1. Understand the Relationship between Organizational Culture and Structure
1.1. Compare and contrast three different organizational structures and cultures.
The long term success and failure of every company depends on its structure – no matter how vague it may sound, structure of a company decides where the company will be in the near future. The three types of structures are:
Functional structure – under this kind of structure, the company is divided into different groups, who are then assigned different tasks – like the accounts, the sales and admin, and the marketing departments.
Divisional structure – this kind of structure is followed by companies with huge geographical area coverage. Each part of the area has a smaller division within the same umbrella group.
Matrix structure – this is a combination of both the divisional and functional structures, and operates upon theories imported from these two structures. But, this structure is associated with ego clashes among the top positions, and power clashes.
The different kinds of organizational cultures are as follows:
Power culture: organizations following this kind of culture may be able to respond to crisis very quickly, but the problem is that the system is very centralized. This kind of culture relies heavily upon people rather than committees (Harris, 1994).
Role culture – position is main criteria in the role culture. The organization is controlled by senior management at the top of the pyramid, and the system is also highly formalized.
Task culture – this type of culture is practiced more often by organizations with a matrix structure. Main emphasis in this structure is given to completion of tasks. It strongly believes in the unified power of a team (Harris, 1994).
1.2. The relationship between an organization’s structure and culture
There is a very strong relation between organizational structure and its culture, as only the perfect match of the two factors will lead to a good working environment in office. At TESCOS, as a store manger, it is definitely a priority to look at the kind of attitude and behavior the employees are having, and how clean and suitable the culture is.
If the structure of a company id hierarchical, with all the decisions being made at the top, the employees will have no or less freedom, and there will lack of autonomy at the lower level of the pyramid. On the other hand, if the power is divided between all the sections, the company culture will be lot more friendly, with the employees at all levels enjoying equal freedom (Parker, 2000).
1.3. Overview of four factors that can influence individual behavior at the Irish TESCOS
Environment – more emphasis put on building a friendly and mutual environment in the workspace will ensure that team work and productivity of the company increases.
Technology – the better the prevailing technology at the core of the company, the lesser the employees will have to work, and hence, better streamlined workflow and productivity can be ensured.
Locus of control – employees who have an external locus of control will constantly criticize people, find faults, and also depend on others for their success. On the other hand, people with internal locus of control think that their own destiny is in their own hands.
Customer Demand – though and external factor, but it is to be noted, that the more the demand, the more the sales, and greater the growth of the company (Parker, 2000).
2. Understand the Relationship between Organizational Culture and Structure
2.1. Compare three different leadership styles for three different business organizations
Leaders are different, and so are their leadership styles. Leaders are meant to motivate their team, and hence, leadership styles sculpt the outlook of the staffs. Here are the various leadership styles:
Laissez Faire – in this kid of leadership style, the leaders allow a certain level of freedom is given to the staff, and trained directors are appointed to coordinate efficiently between the high level managers and the working staff (Antonakis et al, 2004).
Autocratic style – under this style of leadership, the leaders keep an eye on the employees at all time, and face time is increased. There are a lot of arguments over this style of leadership, as there exists no or little freedom for the employees, and they sometimes find it extremely uncomfortable to work under these situations. But when practiced in a controlled manner, this style can be effective, especially under tight deadlines (Antonakis et al, 2004).
Participative – This is a good balanced style, and a mix of both the autocratic and Laissez Faire styles. This gives a little bit of freedom to the employees, while the managers are still around supervising at all times.
2.2. How organizational theory underpins the practice of management for the Irish TESCOS
In the Irish TESCOS scenario, organizational theory has a vital role to play. The authenticity and practicality of organizational theory has been questioned by many modern scholars, but the fact remains that these theories underpin and supports the stability of an organization. These theories, apart from helping the managers to find out the prevailing problems in the company, also help them to find the right method to deal with the problem, and ultimately solve it.
There are a lot of these theories – they have been created in different periods, with different economic and socio economic conditions – and the real art for managers’ lies in finding the best method out of these, and applying them in the present context. Some of these theories may seem to be obsolete these days in the age of ever changing technology, but it is to be understood that they form the base and foundation of companies across the world.
2.3. Evaluate four different approaches to management used by different organizations.
The four different managerial approaches are as follows:
Participative- Under this approach, the managers discusses and collaborates with his team managers about the decision making process. [pic]
Bureaucratic- Bureaucratic is opposite to participative process, where the manager forces the team members to follow strict rules, and to obey a chain of commands (Tittemore, 2003).
Autocratic – An autocratic manager is almost a ‘dictator’ who supervises his people at all steps and ensures job is done at the right time.
Hands off approach- This is the friendliest approach of all, where the manager gives complete freedom to his men in all respects (Sapru, 2008).
3. Understand ways of using motivational theories in organizations
3.1. How different leadership styles impact employee motivation in periods of change
Periods of change are often the periods when crisis happens. Hence, good leadership techniques are to be adopted by the leaders to protect the company from sudden jerks. Here are the most commonly practiced leadership styles:
Autocratic – managers following this style will never allow the team members to contribute towards the decision making process, and will try to establish huge confidence towards their own decisions.
