2.1 MEANING OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (HRD)
(Rao 1990) Human resource development is the process of helping people to acquire expertise. In an organizational context, it is the process by which organizations help their employees in a continuous and planned way in order to: • acquire or sharpen the abilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles;
• develop their general skills as individuals, discover and utilize their inner potential for their own and/or organizational development purposes; • develop an organizational culture in which supervisor subordinate relationships, teamwork and collaboration among sub-units are strong and contribute to the professional well-being, motivation, and pride of employees. The Human resource development process is facilitated by mechanisms (instruments or sub systems) such as performance appraisal, training, organizational development (OD) feedback and counseling, career development, potential development, job rotation and rewards. Employees are helped constantly in order to make them to acquire new skills. This aid is offered through a process of planning, performance, feedback and training. It also includes, assessment of the developmental needs, periodic reviews of performance, and the creation of development opportunities through training, job rotation, responsibility definition and similar other mechanisms.
THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (HRD)
Human resource development is a people-oriented concept that focuses on developing the skills, knowledge and competencies of people. Human resource development can be applied both at the organizational level as well as the national level. Various authors have not yet been fully successful in conceiving the whole concept of human resource development. They have defined the term from their standpoint due to the fact that it is a recent concept and therefore is still in the conceptualizing stage.
Lifelong learning has become an important topic under the globalization perspective, the whole world develops into a “learning society” (Gass, 1996). Work organizations are becoming important partners in this learning society, as they provide more and more opportunities for continuous learning to their employees with the objective to optimize organizational learning as a whole (Karen et al., 2001). Despite the growing number of publications on Human Resource Developments (HRDs) role in organizational learning many uncertainties remain.
However, many interesting initiatives are being undertaken by HRD practitioners in facilitating employee learning and professional development (Tjepkema, 2000). Many organizations have renamed their training departments to human resource development departments. Surprisingly some organizations renamed their personnel departments to human resource development departments. Some educational institutions started awarding degrees and diplomas in human resource development, with the fact remaining that the concept is not yet crystal clear. It is a concept not so old that sufficient human input could have been possible.
The concept of human resource development was introduced by Nadler (1984) in a conference organized by the American society for training and development. Nadler (1984) defines human resource development as “Those learning experiences, which are organized for a specific time and designed to bring about the possibility of behavioral and attitudinal change.
General Assembly resolution 44/213 of UN in 1989 states: Quote… “HRD is a broad concept— requiring integrated and concentrated strategies, policies plans and programs to ensure the development of the full potential of human beings—so that they may, individually and collectively, be capable of improving their standard of living”.——unquote.
Alvin Toffler, the author of “future shock” and “The Third Wave” wrote about the importance of learning in the 21st Century and how the use of learning skills will denote literacy. The definition he used has more meaning than ever in current times and can serve as a gauge for us as individuals and as organizations both in measuring our own concepts regarding HRD skills and in planning learning experiences with others. The term learning experience refers to purposeful or intentional learning not incidental learning as cited by John (2005).
Organizational view point is that human resource development is a process in which the employees of an organization are motivated to acquire and develop technical, managerial and behavioral knowledge skills and abilities (John 2005). Their values beliefs and attitudes are reshaped in order to perform present and future roles by releasing the highest human potential with a view to contributing positively to individual’s social goals as well as the organizational goals. A comparative analysis of these definitions seems elaborate and comprehensive as it deals with the developmental aspects of all the components of human resources. Furthermore, it deals with all skill sets, the present and future organizational needs and aspects of contributions at organizational level. The analysis of the definitions further shows that there are three aspects in human resource development:
• Organizational employees are helped and motivated
• Various aspects of human resources are acquired, developed and molded
• Contribute to the organizational, group, individual and social goals.
Initially the helping and motivating factors of human resource development, like organizational structure and climate, human resource development climate, human resource development knowledge and skills of managers and resource planning recruitment and selection may be called enabling factors. The second aspect deals with techniques or methods, which mean to acquire, develop and shape up the various human resources. These techniques include; performance appraisal, potential appraisal, career planning, and development, training, management development, social and cultural programmes, workers participation in management and quality circles. The third category includes the outcomes contribution of the human resource development process to the goals of the organization, group, individuals and society.
2.3 ELEMENTS OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:
The following are the elements of human resource development discussed in detail:
• human resource development activities to be the joint responsibility of various target functionaries, such as managers, govt. functionaries and in case of education, teachers and parents as well.
