Concord and Lexington
The British secretary of state requested an army go to Concord to capture colonist supplies and arrest prevalent leaders. However, the colonists were alerted and met the British in Lexington, where ‘the shot heard around the world’ was fired, sparking a furious gunfire battle. The British then moved onto Concord, but the leaders they were meant to capture had already fled. Also, the colonists rallied there and forced the British to alter their return route to Boston, making their trip heavy with casualties. This sparked the physical battle portion of the war, and led to the American’s first gunfire encounter with their enemy. It also brought the colonists together for this big encounter, and though they suffered casualties, allowed them the small victories of not only firing upon the British, but causing them more casualties than their own troops.
The British planned for General Burgoyne to lead his men South from Canada. In doing so, he captured Fort Ticonderoga and then continued south. This capture gave the British’s plan to isolate New England the firm start it needed and kept them on plan, though ultimately, the plan turned into a British surrender.
Second Continental Congress
The Second Continental Congress met to determine if indeed the war had broken out and how the colonists would handle it. They wanted to show they were acting as an independent country without using that term (independent). This was the first major step for the Americans, towards the direction of complete independence from the British Crown. They recognized and supported the war, appointed a general, and offered the Olive Branch Petition to the King, who ignored it.
The British sent troops to capture the colonists’ cannons on Breed’s Hill, which led to the first massive battle of the Revolution. Though the colonists retreated, they had a fatal impact on the British army, causing large amounts of casualties while taking only small numbers of deaths themselves. The Battle of Bunker Hill brought many more colonists to the forefront of the battle, fighting against the British. But, it also made the British realize that the number of colonists were a part of the rebellion, and ultimately turned the rebellion into the revolution, which had much deadlier consequences.
The British took the city from the French and built a stronghold (1759). This battle was the first major American defeat during the war (1775). Two armies attacked Quebec only to be riddled with casualties and death. Many Americans were lost while the British suffered only few issues. This boosted the British armies’ morale and gave them a strong fort to hold supplies and men. It also stopped the Americans from trying to pull the Canadians further into the war, something that played to the British’s benefit.
Fresh off the success of holding Quebec, British forces made way towards Fort Ticonderoga by way of Lake Champlain. Benedict Arnold and his forces met them on the water, and though there was not a victory, the colonists were able to hold them off until a snow storm forced the British back in order to be safe of the weather (History of American Wars, n.d.). This was considered the first naval battle of the war.
George Washington led his men across the Delaware River to capture Trenton, NJ from a small band of Hessians. Though the town really held no strategic importance, it helped boost the men’s morale and kept the Revolutionaries on track.
The Battle of Saratoga happened in close succession of the capture of Fort Ticonderoga. As General Burgoyne’s soldiers continued with their plan and neared the Hudson River, they were slowed due to various issues and the Continental Army caught them. Ultimately, the British were forced to surrender. The success of this battle led the Americans to realize they could indeed fight and win against the British if they could face them in smaller numbers. This also allowed the French, who had not wanted to step in to help the Americans at this point, see that the battle may not be a losing one.
There was no battle at Valley Forge. In fact, it was here the American army went in its most severe of states. They were exhausted, hungry, malnourished and lacked any morale to keep going. But after a matter of months, food eventually came and the troops rallied.
This was a huge turning point in the war. Had the troops not recovered and moved on, it is very plausible that the colonists, missing a key general (Washington) and many men, would have ultimately failed in their battle against the British.
With the British winning battles ibn the South, General Greene took the initiative to divide and conquer the British army in a battle near Cowpens. He used a tactic the British did not recognize and which ultimately cost the redcoats many men. This battle caused another massive blow to the British’s numbers, while boosting morale and skill tactics for the Americans.
General Cornwallis was ultimately forced to move his men up north to wait for replacements, due to malnourishment and fatigue. Washington, seeing his chance, pursued the weakened army and with help from the French navy, defeated the huge army and forced the British’s surrender. This was considered the final major battle of the Revolutionary War. The crown recognized defeat after Cornwallis’s surrender and ultimately surrender its own fight.
Complete the grid by describing the effects of the Revolution on each group.
Role, if any, played in the Revolution
Effect of the Revolution on the group
Political, economic, or social effects of the war on the group
The man played the primary role within the Revolution. The fought the political and physical battles, and carried almost all authority within the colonies, militias and political parties. The group certainly was brought together from various religious and cultural backgrounds because of the Revolution. The collaborative efforts of the many nationalities brought forth a change in the colonists. As noted, the wars brought them together and they began to finally see themselves as a new Nation and impacted by their own democracy
As the British acted to hold onto power, the women colonists began to play a major role. One of their most memorable parts was played when laws regarding tea were changed and the British required only certain merchants to sell. The women stepped forward and boycotted the imported tea. They also played key roles as cooks, nurses and seamstresses for the many soldiers. The Revolution brought out the strength in many women, and drove them to support their men, their freedom and their new country.
Many stepped forward to take on tasks and lead their own small revolutions of the British, but also a few even went as far as to join the military under false names and identities in an effort to help the men protect this new land. The Revolution opened many doors for women, though it still did not put them at equal marks with men. Though they were granted more power within their own household, the expectations of raising proper children, education and political silence were expected. It wasn’t until years later that the new States even considered allowing women to have more authority, become land owners, and explore their right to vote.
Black slaves and freed Blacks
Blacks, both freed and enslaved, fought on both sides, though apparently the British were more open to their precise than the colonists. But their numbers were small in comparison to the whites. The Revolution cause so much chaos many salves fled their owners. It also sparked the talk of abolishing slavery and slowly states began to recognize freed slaves and move to legally outlaw the importation of slavery. As the more slaves were freed or fled, they created communities and built up their own churches, internal politics and educational systems.
No impacting role to either sides
The Revolution unfortunately increased the impact the colonists had on the Native Americans. They continued to be pushed out of their lands and killed, by way of battle or disease The Native Americans were decreased by significant percentages and completely pushed from their lands. They had little to no power over the changes and were eventually wrangled into small protected areas, which were fractions of the size of what they had prior to the colonists arriving
Cite and reference all sourced material consistent with APA guidelines.
History of American Wars. Battles of the Revolutionary War. (n.d.) Retrieved January 24, 2015. http://www.history-of-american-wars.com/battles-of-the-revolutionary-war.html