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Orion System Essay

The basic resource of any organization whether it is business, non business government or nongovernment is human’s physical and mental ability. One of important duties of manager is to motivate these forces to achieve organization objectives. Generally, motivation is categorized into physical, social and mental motivation. Physical motivation is referred to the needs of individuals in work environment like well fare facilities (adequate work area, climate, light, etc.) Those human needs which are associated with behavior of others and manager in particular and satisfy social needs are referred to as social motivation. The needs that lead to mental satisfaction are mental motivation (http://www.irjabs.com/) 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Motivation is not directly observable (it is internal to each employee), it is personal (what is arousing differs and how behavior is directed is often different), however the process is common and it is goal directed. There are different theories of motivation. Early theories of motivation and Contemporary theories Of motivation and also they are classified as Content theories and Process theories. A Classification of Motivation Theories (Content vs. Process) Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different perspectives: Content and Process theories. Content Theories deal with “what” motivates people and it is concerned with individual needs and goals. Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg and McCelland studied motivation from a “content” perspective. Process Theories deal with the “process” of motivation and is concerned with “how” motivation occurs. Vroom, Porter & Lawler, Adams and Locke studied motivation from a “process” perspective. 1). CONTENT THEORIES

MASLOW’S (NEED HIERARCHY THEORY NOTE): An individual moves “up the steps” of the hierarchy. “Lower order” needs are satisfied externally (i.e. physiological and safety) while “higher order” needs are satisfied internally (i.e. social, esteem, and self-actualization) THEORY X & THEORY Y MCGREGOR BELIEVED (Theory Y assumptions were more valid than Theory X)and proposed such ideas as participative decision making, responsible and challenging jobs, and good group relations as approaches that would maximize an employee’s motivation. TWO-FACTOR THEORY :_Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are related to job dissatisfaction. THE ERG THEORY Alderfer’s theory — Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.

• Existence refers to our concern with basic material existence requirements; what Relatedness refers to the desire we have for maintaining interpersonal relationships; similar to Maslow’s social/love need, and the external component of his esteem need. Growth refers to an intrinsic desire for personal development; the intrinsic component of Maslow’s esteem need, and self-actualization ((Robbins and Judge,2007) Alderfer’s ERG theory differs from Maslow’s Need Hierarchy insofar as ERG theory demonstrates that more than one need may be operative at the same time. ERG theory does not assume a rigid hierarchy where a lower need must be substantially satisfied before one can move on. ACHIEVEMENT NEED THEORY

David McClelland is most noted for describing three types of motivational need, which he identified in his 1961 book, The Achieving Society: achievement motivation (n-ach)
authority/power motivation (n-pow)
affiliation motivation (n-affil) ( david mcclelland, http://ozgurzan.com) INCENTIVE THEORY
Incentive theory suggests that employee will increase her/his effort to obtain a desired reward. This is based on the general principle of reinforcement. The desired outcome is usually “money”. This theory is coherent with the early economic theories where man is supposed to be rational and forecasts are based on the principle of “economic man”.

EXPECTANCY THEORY The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that the outcome to the individual. The theory focuses on three relationships )1 . Effort-performance. 2. Performance-reward. 3. Rewards-personal goals. ((http://ozgurzan.com)

Edwin Locke proposed Goal Theory, which proposes that motivation and performance will be high if individuals are set specific goals which are challenging, but accepted, and where feedback is given on performance. The two most important findings of this theory are:

Setting specific goals (e.g. I want to earn a million before I am 30) generates higher levels of performance than setting general goals (e.g. I want to earn a lot of money). The goals that are hard to achieve are linearly and positively connected to performance. The harder the goal, the more a person will work to reach it.(ibid) ADAMS’ EQUITY THEORY

Adams in 1963, Equity Theory suggests that if the individual perceives that the rewards received are equitable, that is, fair or just in comparison with those received by others in similar positions in or outside the organization, then the individual feels satisfied. Adams asserted that employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs that they bring to a job and the outcomes that they receive from it against the perceived inputs and outcomes of others. (http://ozgurzan.com) 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem to be analyzed in this research paper is the reasons why workers are not motivated unsatisfied and unproductive? The main concern that employers or organizations are paying attention to is on how to enhance productivity of their employees. Productivity can be affected by many different variables. Out of that employee’s motivation is the basic aspect. Different organizations employing both the financial and non-financial incentives of goal setting theory of motivation; describe whether both types of incentives affect the productivity profile but that method is motivated for a shorter period.

