Many people have contributed to the understanding of oceanography which is merely the study of earth’s science and it is a large topic since it covers marine features and organisms.
The following are some of the individuals who have contributed to their studies;
– James Cook. The efforts that James Cook applied to understanding of the ocean were quite extra ordinary. He was the first person to explore the coastline of Australia. He was also involved in chartering of Pacific Ocean and also he was the person who discovered several groups in island. In charting his exact position in the globe, he used a chronometer. He was the first person/sailor to explore south and he was the one found out and proved that people could not go to North West since there was no passage through the ocean
– Mathew Maury – Mathew contributed greatly in study of ocean for the favor of Navy and also the world since he is the one who studied Meteorological and Navigation charts. His main concern was to help even sailors since they did not have standard charts to show them the direction of current and wind and also they lacked knowledge of meteorological readings since they did not have any specific method of doing this. Therefore, his major contribution as in charting wind and ocean currents.
– Challenger expedition- 4 set expedition pattern for all expeditions which could take place in the next 50 years. The results were not quite good but they filled 50 volumes. He made a lot of observations on ocean since he stopped at every 200 miles and he ensured that he measure the depth and the temperature of each area where he made a stop. Samples of water were collected and then examined for deep sea marine lives and rocks (National research United State, 1900 p.52).
Convergence boundaries in ocean result when two or more tectonic plates approach each other and collide or else the lithosphere collides (Hart Cox 1986, P 36). These plates either form continental collision or sub diction zone.
These three forms of the earth movement which cause various forms to result are quit useful in formation of quit a number of features which are of importance in the study of the science of the ocean. In continental- continental form none of the forces are sub ducted since they are all light and therefore they resist downwards movement.
Most of the oceanic crusts are as a result of rocks from earth being deposited in ocean. These crust are renewal and ocean ridges and they are usually away from mid ocean ridges (Vallega., 2000 P, 23). This makes the depth of the ocean to increase and these depths are usually in ocean trenches. Therefore, the ridges which are formed are pushed away which result to formation of tectonic plates.
In sub marine convergence, Crust are usually destroyed since they dive under each other and this usually take place along the convergence boundaries and most of time only one plate sinks under the other. Mini- Sub marine can go into great depth like that of Marianas Trench. Abyssal plain usually occur 4km deep in the sea which are usually deep sediments (Scheidergger, 2004 P 84). Abyssal great depth is contributed by mantle of sedimentation and these make them to sink deep into the sea.
Distribution of siliceous ooze usually occur when silica which is in the sea water dissolve into the water steadily. These materials are usually found in those places where they accumulate quickly than they dissolve. These silica oozes are formed from silica secreting organisms. Calcareous ooze is usually formed by organisms secreting Calcites. These Calcites which are formed are usually dissolved in deep depths which are below calcite compensation of 4.5 km. If the ooze is buried and transported in deep waters, Calcareous ooze can hence be formed below this depth.
Polar water molecules which are normally positively and negatively charged can result to relative formation of El Nino which is also referred to as Southern Oscillation and they usually result from atmospheric interaction and the ocean currents (Kershaw, 2000, P, 28). These bring about great global consequences due to the effect since they cause calamities to happen. As a result of this, there are so many deposits in the ocean. When warm waters move, it results to upwelling of pacific and these waters which results from upwelling are quit rich for biological productivity and as result they can support the marine life.