• reducing direct recruitment by retraining and, redeployment of existing manpower, so as to encourage professionalism with a reasonable uplift to the status of a professional approach specially required in education. • placing emphasis on human resource development strategies which would suitably match the individual and organizational needs, with special reference to teacher education where trainees are enjoying double role – as a student and as a teacher also this magnifies the significance of professional needs to be addressed on priority.
• using training as the main human resource development strategy; utilizing performance and potential appraisal not only as mechanisms for deciding rewards and punishments but as an effective tool for development, as a trained individual a teacher in this case has also to lead his / her students to 25
an optimum possibilities of innovation and creativity which will be impossible without quality development considered in training scope. But moving a bit beyond by incorporating all aspects of HRD which are required for developing softer images in the personalities of these trainees who are supposed to facilitate students rather than pulling into a hard, rough and tough situations where the softer aspects of students’ personalities have hardly any space to grow.
• making jobs more meaningful and providing challenges and intrinsic motivation so that they become the strongest motivators, as without proper motivation both at teachers and students end, canvas of creativity cannot be widened.
• developing the line staff as competent resource people for human resource development, in the environment of intellectual development for quality assurance.
• conducting periodic reviews of the organizational health introducing
suitable interventions on a long-term basis but with a suitable / workable frequency to make the development .
• encouraging, adopting and experimenting with new interventions aimed at human resources development and liberally encouraging research and to find new horizon for mental caliber of trainee teachers.
• conducting regular audit of the effectiveness of the personnel and human resource development systems, so that this system is obliged to be economically viable and practical.
• developing and implementing a mechanism for clarification of goals and roles for individuals and groups; and making them capable of goal oriented. That will make their job experts with a stress to time constraints. • arranging for a continuous exchange of ideas with eminent professionals, so that the development process covers wider canvas and involves mutual interest and understanding.
2.4 DIMENSIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (HRD)
Human resource development is considered the key to higher productivity, better relations and greater profitability for any organization. Iqbal (2007) says human productivity is crucial for growth and survival of organizations. Cheney (2002) supported the concept that higher productivity leads to ultimate societal benefits. As far as the dimensions/components/sub- systems of human resource development are concerned, mechanisms of human resource development have been designed in different ways and various thinkers and professionals have offered divergent views. Rao (1988) suggests that human resource development sub-systems comprise performance appraisal, potential appraisal, career planning, training, performance coaching, organization development, employee welfare, rewards, qualities of work life and human resource information system.
Pareek (1983) refers to performance appraisal, feedback, counseling, potential appraisal, career advancement, career planning and training as dimensions of human resource development. Varadan (1987) traces human resource development mechanism into performance appraisal, role analysis, organization development and quality circles. Though there is diversity among these arguments, but one can trace out that on some of the dimensions there is unanimity of opinion among the experts. Iqbal (2007) refers, improvement in human productivity is crucial to a country like Pakistan where the rate of investment has already been low and falls in the range of 17 to 18%.Therefore organizations need to develop employees to enhance productivity.
2.5 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT COMPONENTS
Jayagopal (1988) proposed a comprehensive framework for human resource development program, comprised upon four major areas with nineteen functions under them. and also suggest a dense network of interconnections between these functions. That framework was thrashed and most necessary components are only discussed in detail.
2.5.1 Manpower Planning
Manpower planning is the process which assesses and determines that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons available at specific times, performing jobs which would fulfill the needs of the organization and which would provide satisfaction for the individuals involved. It is an endeavor to catch demand and supply, it involves:
• calculation of net human resource requirements based on present level of human resources;
• based on the objectives and long-term plans of the organization, an estimation of present and future requirements and supply of human resource;
• to develop the human resource of existing employees and planning an approach that will enable the organization to get the rest of human resources from outside the organization.
• initiating steps to change, mould and develop the existing human resource to meet the future human resource requirements.
2.5.2 Recruitment, Selection and Placement
Generation of applications for specific positions for actual or anticipated vacancies is known as Recruitment. Through ideal recruitment procedure suitable applicants could be identified. Selection is the process of ascertaining the qualifications, experience, skill, knowledge etc of an applicant with a view to appraising his/her suitability to a job. The selected candidate is assigned the most suitable job is Placement. Right person on the right job may produce the best results.