A positive attitude can help to build strong relationships as well as create increased motivation. If you have a goal in mind that you are having a hard time finding motivation to meet, try having a positive attitude. Although it may seem challenging at times, try these easy tips in order to be more positive each day.( James Clear. http://www.solveyourproblem.com) Therefore, this behavioral, attitudes, and opinions are collected from secondary data. The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between positive thinking and motivation.

To describe contemporary theories of motivation?
To identify how to motivate employees
To describe the relationship of positive thinking and motivation?
To identify the source of positive thinking?
To recommend solutions to increase motivation ?
Now days in any organization there is a problem of lack of motivation at the result low productivity, high turnover and absenteeism. Motivating employees is crucial for an organization. Employees lacking motivation can be disadvantageous for all kinds of organization.- GENERAL OBJECTIVE

The General objective of the study is to know and apply the essence of motivation to increase Productivity and efficiency Specific objectives are;
To motivate employees to be efficient & productive
To encourage warm relationship harmony in working environment To encourage creativity & positive work attitude
To be able to cope with work stress
To have a healthy body & mind to carry out daily tasks efficiently. 1.4 DEFINATION OF THE TERMS
MOTIVATION :- As Sasso defined in wikiversity” Motivation is directed energy toward a behavior which is constant and strong. This behavior aims to achieve a particular goal and is able to begin, continue, change course and cease. Both external and internal motives provide this direction and energy. These motives are made up of an individual’s needs, cognitions, emotions and external events’’ .(Remez ,Sasso,Wikiversity) Positive thinking:- An individual having positive expectancies for their future (Scheier & Carver, 1993). This positive mindset is said to begin from childhood, where it is learned form modeling the behaviour of parents and peers (Snyder & Lopez, 2007). This type of thinking is directly linked to motivation.

Selfe respect
Self respect is very important because you are able to exert honesty, confidence and integrity. You also get to earn respect from other people as well as favors’ and love because of the fact that you love yourself first. ( http://www.ask.com/question/why-is-self-respect-important)

The significance of this study will be to gather information that will aid management to comprehend features of high staff absenteeism and turnover experienced by the organizations. The end results may permit the organization to be in an improved position to develop staff retention strategies aimed at increasing productivity. 1.6 THEORETICAL FRAME WORK

The essence of motivation is positive thinking.
Due to lack of material and shortage of time the study was limited on an overview of Eastern can tries and analyzes only Japan’s case of motivational scheme. 1.8 RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY
The study uses secondary data .The secondary data source is extracted from literatures on the subject matter from different websites, journals, books, etc. The secondary data contributes towards the formulation of background information and helps the researcher to formulate new theory from it. Research design

The research designed to analyze motivational system of Eastern and western can tries in respect to their culture. From Eastern side Japan’s management philosophy has been taken as a bench mark For motivation factor. Data analysis method

The data analysis method is through document review analyzed and interpreted by comparing with the standard literature review to draw appropriate finding, conclusion and recommendations. It is qualitative method.

The trick for employers is to figure out how to inspire employee motivation at work. To create a work environment in which an employee is motivated about work, involves both intrinsically satisfying and extrinsically encouraging factors. Employee motivation is the combination of fulfilling the employee’s needs and expectations from work and the workplace factors that enable employee motivation – or not. These variables make motivating employees challenging. Employers understand that they need to provide a work environment that creates motivation in people. But, many employers fail to understand the significance of motivation in accomplishing their mission and vision. Even when they understand the importance of motivation, they lack the skill and knowledge to provide a work environment that fosters employee motivation.

As you can imagine, a mentally healthy person is more likely to think in a positive manner. Positive thinking, like optimism, can be defined by an individual having positive expectancies for their future (Scheier& Carver, 1993). This positive mindset is said to begin from childhood, where it is learned form modeling the behaviour of parents and peers (Snyder & Lopez, 2007). This type of thinking is directly linked to motivation. This is because the behaviors and decisions that individuals make, as well as expectations of what may occur are directly influenced by one’s cognitions.

