Consequently, in the United States, organizational behavior and management researchers started studying the role that culture plays in the business community. The investigation led to some confusion. Some believed that the national culture of Japan was the driving force behind the competitive successes of businesses in that country. To others, however, it was the cultures of specific companies that created the advantage. My Company uses the Pluralism method. The first distinction to be made when studying culture is the level of analysis—a nation versus a specific company.
An individual company constitutes the level of analysis. Therefore, organizational culture consists of a set of shared meanings and values held by a set of members in an organization that distinguish the organization from other organizations. An organization’s culture determines how it perceives and reacts to the larger environment (Becker, 1982; Schein, 1996). Culture determines the nature of an individual’s experience in an organization in both for-profit companies and nonprofit enterprises. Over time, employees find out how the company works, what is rewarded, and what is punished.
Questions, answers, myths, stories, and jargon all become part of the organizational experience. When the person matches the organizational type, the fit produces the best chances for individual success. Company leaders enjoy distinct advantages when an organization exhibits a positive culture. Positive cultures are democratic and progressive. They nurture and value the contributions of members. Positive cultures tend to be more flexible and adaptable, making the organization better able to meet the challenges of a dynamic world (Benn, 2011). Organizational leaders have vested interests in trying to build positive cultures over time.
Some studies suggest that culture can play a larger role in employee motivation than pay (Gifford, Zammuto, Goodman, & Hill, 2002). Organizational culture can help managers reach their goals while helping employees adapt to company life. The benefits of a positive culture include stability, employee self-management, and assistance in integrating new employees into the workplace.
•Communicating with the IRS for a taxpayer regarding the taxpayer’s rights, privileges, or liabilities under laws and regulations administered by the IRS. •Representing a taxpayer at conferences, hearings, or meetings with the IRS. Preparing and filing documents, including tax returns, with the IRS for a taxpayer. •Providing a client with written advice which has a potential for tax avoidance or evasion. Furnishing information at the request of the IRS or appearing as a witness for the taxpayer is not practice before the IRS. Other individuals who may serve as representatives. Because of their special relationship with a taxpayer, the following individuals can represent the specified taxpayers before the IRS, provided they present satisfactory identification and, except in the case of an individual described in (1) below, proof of authority to represent the taxpayer.
An individual. An individual can represent himself or herself before the IRS and does not have to file a written declaration of qualification and authority. 2. A family member. An individual can represent members of his or her immediate family. Immediate family includes a spouse, child, parent, brother, or sister of the individual. 3. An officer. A bona fide officer of a corporation (including a parent, subsidiary, or other affiliated corporation), association, or organized group can represent the corporation, association, or organized group.
An officer of a governmental unit, agency, or authority, in the course of his or her official duties, can represent the organization before the IRS. 4. A partner. A general partner may represent the partnership before the IRS. 5. An employee. A regular full-time employee can represent his or her employer. An employer can be, but is not limited to, an individual, partnership, corporation (including a parent, subsidiary, or other affiliated corporation), association, trust, receivership, guardianship, estate, organized group, governmental unit, agency, or authority. . A fiduciary. A fiduciary (trustee, executor, personal representative, administrator, receiver, or guardian) stands in the position of a taxpayer and acts as the taxpayer, not as a representative.
Submit a power of attorney when you want to authorize an individual to represent you before the IRS, whether or not the representative performs any of the other acts cited earlier under What Is a Power of Attorney. A power of attorney is most often required when you want to authorize another individual to perform at least one of the following acts on your behalf. . Represent you at a meeting with the IRS. 2. Prepare and file a written response to the IRS. Every day organizational operations involve processes and activities that are construed by many as “distasteful” or “unpleasant” parts of employment because they involve the use of authority, power, or politics. The word “politics” has a negative connotation for many people. Although they may try to avoid political situations, wishing them away is not possible. Furthermore, not every use of power has a negative intention or outcome.
Managers can exert power to achieve legitimate organizational goals. The end result may be an increase or decrease in personal power, and the events may be construed as being “political” or simply as “doing his or her job. ” I think that this brings out a positive outcome. The three types of authority are line authority, staff authority, and functional authority. Line authority is direct, formal authority, as indicated by the vertical lines of an organization chart. Staff authority consists of the right to advise, or give advice.
