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Nutritional Health Essay

Explaining the terms: food, diet, meals and snacks, nutrients Food:

Food is a nutritious substance that people or animals eat or drink in order to carry on life and growth. Food has been categorised as carbohydrates, including fibre, protein, fat and vitamins and minerals. Food allows us to keep on living. For example bread contains carbohydrate, meat contains protein, milk contains fat but it depends what milk you take, fruit and vegetables both contain vitamin and minerals. Examples of non food are tea, it has no nutritional value.

Diet:

Diet means the different food types that have been eaten regularly by a person. It doesn’t always mean losing weight. A diet means everything a person has eaten throughout the day. In the UK people might eat 3 meals a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner. You can also have special diets such as losing weight which means you are reducing your fat on your body. Being more careful with sugar because you are diabetic or because you are anaemic you will need to eat food with iron such as red meat and green vegetables.

Meals and snacks:

A snack is a portion of food which is smaller than a meal. Snacks are eaten between meals. Snacks designed to be small, quick and enjoyable. For example you have snack and jacks it doesn’t contain fat or fruits such as bananas or apples.

You eat a meal 3 times a day which are breakfast, lunch and dinner. It is reasonable amount of food in a day.

Nutrients:

The process by which people take in food and use it for growth and repair. Examples of nutrients are: protein which you can find in fish, fat which you can find in milk, carbohydrate which you can find in bread or pasta and minerals which you can find in spinach. Malnourished and undernourished:

Malnutrition is a serious condition that comes when a person’s diet does not have enough nutrients to meet the expectations of their body. This can affect the growth, your physical health, mood and behaviour. Being malnourished does not always mean that you’re thin or underweight. It is possible to eat a diet which contains high calories but a few vitamins and minerals. This means that you can become malnourished when you are obese or overweight. Symptoms of being malnourished are: Lack of strengths or energy to do activities

Lack of energy and breathlessness because of anaemia
Changes of your skin and nails
Mood changes
An increase of illnesses or infections

Undernourished is a lack of calories or nutrients from eating not enough food or unable to break down nutrients from the diet because of medical condition such as Marasmus and Kwashiorkor. Marasmus means having problems with:

Growing
A huge amount of weight loss
Muscle wasting
Diarrhoea
Irritability
Kwashiorkor means having problems with:
Bad growing
Muscle wasting
A long time of diarrhoea and infections
Deterioration of hair, skin and nails
A swollen liver and abdomen
Swelling of the face, hands and feet

The most common symptoms of being malnourished is unplanned weight loss. If your BMI is lower than 18.5 or you experience the symptoms you will need to contact your GP. To calculate your BMI you can use a chart or you can calculate it like this BMI = weight (kg) height (cm)

BMI CHART

Young children are taken to the health care centre at least once a week to look at their weight and height. They are looking if the baby is gaining weight in a healthy way or gaining weight too fast and also to check if the baby is growing. The babies are going to be compared to other babies of their age to see if their weight and height is normal. They mostly use growth charts too at the weight and height.

GROWTH CHART

They also look at someone’s gender and height to see what their weight has to be. For female the weight looking is different than that of a male because a male is builder than a female and also a man needs to take 2500 calories as to which a female has to take 2000 calories a day.

Male

Female

To prevent yourself from getting malnourished and undernourished you will need to have a good diet which has enough vitamins, minerals, fat and carbohydrate. To make sure you take enough and healthy food you can use the eat well plate which shows varieties of food we need to eat and what proportion we should eat it, to have a good and balanced diet. You can also use the five-a-day which means eating 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day. This makes sure you get all the right things your body needs. You can eat sweet things because your body needs fat but you will need to take a small amount. Here are some easy and healthy recipes to give some ideas.

A recipe for breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks:
Breakfast an avocado on toast:
INGREDIENTS
2 avocados
2-3 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
Juice of 1 lime
A little splash of Worcestershire sauce
4 slices of sour dough/rye bread
Salt and pepper
Small bunch of basil, roughly chopped
2 sweet tomatoes, roughly chopped
METHOD
How to make simple avocado on toast breakfast
1. Mash the avocado with a fork to a rough puree, adding the olive oil, lime juice, and Worcestershire sauce as you go. Season with salt and pepper to taste. 2. Toast the bread, drizzle a little olive oil over each piece then spread over the avocados. Sprinkle with basil and the diced tomatoes.

Lunch Italian turkey club sandwich:
INGREDIENTS
2 tbsp olive oil
4 turkey breast steaks
3 tbsp fresh red or green pesto
200g carton half-fat crème fraîche
1 baguette, cut into 4 pieces
4 ripe, plum tomatoes, sliced
Small bag baby leaf salad
METHOD
How to make Italian turkey club sandwich

1. Heat 1 tablespoon of the oil in a griddle pan. Season the turkey and cook over a medium heat for 8-10 minutes, turning, until lightly charred and cooked through. Set aside. 2. Meanwhile, lightly mix the pesto into the crème fraîche and season to taste. Split each baguette piece in half lengthways, to give 8 halves. Brush the cut-side with the remaining oil, then griddle or toast under a hot grill in batches until golden. 3. Assemble the sandwiches. Spread a little pesto and crème fraîche sauce on 4 baguette halves, then top with sliced tomatoes. Top with a turkey breast, add a handful of salad leaves and another spoonful of the pesto and crème fraîche sauce. Top each sandwich and serve.