A positive thinker will set attainable goals and attempt to achieve these despite their complexity. However, this same person will also know when to separate themselves from a goal when it is too far out of reach (MacLeod & Moore, 2000).

While motivation can often be used as a tool to help predict behavior, it varies greatly among individuals and must often be combined with ability and environmental factors to actually influence behavior and performance. Understanding what motivates an organization’s employees is central to this study.( http://www.openpolytechnic.ac.nz) Motivation of an individual is also influenced by the presence of other people. Social psychologists have been active in discovering how the presence of others in a given situation influences motivation. Finally, motivation is sometimes also approached from a more philosophical direction. That is, analyses of motivation are understood, at least in part, by examining the particular philosophical point of view espoused by the theorist.( Adam,January19,2011) 2.1 MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES

2.11) MOTIVATION THEORIES FROM BEHAVIORAL ECONOMIST In 1759,Smith had proposed a theory of human behavior that looks anything but self interested.In his first book, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, Smith argued that behavior Adam. Smith argued that behavior was determined by the struggle between what Smith termed the “passions” and the “impartial spectator.” The passions included drives such as hunger and sex, emotions such as fear and anger, and motivational feeling states such as pain. Smith viewed behavior as under the direct control of the passions, but believed that people could over ride passion-driven behavior by viewing their own behavior from the perspective of an outsider—the impartial spectator—a “moral hector who, looking over the shoulder of the economic man, scrutinizes every move he makes” (Grampp, 1948, p. 317).

Atkinson &Raynor (1974)
Key components: The expectancy of success / Need for Achievement / Fear of failure

Achievement motivation is determined by conflicting approach and avoidance tendencies.

Positive influences include the expectancy of success, the incentive values of successful completion and a need for achievement.

Negative influences the expectancy of failure, the incentive to avoid failure and the fear of failure.


Weiner (1992)
Key components: Attributions about past successes and failures

Causal attributions are a person’s explanations as to why past successes and failures occurred, and these have consequences on the way they initiate future actions.

Most commonly, people attribute failure to a lack of ability on their part, rather than to insufficient effort. 3.SELF-EFFICACY THEORY

Bandura (1997)
Key components: Perceived self-efficacy
Self-efficacy concerns a person’s assessment of their ability to carry out a given task. Consequently, their sense of efficacy will influence the choice of task they choose to carry out, as well as the amount of effort they put in and the level of persistence displayed 4)EXPECTANCY-VALUE THEORY

Eccles&Wigfield (1995) and Brophy (1999)
Key components: The expectancy of success / The value attached to that success

The two key factors which influence the motivation to perform are a person’s expectancy to succeed and the value they place on having succeeded in doing that particular task.

A person will be more highly motivated when both of these are developed. 5. SELF-WORTH THEORY

Covington (1998)
Locke & Latham (1990)
Key components: Goal properties include specificity, difficulty and commitment

The driving cause of human activity is purpose. So, for any action to take place, goals must both be set and pursued by choice.

If an individual is committed to the goal, the goal needs to be Key components: Perceived self-worth

People are naturally inclined to behave in ways that enhance their feelings of personal value and worth. If anything threatens these perceptions, the resultant face-saving behavior may manifest itself in many unique ways. 6. GOAL SETTING THEORY specific and sufficiently difficult to lead to the highest level of performance.

Ames (1992)
Key components: Mastery goals and performance goals
Mastery goals focus on the learning of content.
Performance goals focus on demonstrating ability and getting good grades.
Mastery goals are better because they tend to lead to a preference for challenging work, to intrinsic interest in learning activities and to positive attitudes towards learning. 8. SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY

Deci& Ryan (1985) and Vallerand (1997)
Key components: Intrinsic motivation / Extrinsic motivation
A person’s intrinsic motivation is concerned with the doing of something for its own sake, in order to derive pleasure and satisfaction. This may be the joy of doing an activity or the satisfying of curiosity.
A person’s extrinsic motivation is concerned with the doing of something as a means to an end, i.e. there will be some reward at the end of it all, or to avoid punishment.
Motives can be placed along a continuum between self-determined (intrinsic) and controlled (extrinsic) form of motivation. 9)THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR

Ajzen (1988) and Eagly&Chaiken (1993)
Key components: Attitudes / Subjective norms / Perceived behavioural control

Attitudes exert a direct influence on a person’s behaviour because a person’s attitude towards the goal will influence their responses to that attaining that goal.