Functional authority is the right to direct but not to discipline. It emerges when an individual has been assigned a leadership role on a task force, project team, or committee. The type of authority that Internal Revenue Service is mainly line authority. I think that this brings out a positive outcome. Employee responsibility, or accountability, is the obligation to carry out tasks as assigned by the supervisor. Each individual in a company is responsible to the manager at the next level up in the organization’s hierarchy.
The concept of parity of authority and responsibility states that equal levels of authority and responsibility should exist in each position (Fayol, 1916). Anyone who has authority should be held accountable for how that authority is used. Anyone being held responsible should have sufficient authority to get the job done. This is done in a positive manner. It gets the job done. If a manager motivates the unit, it brings out a positive outcome. A pleasant and positive job context contributes to individual and company success by enabling employees to do their best work.
Through processes such as mentoring and rewarding, which help to build self-efficacy and self-esteem in individual workers, motivated behaviors can be increased. A company with an unpleasant physical environment, poor reward system, unqualified or inept supervisors, or counterproductive cultural norms limits motivated behaviors (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007). Emotional Intelligence explains why, despite equal intellectual capacity, training, or experience, some people excel while others of the same caliber lag behind.
Certain competencies are found repeatedly in high performers at all levels, from customer service representatives to CEOs. As trainers we must find ways to build these talents labeled EQ (emotional intelligence quotients). Research has shown that emotional intelligence, which encompasses self confidence, can be developed through things like awareness, training, coaching, and practice. That is why a growing number of organizations in the US and around the world is investing in providing their managers with training in emotional intelligence.
The conclusion then is that if you are looking to build your self confidence as an important step toward achieving your dreams in life, you should consider taking some training or coaching that helps you develop your emotional intelligence. If you are a trainer or a coach, you should consider adding emotional intelligence to your offerings to help your clients build the confidence to achieve their dreams. The application of the “New Sciences “to the management of organizations in the age of hyper competition will also be investigated, in order to see whether it could improve our understanding and insight into the modern business organization.
Due to the fact that this is a new and exciting way of managing a business, the amount of research literature available is limited. As always, when entering such uncharted waters, more questions will be raised than answers given, but this is indicative of a new concept, and leaves room for more intensive research which will provide a greater understanding of the value added by this management paradigm. Margaret Wheatley (1994) turns to the New Sciences to demonstrate how some of the issues discussed above might be accommodated.
She shows how the New Sciences – including Quantum Physics, Chaos Theory, Chemistry, and Molecular Biology – provide insights into transforming how organizations organize “work, people and life”, in order to meet the strategic imperatives defined by D’Aveni. In particular, Wheatley draws on the New Sciences to apply scientific concepts to the problems of order/ change: autonomy/ control: structure/ flexibility: and planning/ innovation within organizations, and in so doing, calls, respectively, for free-flowing information, individual empowerment, relationship networks, and organizational change that evolves organically.
This new approach to organizations is a dramatic shift away from thinking of organizations in mechanistic terms, as collections of replaceable parts, where leadership seeks prediction and control. A paradigm shift like this can only take place successfully if the necessary tools and mechanisms are available to support the application of the fundamental insights, offered by the New Sciences, to the complex adaptive system, i. e. the ” Organization “.
Conclusion In summary, career development includes all efforts and activities conducted by individual employees and the organization to help each person choose and follow the best path. The primary concepts that apply to personal success are building an ethical foundation, becoming involved in training and preparation, finding the right person-organization fit, engaging in continuous improvement, and achieving balance. Organizational needs also must be met to fully achieve a quality career development system. The age of the virtual organization is fast becoming a reality.
The implications of this have to be dealt with urgently in the new millennium, as the adoption of ever newer technologies and the emerging trends discussed earlier will continue to manifest at an exponential rate. What is also clear is that the traditional management framework is increasingly proving itself incapable of satisfactorily dealing with the new market reality: Conventional theories and practices no longer provide the necessary guidance and support for decision-making in a world of change, complexity and uncertainty.
It is this, then, that is driving the move towards a new management paradigm, in terms of which the management function will be radically redefined to take emerging realities into consideration. If companies are to prosper – to be drivers of their industries – they will need to proactively embrace a new management philosophy that is cognizant of the dynamics of information science, accelerating change, a borderless world, the holistic approach, the New Sciences, as well as the growth of technology, and, in the words of Vernor Vinge,”the dawn of the Technological Singularity. “
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