2.5.3 Training and Development
The two terms are quite identical to each other, but they are not the same in meaning. Training is a learning process that aims to permanently improve the ability and behavior of the employees by enabling them to acquire new skill, knowledge and attitude for more efficient performance. Which includes:
• identification of training needs
• developing suitable training programmes
• providing requisite job skills and knowledge to employees
• evaluating the effectiveness of training programmes
Development is the growth or realization of a person’s ability, through conscious or unconscious learning. Development programs usually include phases of planned study and experience, and are usually supported by a coaching or counseling facility. Development occurs when a gain in experience is effectively combined with the conceptual understanding that can illustrate it, giving increased confidence both to act and to perceive how such action relates to its context (Bolton, 1995).
2.5.4 Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisal is the process which helps determine the efficiency of a worker in his/her job performance. It provides a mechanism for identification of merits and deficiencies observed in an employee in relation to his/ her job performance. Appraisal is to determine the present state of efficiency of a worker in order to establish the actual need for training. The process of performance appraisal consists of following:
• Setting the standards for performance
• Communicating the standard to the employees, measuring the performance, comprising the actual performance with the standard set.
2.5.5 Job Rotation
The distribution of responsibilities it is suggested will result in specialization. However, to be able to utilize their specialization in the best possible way, the worktasks should be rotated among the employees so as to broaden their field of specialization as well as their knowledge about the organization’s operation as a whole. Therefore, once a year the work-tasks, should be rotated among the various employees depending upon their qualifications and suitability to perform the new work-task.
2.5.6 Wage and Salary Administration
The principal need of all employees is adequate wage and salary, which should be proportionate with his/her duties and responsibilities. Wage and salary administration refers to the establishment and implementation of sound policies and practices of employee compensation. It includes areas such as job evaluation, development and maintenance of wage structure, wage surveys, wage incentives, profit sharing, wage changes and adjustments, supplementary payments, control of compensation costs, etc. Wages and salaries are important in determining the standard of living, per capita income, productivity, moral and economic well being of the workers and employees.
2.5.7 Career Planning and Development
The concept of career planning emerged in the USA in the 1970s, and become popular .It encouraged employees to analyze and assess their ambitions and provide them with the information about a company’s career opportunities. It focuses on generating an awareness of strengths and weaknesses among employees and at helping them to match their skills and abilities to the Heads and demand of the organization. Without development of people in the organization, the organization cannot prosper. The General Electric Company (GEC) in USA has brought out the ‘Career Dimensions’ work books. The four areas where career planning program can benefit a company are;
• They maintain a positive relation with employees.
• They help to avoid mismatches between what an employee wants and what a company needs and can offer.
• They provide a way of identifying opportunities for continuous career growth.
• They improve the utilization of professional and managerial staff.
2.5.8 Organization Development
Organization Development (OD) is an organization-wide, planned effort emphasizing appropriate intervention in the continuous activities of the organization, which is managed from the top. Robbins (1993) describes OD as, ‘A collection of planned change interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seek to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well being’. It consists of the activities related to organizations as social systems which focus on changing the human infrastructure through interventions in the various processes.
In a planned way strategy is formulated focusing on developing and stimulating the adaptive capacities of organizations so as to allow them to respond to their internal and external environments, in a pro-active manner. Organization development provides a normative framework within which, changes in the climate and culture of the organization towards harnessing the human potential for realization of organizational objectives is brought out. Organization development exercise includes a teambuilding programme, interpersonal sensitivity, role clarity, personal growth and stress management.
2.5.9 Quality Circle
Quality circle is a self-governing group of workers with or without their supervisors. This group voluntarily meets regularly in order to identify, analyze and solve the problems related to their work area. The circle groups discuss issues and problems relating to their work unit and their own jobs, and can meet both during and after working hours. In addition to the quality circles, there are facilitators, coordinators, and the steering committee that play their respective roles at various stages of functioning of the quality circles. The objectives of the quality circle are: • Enhancement and utilization of human resources effectively • Satisfaction of the worker’s psychological needs for motivation • Enhancement of employee’s supervisory skills like leadership, interpersonal and conflict resolution
• Developing the skills through participation creating work interest, inculcating problem-solving techniques etc.
2.5.10 Human Resource Information System
A systematic way of gathering and storing information about each individual employee for the benefit of planning, decision-making and supply of returns to external agencies at the organizational level is known as human resource information system. A variety of records are maintained to meet the needs of manpower planning, recruitment, development of people, compensation, integration and maintenance and separations not only for internal control, feedback and corrective action, but also to meet the various constitutional obligations.