Things that can influence this are the person’s subjective norms (the perceived social pressures to achieve the goal) and also perceived behavioural control (the perceived ease or difficulty of performing the behaviour). (

Weiner (1994) and Wentzel (1999)
Key components: Environmental influences
A large proportion of motivation is actually derived from the socio-cultural context rather than from the individual. Key words: Motivation, positive thinking, Self respect.

Motivation offers several importance to the organization and to the employees: ? Higher efficiency
? Reduce absenteeism.
? Reduces employee turn over.
? Improves a corporate image.
? Good relations.
? Improved morale.
? Reduced wastages and breakages.
? Reduced accidents.
? Facilitates initiative and innovation
2.31 BELIEFS ABOUT WHAT MAKES US EFFECTIVE CAUSE MOTIVATION After more than a century of research and argument, motivation researchers and practitioners now begin to agree that motivation is the result of our beliefs about what makes us successful and effective. We all value the goals, working conditions and incentives that we believe will contribute to our success. We avoid situations that will prevent us from achieving our goals. For example, money and/or recognition are nearly universal motivators because they are widely perceived as indicators and facilitators of success for many, perhaps most people. Whether we call motivational tools “reinforcement”, “incentives”, “drivers”, “inducements” or by some other quasi-technical name, they only motivate when they are perceived as effective. Conversely, we .avoid conditions that we think will delay, inhibit or prevent the attainment of objectives. (Richard E. Clark1 R. E. 2003) 2.32. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS

There are several factors that motivate a person to work. The motivational factors can be broadly divided into two groups: (http://managementconsultingcourses.com) I. MONETARY FACTORS: ? Salaries or wages: salaries or wages is one of the most important motivational factors. Reasonable salaries must be paid on time. While fixing salaries the organization must consider such as : • Cost of living ,• Company ability to pay &• Capability of company to pay etc,

? Bonus: It refers to extra payment to employee over and above salary given as an incentive. The employees must be given adequate rate of bonus. Incentives: The organization may also provide additional incentives such as medical allowance, educational allowance, hra ,allowance, etc. ? Special individual incentives: The company may provide special individual incentives. Such incentives are to be given to deserving employees for giving valuable suggestions. II. NON MONETARY FACTORS:

? Status or job title: By providing a higher status or designations the employee must be motivated. Employees prefer and proud of higher designations. ? Appreciation and recognition: Employees must be appreciated for their services. The praise should not come from immediate superior but also from higher authorities. ? Delegation of authority: Delegation of authority motivates a subordinate to perform the tasks with dedication and commitment. When authority is delegated, the subordinate knows that his superior has placed faith and trust in him. III.WORKING CONDITIONS :

Provision for better working conditions such as air-conditioned rooms, proper plant layout, proper sanitation, equipment, machines etc, motivates the employees. ? Job security: Guarantee of job security or lack of fear dismissal, etc ? Job enrichment: Job enrichment involves more challenging tasks and responsibilities. For instance an executive who is involved in preparing and presenting reports of performance, may also asked to frame plans. ? Workers participation: Inviting the employee to be a member of quality circle, or a committee, or some other form of employee participation can also motivate the work-force. ? Cordial relations: Good and healthy relations must exist throughout the organization. This would definitely motivates the employees.

• Note that most theories were developed in the US. Many theories do not always work around the world (e.g., equity theory). However, many do (e.g., having interesting work). Motivation has cultural influence Eastern thinking accepts that in life, both good and bad events will occur. Rather than seeing these misfortunes as a challenge, these problems are seen as potential triumphs. When confronted with obstacles, easterners appear to take on a problem solving approach, seeking to find meaning in the positive and negative that enters their lives. Unlike Western thinking which seeks physical rewards in life, Easterners seek spiritual rewards in the afterlife and attempt to lead a more fulfilling life in doing so . The intrinsic motivation to achieve optimum cognitive functioning is highlighted in Taoism, Buddhism and Hinduism. (Snyder & Lopez, 2007).



Logical and reason-centered, individualistic thinking.

A more holistic, idealistic, and group thinking approach to problem solving Viewing work as a necessary burden.

