the fortunes of the US and the power of the federal government B.Short Term Effect: The vast expanse of territory and the feeble reach of the government obliged to control it raised fears of succession and foreign intrigue C.The Federalists now sank lower than ever, and tried to scheme with Aaron Burr to make New England and New York secede from the union; in the process Aaron Burr killed Hamilton in a duel D.The Louisiana Purchase had a deep sense of loyalty and nationalism among the West to the federal government IX.