Democratic – totally opposite to autocratic style of leadership, when special attention is paid to what the team members think. The point of views of the employees is hence at least heard before making the final decision.
Quiet – in this process of decision making highly trained employees are recruited by the manger, and then leaves day to day decision making to them, as he remains ‘quiet’.
Transformational – as the name suggests, the manager practicing this method tries to encourage and motivate his team about the bright future of the company, and hence tries to extract more productive work from them (Robbins and Judge, 2008).
3.2. Identify the application of three different motivational theories within the workplace.
Listed below are three different motivational theories:
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs – Maslow states that human needs can be graphically represented as a pyramid, and they move from the bottom to the top; as the needs at the bottom are satisfied, man focuses on the next need at the top. These needs range from love needs, social needs, to self actualization (Maccoby, 1998).
Carrot Stick – this theory was coined by Bentham, and explains that human is motivated by either of the two forces – fear or incentives. Either he will work to fulfill his money, security and other material needs, or he will work due to pressure and fear.
The motivation – hygiene theory – this theory was introduced by Herzberg in 1959, and stresses on the fact that employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction is caused by some ‘hygiene factors’ (Maccoby, 1998).
3.3. The usefulness of a motivation theory for managers at the TESCOS in Ireland.
Companies like the TESCOS do rely on their employees for not only production, but also for proper distribution and even product quality control. But to get exceptional performances from them it is required for the managers to provide proper motivational incentives. Motivational theories can help the TESCOS managers to properly motivate their employees and provide them proper job roles for increased productivity.
Organizational Management – organizations use motivational theories to promote favorable working conditions at the organizational and departmental levels.
Rewards – The reward system takes a lot from the expectancy theory, and helps motivating the employees to work even harder, as they see their work being appreciated.
Perception of the employees – in the equity theory, it ca be learnt that employees perceive the rewards given to them in exchange of the work that they need to do. When the perception and actual incentive matches, the employee gets motivated to perform better in the future (Robbins and Judge, 2008).
Productivity – a lot of company incorporate goal setting as a fine tool to increase the productivity level of the employees.
4. Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organizations
4.1. Explain the nature of groups and group behavior within organizations.
A group may be defined as a collection of individuals who have similar aims and are set to achieve the same goal. Groups are mainly of two types:
Formal Groups – these groups are designed by companies, and each group is assigned different and specific tasks.
Informal groups – these are groups formed by individuals themselves. Hence, they are not properly arranged, and not at all structured (Butler 1986).
Groups are formed over a series of steps. They are:
Forming – the initial stage of group formation. In this stage, the resources and other details required to form the group are procured.
Storming – much like ‘brain storming’, in this stage, the individuals in each group challenge and try to find answers. Conflicts are common in this stage.
Norming – in this stage, all conflicts are resolved, as the answers to the questions asked by the members are found.
Performing – in this stage, coordination, and team work starts taking place between the different team members, and they start becoming a single unit.
4.2. Factors that may promote the development of effective teamwork in organizations
The factors that can improve teamwork are:
Good leadership – A good leader ca motivate his men in performing better and reaching greater heights. Hence, leadership is a factor that should never be underestimated. Leaders are adept in different theories and motivational methods, and the best leaders are those who can take spontaneous decisions (Parker, 2000)..
Diversity – good teamwork develops as and when the members embrace diversity in terms of age, sex, religion and culture.
Communication – if communication is strong among all the team members, everyone will be on the same page, and will also be equally informed. Great communication is the key to effective team building.
Team Building Exercises – proper training is to provided for effective team building; and the training is to provided with the help of professionals who can indulge the team in proper drills and exercises.
4.3. Impact of technology on team functioning within TESCOS in Ireland.
In the modern era, no organization can work without upgrading to the latest technological trends. Technology not only makes sure that the employees have to work less, but also ensures that the results are always accurate, and there is no repetition of jobs. While emails can help the employees to communicate with themselves and the third parties, devises like the Blackberry and Smart phones enable them to properly communicate. Teleconferencing allows the team to communicate over distances effectively without being physically present there. And of course, computers are, the more advanced, the better. Not only TISCOS, but every company these days understand of the important role that technology plays, and hence have started to upgrade to the latest technological updates.
Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A. T. and Sternberg, R. J., 2004. The Nature of Leadership. New York: Sage Publications, Inc. Butler Jr., J.K., 1986. A global view of informal organization. Academy of Management Journal, 51, 3, 39-43. Harris, S. G., 1994. Organizational Culture and Individual Sensemaking: A Schema-Based Perspective. Organization Science, Vol. 5,(3): pp. 309–321. Maccoby, M., 1998. Why Work: Motivating and Leading the New Generation. New York: Simon & Schuster. Parker, M., 2000. Organizational Culture and Identity. London: Sage. Robbins, S. and Judge, T., 2008.
Essentials of Organizational Behavior. 9thEd, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Sapru, R.K., 2008. Administrative Theories and Management Thought. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, p 276 Tittemore, J. A., 2003. Leadership at all Levels. Canada: Boskwa Publishing.
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