Viewing work as a challenging and development activity.

The avoidance of risk taking and the feeling of distrust of others.

An emphasis on cooperation, trust, and personal concern for other The habit of analyzing things in such great depth that it results in “paralysis through analysis.”

Cooperation built on intuition and pragmatism.

An emphasis on control
An emphasis on flexibility
www.selfdeterminationtheory.org/…/2001_DeciRyanGagneLeoneEtal.pd. Motivational concept from western attitude and from eastern attitude.

Use of financial incentives to motivate employees is very common Countries with high individualism
When companies attempt to link compensation to performance
Financial incentive systems vary in range
Individual incentive-based pay systems in which workers are paid directly for their output Systems in which employees earn individual bonuses based on organizational performance goals MANY CULTURES BASE COMPENSATION ON GROUP

Such systems stress equality rather than individual incentive plans An individually based bonus system for the sales representatives in an American MNC introduced in its Danish subsidiary was rejected by the sales force because It favored one group over another

Employees felt that everyone should receive the same size bonus Indonesian oil workers rejected a pay-for-performance system where some work teams would make more money than others Workers in many countries are highly motivated by things other than financial rewards The most important rewards in locations at 40 countries of an electrical equipment MNC involved recognition and achievement Second in importance were improvements in the work environment and employment conditions including pay and work hours. MANAGERS EVERYWHERE USE REWARDS TO MOTIVATE THEIR PERSONNEL

Some rewards are financial in nature such as salary raises, bonuses, and stock options. Others are non-financial such as feedback and recognition. Significant differences exist between reward systems that work best in one country and those that are most effective in another. WORK CENTRALITY

The importance of work in an individual’s life can provide important insights into how to motivate human resources in different cultures Japan has the highest level of work centrality
Israel has moderately high levels
The United States and Belgium have average levels
The Netherlands and Germany have moderately low levels
Britain has low levels

Work is an important part of most people’s lifestyles due to a variety of conditions Americans and Japanese work long hours because the cost of living is high Most Japanese managers expect their salaried employees who are not
paid extra to stay late at work, and overtime has become a requirement of the job There is recent evidence that Japanese workers may do far less work in a business day than outsiders would suspect

EU workers see a strong relationship between how well they do their jobs and the ability to get what they want out of life U.S. workers were not as supportive of this relationship
Japanese workers were least likely to see any connection
This finding suggest difficulties may arise in American, European, and Japanese employees working together effectively. 2.4 POSITIVE THINKING AND MOTIVATION
Motivation avoids clashes and non-cooperation and brings harmony, unity and co-operative outlook among employees. Managers have to work as motivators of their subordinates. For this, effective communication, proper appreciation of work done and positive encouragement are necessary and useful. Motivation is inspiring and encouraging people to work more and contribute for achieving the objectives of the company.

The creation of the desire and willingness to perform the job efficiently is known as motivation. positive thinking and motivation influence one another. Not only is this seen physiologically, but it is also witnessed in relation to coping styles, well-being, learned optimism, positive psychology and religious beliefs. Motivation is able to help individuals achieve their goals of changing how they think, improving their mental, physical and everyday functioning as a result. Positive thinking however, can also motivate the individual to achieve their goals. This is highlighted through a person’s coping mechanisms and by their religious beliefs. In conclusion, this chapter has outlined how positive thinking motivates the individual as well as what motivates an individual to think positively in the first place. 2.4 HOW TO DEVELOP POSITIVE TINKING

Positive thinking isn’t a natural ability, as for thats why you are here. Positive thinking is a strength, a very useful strength that will help you onto the path of success. With time, and effort, positive thinking will be your own strength, to pretty much open a whole new path to the outlook on life. Positive thinking is contagious. People around you pick your mental moods and are affected accordingly. Think about happiness, good health and success, and you will cause people to like you and desire to help you, because they enjoy the vibrations that a positive mind emits.

Learn more about yourself. A lot of times you’re just limiting yourself and your full capabilities. Try new things and stay active. Staying active and doing things new will help develop positive thinking techniques in your life. Face the things that scare you. Fears have the ability to create doubt in our minds. Doubt leads to negative thinking. Once you start facing the fears in you life, you develop more confidence.( eHow http://www.ehow.com)

Associate yourself with people who think positively.
Always sit and walk with your back straight. This will strengthen your confidence and inner strength.
Walk, swim or engage in some other physical activity. This helps to develop a more positive attitude.

