Organizational and management analysis are an essential part of organizational environment. In the modern world, working environment characteristics are team work, delegation, information technology interfaces, which have an impact on the effectiveness of organization and management. This helps in cost reduction, decrease in environmental waste, improved employee satisfaction and an increase in overall productivity. To have an organizational and management analysis review of organizational charts, meeting with department managers, executives or board members, and an organizational survey is necessary (Jones, 2006). A multi-dimensional examination of organizational and management analysis gives a complete picture of the actual situation which can be a starting point. This paper is to describe various organizational theories, compares management theories and styles, and explains which organizational theory and management style resembles our organization. Also, this paper explains what could be changed to make our organization better.
Organizational theory is to identify how they solve problems and how they maximize efficiency and productivity. These theories mostly derived from the activities of successful organizations. All of these theories contributes to the overall understanding of management. As in any other theories organizational theories provide the basis for ongoing research and application of human behavior in organizational settings.
Classical Organizational Theory
Focus on the theories of efficiency. The components include scientific management, bureaucratic theory, and administrative theory. Scientific management focus on getting the best from the people, equipment, and business. So that productivity can be increased. In this, the workers got scientifically selected, trained and taught for the work. On the other hand, bureaucratic theory focus on establishing a hierarchy, division of labor, rules, and regulations. In the current world, many of the managers think that bureaucratic theory is a hindrance to employees’ creativity. Administrative theory establishes a set of management principles and functions that applied to the organizations. This serves as a centralized decision making approach (Coulter & Robbins, 2012).
Neoclassical Organization Theory
This theory emphasizes effective and sociopsychological aspects of human behaviors in an organization. As we see in many of the current organizations many of the managers motivate, lead, build trust, work with the team, manage conflicts is all based on the organizational performance approach. The way manager design jobs, work with the employees, the method of communication is general in the behavioral approach. Productivity increases in an environment with coherence of values and purpose. The key is to maintain equilibrium where subordinates respect and believe managerial authority (Chron, 2014).
This is a management approach that recognizes each organization as different, which means that each organization faces different situations and requires different ways of managing. This helps the management to understand that there are no universal rules for managers to follow. Instead of looking into the universal rules, the manager must look on to the individual situation and determine the best and efficient way to manage the situation ideally. Different changing circumstances require managers to use different approaches and techniques. There are no simple or complex rules to follow. Managers are able to take decisions based on the conditions (Coulter & Robbins, 2012).
The system theory approach explains that organizations take information form the environment and transforms these resources into outputs into the environment. This theory explains the interrelatedness of all parts of an organization and how one change in one area can affect multiple other parts. In this, all the units work together to achieve the organizational goals. Organization depends upon inputs form capital, government regulations, suppliers, information technology, human resources, to receive the output of financial results, products, services and information (Liebler & McConnel, 2012).
Organizational theory suits our Organization
The organizational theory that closely resembles our organization is the Contingency Theory. Adapting to the new changes in the environment is the basis for Contingency theory. This theory is important for managerial and organizational success. We have recently adopted Electronic Medical Records, and we are in the adaptation stage of information technology. Manager takes decision based on the current circumstances, which is logical because the units within our organization differ in size, structure, capacity, work activities, and goals. So a universally acceptable theory will not work in all situations. Different situations require different theories of management. Some situation the division of labor and bureaucracy is desirable which supports the classic theory. Other situations structural design becomes effective. Depends on the situation the manager takes the stand. Contingency theory claims that there is no best way to design an organization. There is no written rule on what is the best or the universal solution for the problems in our organization. There is no best way to organize a corporation or to lead a company. Also, the theory that works in our organization may not work for other organizations (Coulter & Robbins, 2012).
Compares Management Theories and Styles
Managers communication with the subordinates reflects a cluster of styles which the management styles. Managers use different style in different situations. Generally, we can see one style generally emerges as the predominant mode of interaction. Autocratic manager makes independent decisions without much input from subordinates. The manager clearly dictates what, how, when and where things for the employees there is no room for employee initiatives. An autocratic style is least effective and desirable for motivating employees. Another management style is the bureaucratic management style in which the manager follows the rule and ensures that the employees follow the rules “as well “. They go by the book and the rules and enforced strictly. In this, the employees enjoy less freedom. No exceptions permitted. Participative management is which the manager makes the final decisions, but the employees are involved in this process. Both the manager and the employees involved in the decision making process. Decision made as a cohesive group interaction. Everyone might not accept managers decision. Another type is the Laissez-faire style in which the manager allows employees to manage their own work. No supervision provided. In this, the individuals should be self-motivated. This can result in disorganization, chaos and lack of direction. Finally, in Paternalistic style the manager makes the decision to benefit the employees. Manager treats employees like children. In this style, the employees become dependent on their manager (Liebler & McConnell, 2012).
Management Theory and Style suits our Organization
In our organization, there is no one management style that fits to all situations. In my observation, the manager’s shifts form one style to another when they face different groups and situations. When it comes to the policies and procedures, in my observation it is bureaucratic style, top level managers are following autocratic management style, and my immediate manager has a participative style who consults with the employees for decision making. So far I have not encountered any Laissez-faire management style in our place. In the new hire orientation managers follow paternalistic style. For a successful manager, the management style depends on the given situation. If a work environment does not require any close supervision, the managers may select any styles. When employees are unskilled, autocratic style is most efficient. In the current world, changes impacts the manager’s task. It includes economic and political uncertainty, ethical issues, security threats, and changing technology. All these call for different management styles depends on the manager’s involvement.
Changes towards Organizational Advancement
Organizations deal with challenges in this worldwide economic climate, changing technology and increased globalization. A manager should understand the critical issues and use skills and abilities during challenging times in an organization. A great manager can change your life, encourage employees professionally and personally, energize people to overcome challenges and instill team spirit. Such a manager can make job enjoyable and productive. Manager should create an environment in which the organization members can work to the best of their abilities and think creatively. In order to make the organization better people should support, coach, and find meaning and fulfilment in work. Also have up-to-date information about the new innovative ideas. It is important to be competitive and sustain in the business world. Develop the networking ability, communicate effectively and be sincere and genuine with others (Coutler & Robbins, 2012).
In conclusion as we have seen in any organizational performance, managerial ability is very important in creating organizational values. Different management theories and styles range from prohibiting staff from making any decisions to fully delegating the decision-making power. No management style is consistently effective. Situational factors should be taken into consideration in the selection of an effective and efficient management style. The study of organizational theories and management styles is essential in this modern organizational, working environment.
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