First introducing about milk producing capacity in Pakistan. With an estimated 33 Billions Liters of annual milk production from 50 million animals managed by approximately 8 million farming households, according to latest statistics Pakistan is the 4th largest milk producing country in the world. It has a livestock and agriculture sector contributing over 10% to the GDP, and a milk economy that in value terms is 27. 7% of the total agriculture sector. It is an untapped market, expected to grow an additional 3 billion liters in the next few years at a growth rate faster than most sectors.
Undeniably, a sector with such credentials can bring about not just a radical change but also a dairy revolution in the country. The annual milk production of 33. 6 billion liters in Pakistan is shared between a 71. 1% share for the rural economy and a much smaller urban share of 29%. Only 3% of the total production of milk is processed and marketed through formal channels. For the other 97%, a multi-layered distribution system of middlemen has evolved to supply milk.
The contribution of the formal sector processed milk to real GDP in Pakistan is 0. 3% in 2004-05. Despite only a small percentage (3%) of milk being processed, the (UHT) market is growing at a steady rate of 20% a year. Presently 97% of raw milk produced in the rural economy is not linked to the market mechanism because of a number of reasons (defined ahead in this paper). Due to this reason, the dairy sector in the rural economy is not making a significant impact in the National economy in accordance with its potential and also with the quantity of milk, which is available.
The White Revolution is targeted to achieve an annual production of 40 billion liters of milk by 2015; it aims to create an additional 3 million jobs in the formal economy and provide an estimated 350 million rupees per day in cash flow to farmers in the sector. The Dairy Vision till 2015 . Given success of the programs discussed in this paper, what might the dairy industry look like in the year 2015. The formal sector to be 40% of the total dairy industry.
Low cost but good quality pasteurized milk to be available in cities and towns accounting for 70% of Pakistan’s population. Pakistan’s dairy industry meets the needs of consumers, thus minimizing imports. The range of goods offered to consumers is as wide as in say the markets of the Gulf. The well being of farmers throughout Pakistan is enhanced, and dairying is acknowledged to be a profitable enterprise. Dairying will have lifted millions of farmers above subsistence levels of activity. A thriving commercial dairy farming sector will be in place.
Well-regarded Research Institutes will be active in their chosen fields, with a focus on meeting the needs of farmers. Quality of some sectors of the industry will be such that exports are viable. UHT milk was invented in the 1960s, and became generally available for consumption in the 1970s. UHT milk has a typical shelf life of six to nine months, until opened. It can be contrasted with HTST pasteurization (high temperature/short time), in which the milk is heated to 72°C (161. 6°F) for at least 15 seconds UHT MILK
UHT milk is a sanitary and veterinary controlled milk which is subjected to special thermal treatment (ultra-pasteurisation or Ultra High Temperature) which destroys germs and preserves vitamins and nutrients. In the absence of bacteria activity and with the pre-sterilisation of the packaging, the milk becomes less perishable: through ultra-pasteurisation, the validity period of milk is prolonged without adding preservatives. The temperatures lies beyond the boiling point (135 – 150° C) but the boiling time is very short: 2-4 seconds).
This very short stage of heating and cooling destroys bacteria and microorganisms and ensures the preservation of vitamins and proteins, unlike the normal boiling of milk, which doesn’t destroy all germs and bacteria, instead destroying its nutritional value. The validity period varies between 3-6 months, depending on the quality of the raw milk collected from farms (deriving from hygiene during milking alongside handling and storing conditions until the moment of reception in the factory).
After unsealing the box, UHT milk need to be kept refrigerated and consumed within the next 3 days. HISTORY OF UHT MILK The aseptic packaging implies that both packaging and filling environment be sterilised thus preventing any recontamination of the food after being “purified” through thermal treatment. Furthermore, if we talk about UHT milk, we must know that a multilayer cardboard packaging is used, which also contains an aluminum foil in the middle, captured between the inner layers of cardboard and polyethylene.
The cardboard box protects the milk from contact with light and oxygen, two factors that contribute to vitamin degradation. Vitamin B2 in milk exposed to light for 12 hours for example in a transparent recipient, degrades up to 35%. Aseptic technology is based on the invention of the Swedish company Tetra Pak, which created the first aseptic packaging in 1961. This packaging allows storing milk or other perishable liquids for a period of 3 – 6 months, without adding preservatives or refrigerating the product.
By forming a barrier and impeding oxygen from penetrating (the packaging consists of multiple cardboard, aluminum and polyethylene layers for the food industry) and using a special technique to sterilise the packaging, aseptic technology ensures the protection of food against environmental aggressions. The International Institute for Food Technologies declared the technology of aseptic processing to be “the most important innovation of the 20th century in the industry”. Tetra Pak packaging can consist only of the cardboard and polyethylene layer (both on the outside and on the inside), in which case it is used for pasteurised milk.
For UHT milk another special packaging material is used, which contains aluminum foil in the middle. Thus the packaging maintains the contents and the milk properties intact for the whole validity period of the product, because it impedes germs and light from penetrating the package (it is a known fact that light diminishes nutritional value of milk) Louis Pasteur already carried out villagers and improve their socio-economic status by experiments on sterilization of milk in bottles, but it was utilizing the agricultural raw materials.
The solution is to not until around 1960, when both aseptic processing and link of know edge, skills and investments into the villages, aseptic filling technologies became commercially not only keeping appropriate technology in subsistence available, that the modern development of UHT processes level, but giving new approach in substantial manner so started. UHT-treated milk and other UHT-treated liquid that large value addition even within the limited food products are now accepted worldwide, but it has not investment is affordable by them at villages themselves. lways been like that. The first UHT plant operated on the Milk production began 6000 years ago or even principle of direct steam injection. Compared with the inearlier.
Practically everywhere on earth, man started container sterilization plants, the new UHT plants soon domesticating animals. As a rule herbivorous animal, gained a reputation for producing an excellent flavour. ultipurpose animals were chosen to satisfy his need The first indirect plant was introduced on the market some of milk, meat, clothing etc. Farmer produces the food ten years later. Research and development have been for all human being, however today his status is intense since UHT was first introduced. Modern plants weak. Milk production is the efficient crop to him deliver a superior product with colour and nutritional and will help to improve their income. It is possible values practically unchanged.