Positive attitude manifests in the following ways:
Positive thinking.
Constructive thinking.
Creative thinking.
The motivation and energy to do things and accomplish goals. A attitude of happiness.
A positive frame of mind helps in a lot of ways, such as:
Expecting success and not failure.
It makes you feel inspired.
It gives you the strength not to give up, if you encounter obstacles on your way. You regard failure and problems as blessings in disguise.
Believing in yourself and in your abilities.>
You show more self-esteem and confidence.
You look for solutions, instead of dwelling on problems.
You see and recognize opportunities.

The benefits of a positive attitude:
This might seem like a repition of the above, but it helps to make this message clearer. It helps you achieve goals and attain success.
It brings more happiness into your life.
It produces more energy.
Positive attitude increases your faith in your abilities, and brings hope for a brighter future. You become able to inspire and motivate yourself and others. You encounter fewer obstacles and difficulties in your daily life. You get more respect and love from other people.

Remez Sasson, http://www.successconsciousness.com)
Resilience refers to our ability to cope with problems. Resilient people are able to face a crisis or trauma with strength and resolve. Rather than falling apart in the face of such stress, they have the ability to carry on and eventually overcome such adversity POSITIVE THINKERS COPE BETTER WITH STRESS

When faced with stressful situations, positive thinkers cope more effectively than pessimists. In one study, researchers found that when optimists encounter a disappointment (such as not getting a job or promotion) they are more likely to focus on things they can do to resolve the situation. POSITIVE THINKING IS GOOD FOR YOUR HEAlth

Not only can positive thinking impact your ability to cope with stress and your immunity, it also has an impact on your overall well-being.(kende cherry, http://psychology.about.com/bio/Kendra-Cherry-17268.htm

Adam .http://www.teachthemenglish.com/2011/01/10-contemporary-motivation-theories-and-h EL Deci (- ‎2001) ow-they-explain-why-your-students-just-arent-into-it/ Davidmcclelland,http://ozgurzan.com/management/management-theories/theories-a
bout- motivation/ EHow , http://www.ehow.com/how_5702659_develop-positive-thinking-techniques.html Richard E. Clark1, http://www.openpolytechnic.ac.nz/study-with-us/study-resources-for-students/goals-and-motivation/strategies-to-increase-your-motivation/ Richard E. Clark1 R. E. 2003) Fostering the work motivation of individuals and teams. Performance Improvement, 42(3), 21-\ RemezSasso,Wikiversity,Motivation and emotion‎

Remez Sasson, http://www.successconsciousness.com/positive_attitude.htm Scheier, M. F., & Carver C. S. (1993).On the power of positive thinking: the benefits of being optimistic.American Psychological Society, 2, 26-32. doi: 10.1111/14678721.ep10770572

Snyder, C. R. & Lopez, S. J. (2007) Positive psychology the scientific and practical explorations of human strengths. London, UK: Sage.

MacLeaod, A. K., & Moore R. (2000). Positive thinking revisited: positive cognitions, well-being and mental health. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 7, 1-10. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0879(200002) kende cherry, http://psychology.about.com/bio/Kendra-Cherry-17268.htm

…Robbins and Judge, “Organizational Behavior”, 12th Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. D. Jones, “Firms spend Billions to Fire Up Workers – With Little Luck”, USA Today, May 10, D. Jones, “Firms spend Billions to Fire Up Workers – With Little Luck”, USA Today, May 10, 2001 T.R. Mitchell, “Matching Motivational Strategies with Organizational Contexts”, Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 19, pp 60-62 P.C. Early, P. Wojnaroski, and W. Prest, “Task Planning and Energy Expended: Explorations of How Goals Influence Performance”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Feb 1987. J. Greenberg and S. Ornstein, “High Status Job Title as Compensation for Underpayment: A Test of Equity Theory”, Journal of Applied Psychology, May 1983. January 19, 2011 by Adam.http://www.teachthemenglish.com/2011/01/10-contemporary-motivation-theories-and-how-they-explain-why-your-students-just-arent-into-it/

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