Dinner chicken pasta soup:
INGREDIENTS
5–6 chicken thighs
1 large white onion, sliced
1 tbsp olive oil
4 medium carrots, chopped into small dice
6–8 closed cup mushrooms, quartered
½ red pepper, seeds removed and chopped into small dice
1 x 400g can chopped tomatoes
600ml chicken stock
175ml white wine
100g frozen sweet corn (use tinned if you cannot find any frozen)
Salt and freshly ground black pepper
150g pasta shells
Handful of fresh coriander, chopped

Method

1. Preheat the oven at 190ÚC/gas mark 5. Place the chicken thighs on a baking tray and roast in the oven for about 30–40 minutes, until cooked. Remove from the oven and leave to cool. Once cooled, remove the skin and separate the meat from the bones before cutting the meat into pieces. 2. Heat the oil in a deep saucepan over a medium heat, add the onions and fry for a minute or two before adding the carrots. Cook until the carrots and onions start to soften, about 5 minutes, then add the mushrooms and red pepper. Mix thoroughly and continue to cook until the mushrooms have shrunk in size and begin to brown.

3. Next, add the can of tomatoes, chicken stock, wine, sweet corn and chicken pieces and season well with salt and pepper. Leave to simmer on a low heat, covered, for about 20 minutes. 4. Add the pasta to the soup and leave to simmer for a further 15 minutes or until the pasta is cooked, stirring occasionally to avoid the pasta sticking to the pan. Once ready, remove from the heat and set aside for half an hour, covered, to allow the flavours to infuse. When you’re ready to serve, reheat the soup, pour into bowls and garnish with a sprinkle of fresh coriander.

Snacks:

You can have snacks such as:
Banana
Apple
Cookie
Snack and jack

Overweight and obese:
Overweight means that you’re BMI is 25 or over 25. If you are overweight you will have a great risk of getting:
Arthritis
Type 2 diabetes
High blood pressure.

When people talk about being overweight they mean that the person is not eating enough healthy or they could eat healthy food but they will eat a big portion. It will not only affect somebody health but their self esteem as well. They won’t be able to do activities when people of their same age can do all the things they won’t and wear the clothes they want to wear. Obesity means that your BMI is 30 or over 30. Being obese increases your risk of getting serious and life-threatening diseases such as:

Type 2 diabetes

Heart disease
Some types of cancer, such as breast cancer and colon cancer stroke

Obesity can affect your life in a serious way than being overweight it could damage the way life and it often leads to depression.

There are simple ways for you can see if you are obese or overweight, for example you could go to the GP or to a dietician, they are able to give you advice at how you could live a healthier life. You could also use a BMI chart or you could look at the weight for height and gender. Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) is something that also could be use to see what you are recommended to take in. The DRVs shows you what your daily intakes should be, they have made charts to show you what you should take in. The charts are: Chart made for age and gender

Chart made for age

Reference Nutrient Intakes (RNTs) is part of the DRVs which shows the amount of nutrients each individual is recommended to take in to maintain good health. If you look at the backside of the product it shows you how much nutrients you take in per portion and per 100 g of food. It can help you see if you eat too much. You could also look at your actual food intake which means that you are looking what you eat everyday and compare it to you should have been eating every day. What I would recommended for people who are overweight or obese is to look at the portion of what you eat. Go to your GP or dietist they are able to help you make a diary of you should eat every day. Also eat things of the food groups which are: If you eat at least one of the things in each food group you will be able to stay healthy. Examples of using the different types of the food group are: In the morning drinking milk with bread and peanut butter

For lunch eating a fruit salad
For dinner eating vegetables with pasta and fish.

Also using the right food preparations and processing methods will also make a huge difference in your diet. Example of good preparations and processing methods is using fresh food. If you buy fresh it means that the vitamins and minerals are still in the food but if you buy old food it could be that the vitamins and minerals already left the food. Good ways of cooking your food is grilling and steaming it makes sure that every vitamin and mineral stays in the food.

Make sure that there are varieties of colours on your plate which will make it more interesting for you to eat. Eat small portions which will make sure that you ate enough. Use small plates which will make it look like you are eating a lot. Not only eating healthy food is a good thing for you to stay healthy but also doing exercise every day for at least 30 minutes. 30 minutes a day exercise is enough. A few examples of exercises you can do at home are: You can also go to the gym and get a personal trainer who will help you do the right exercise every day. Eating healthy food and doing exercise will make your body stay fit.


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