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Nutritional needs Essay

Protein

4 calories/ g
0.8 g / kg / day
Meat
Fish
Chicken
Eggs
Dairy
Insufficient intake leads to muscle wasting and atrophy

Carbohydrates

4 calories / g
Starches
Sugars (fructose, glucose, lactose, sucrose) and cellulose
Fruits
Vegetables
Milk
Grains
Insufficient intake results in protein and fat metabolism

Fats

9 calories / g
Needed for ADEK vitamin absorption
Animal products
Egg yolks
Organ meats (except liver)
Butter
Cheese
Oils
Insufficient intake increases risk of infection, skin lesions, amenorrhea, and cold sensitivity

Thiamin (B1)

Pork
Wheat germ
Fortified cereals
Insufficiency leads to Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

Riboflavin (B2)

Milk
Enriched grains
Insufficiency leads to Ariboflavinosis

Niacin (B3)

Peanuts
Legumes
Enriched grains
Insufficiency leads to diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis

Cobalamin (B12)

Animal protein
Insufficiency leads to pernicious anemia

Folic Acid

Orange juice
Meat
Leafy green vegetables
Insufficiency leads to anemia and neural tube defects

Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C): wound healing, hormone synthesis

Citrus fruits
Insufficiency leads to scurvy, bleeding gums

Vitamin A: vision, tissue growth, immune, reproductive function Animal foods

Fruits
Vegetables
Fortified milk
Insufficiency leads to night blindness, xerophthalmia

Vitamin D: calcium and phosphorus metabolism, PTH, kidney

Dairy
Fortified food sources
Insufficiency leads to rickets, osteomalacia

Vitamin E: antioxidant, immune

Vegetable oil
Peanuts
Margarine
Insufficiency leads to hemolysis of RBCs

Vitamin K: blood clotting

Liver
Leafy green vegetables
Insufficiency leads to hemorrhage

Potassium

Apricots
Avocado
Bananas
Cantaloupes
Raw carrots
Peas / Dried beans
Dried fruits
Oranges
Peanuts
Potatoes
Prune juice
Spinach
Tomatoes
Winter squash

Calcium (also use for kidney stones)

Chocolate
Dairy
Beans
Lentils
Dried fruits
Canned / smoked fish (except tuna)
Flour
Cocoa
Green leafy vegetables

Tyramine / Dopamine Restrictions (for people taking MAOIs)

Aged Cheese
Chocolate
Smoked fish
Processed meats
Bananas
Liver
Fava beans
Soy sauce

Purine (gout / uric acid stones)

Organ meats
Anchovies
Sardines
Salmon
Herring
Venison
Goose
Beef, chicken, pork, veal should be limited because they contain purine Alcohol
Seafood

Oxalates (kidney stones)

Asparagus
Beets
Celery
Cabbage
Dark green leafy vegetables
Fruits
Tomatoes
Green beans
Chocolate
Cocoa
Beer
Cola
Nuts
Tea

Acid-Ash Foods (will acidify urine to prevent UTI and avoid if patient has acidic stones) Cranberries

Plums
Grapes
Prunes
Tomatoes
Eggs
Cheese
Whole grains
Meat
Poultry


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