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Nutrition Final Exam Study Guide Essay

Understanding Disease Risk Factors
Describe the differences between a chronic disease and infectious disease. What leading causes of death are nutrition-related?
A) heart diseases, cancers, strokes, diabetes
Describe the concept of a risk factor.
A) Factors known to be related to diseases, but have not yet proven to be a cause. We say that a certain factor puts us at increased risk for a disease, but does not cause it. How does one use risk factors?

Review the basics of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Be ready to identify the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (especially diet-related risk factors!) A) High LDL blood cholesterol, low HDL blood cholesterol, high blood pressure (hypertension), diabetes, obesity (central obesity), physical inactivity, cigarette smoking, diet: high saturated or trans fats, low veggies, low fruits, low whole grains Describe the dietary strategies to reduce risk of CVD through diet. A) Decrease saturated and trans fat, increase soluble fiber intake, increase fruits and veggies, increase whole grains/ decrease refined grains, increase fish intake (2 servings/week) What is the TLC diet and what does it entail?

A) TLC = Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes. From the NIH, designed to help decrease cholesterol through diet and lifestyle changes: the same changes we saw in table 11.6, also recommends 2 grams per day of plant sterols What do plant sterols have to do with high blood cholesterol? A) Plant sterols – the plant form of cholesterol.

Slightly chemically different, prevent us from absorbing cholesterol in the intestines, currently only recommended for those with high cholesterol

Weight Management
What is meant by the concept of ‘energy balance’?
A) Intake = output  weight maintenance
Intake < output  weight loss
Intake > output  weight gain
What is the significance of BMI? See chart on page 3 of (Module 10 Part 1) What is the risk of being overweight or obese?
What are the ranges of BMI? (Know the numbers. What is healthy? Underweight? Overweight?) A) Underweight < 18.5
Normal = 18.5 – 24.9
Overweight = 25 – 29.9
Obese (class I) = 30 – 34.9
Obese (class II) = 35 – 39.9
Extremely obese (class III) > 40
What are the alternatives to BMI for predicting health status? A) Men 12-20% ‘normal’, 5-10% for athletes, >22% & 35% &


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