The major debate concerning nature and nurture has been going on for decades and is still unresolved. Many people like to believe what we have inherited and our genes are what make us unique (the way we are and how we develop). Other people believe that the way we are raised and our experiences, that make us the way we are and how we grow. Physically the way we are built and look can be mainly due to nature. The genes that we inherit from our parents make the way of we look. For example, people say ‘Don’t you look like your mother?’ Genetic inheritance can define our eye colour (blue or hazel), whether we have straight or curly hair or how small we might be. We could also inherit certain genetic diseases which can seriously impact on our health. Though, we can still make decisions on how we look and how we change our appearance. There are multiple different cosmetic procedures available to alter our look. How we choose to live out our life and the choices that we make can have an influence on how we look. For ex, constantly eating junk food and not doing any exercising could lead to obesity. The environment that we are raised in and the experiences we go through can influence our health which contributes to physical growth. An ex of how nature and nurture can affect our physical growth is; we might carry genes that could lead us to be in danger of developing type 2 diabetes, but if we were to eat a healthy diet and get ample exercise, we might not develop the disease.
Nature: Jades mother’s childhood was very unlike to what it is today, her life could have been called a difficult life, and her mother was bought up on her own by her own mother as her father died when she was 6 months old. As she grew up without a father figure in her life she closed herself off emotionally from males in general. Jades mother grew up around a lot of uncles and aunts so she was always well looked by her family. Jade grew very close to her gran over the years as she wasn’t getting the attention she wanted off her mother, as she had gotten remarried she had become very distant. When her gran died jades mother was very alone, she hardly ever spoke to her mother apart from at meal times and after she’d get in from being out with her friends. This got increasingly more awkward as time went on as the new husband never showed her any kindness so her mother stayed out to avoid the arguments.
Nurture: Where jades mother spent a lot of time in hospital during her life she was also slower to develop as a person as she wasn’t with her friends often enough to have developed personality traits. As she got older she started staying out overnight and going to parties where there would be lots of alcohol, drugs and sex. She also began hanging out with the older boys and girls; this meant that she was developing at a much faster rate than what she would normally have done. The environment that the she was raised in was very tranquil, peaceful and gentle neighbourhood; there was barely ever any trouble around where she grew up. Nevertheless as she got older she began to get more curious about the rough area’s around where she lived later on during her life she found herself surround by people who lived in these rough areas. This altered the way she saw her own life and what she has been taking for granted. Evaluate how the nature and nurture debate in may affect the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development of two life stages of the development of your chosen family member
As each cell in the body contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, one chromosome from each pair is inherited from your mother and one is inherited from your father. These chromosomes contain the genes you inherit from your parents. There may be different forms of the same gene. These different forms are called alleles.
For example, for the gene that determines eye colour, there may be an allele for green eyes and an allele for hazel eyes. You may inherit a hazel allele from your mother and a green allele from your father. In this instance, you will end up with hazel eyes because hazel is the dominant allele. Those different forms of genes are caused by changes in the DNA coding. The same holds true for medical conditions, there may be a faulty gene that would result in a medical condition, and a normal version that might not cause any health anomalies. If your child ends up with a medical condition it will depend on certain biological factors including: What genes they inherit, whether the gene for that condition is dominant or recessive, their environment, including any treatment they may receive a genetic disease or disorder is the consequence of changes, or mutations, in an individual’s DNA.
A mutation is an alteration in the letters (DNA sequence) that makes up a gene. It’s more commonly referred to as a “spelling” mistake. Gene codes for proteins, the molecules that carry out majority of the work, perform most life functions, and make up the majority of cellular structures. When a gene is mutated so that its protein product can no longer carry out its normal function, a disorder can result. Genetic diseases can be inherited because they are mutations in the germ cells in the body – the cells involved in passing genetic information from parents to offspring. Genetic diseases can also result from changes in DNA in somatic cells, or cells in the body that are not germ cells.
Some genetic diseases are called Mendelian disorders – they are caused by mutations that occur in the DNA sequence of a single gene. These are normally rare diseases; such as Huntington’s disease and cystic fibrosis. Many genetic diseases are multifactorial—they are caused by mutations in several genes compounded by environmental factors. Some examples of these are heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.
Physical & Social development:
Nurture affected the physical and social development of Katherine’s mother Emma. During her adolescence phase Emma thought that she’d have to change the way she looked to fit into society (as she was obese). Emma began to blame herself and others because of the way she looked, she has had to face a ton of criticism from her close family and some friends; as they used to say stuff like “you’ve got such a pretty face but if you lost a bit of weight you’d be so much better off”. Throughout this time Emma looked towards the rest of her friends for acceptance which meant that to fit in with them she had to have the same stuff that everyone else had (clothes, technology etc.). This was obviously very difficult because of the fact she was quite overweight she couldn’t purchase the same type of clothes that her friends wore; this made her stand out of the crowd which gave her that extra attention that she didn’t want. Emma spent a lot of time trying to fit in during her teenage years but she found out being herself was more important than losing who she was just to fit in. Emma stayed up late chatting with her friends. A lack of sleep could also affect our body; it would increase blood pressure and cholesterol level, increase stress hormones, etc. Sleep is really important, at this age as she should be having at least 7-9 hours of sleep.
Nature affected Emma intellectually throughout this period as Emma wasn’t really sure on what type of career she wanted to do, however after some thought she decided she wanted to that pursue a career that would evolve helping the elderly. She accomplished in getting a job whilst being at school as this would help her to develop some new skills and allow her to make her own money, although she knew that wasn’t the career path she wanted to stay in. Emma also began to volunteer at a care home; this is what helped her to decide on what career path she wanted to go down.
Nurture also affected Emma emotionally during her adolescence; Emma had poor self-image and low self-esteem. She also began to resent her friends and her mother as they both wanted her to be someone that she was not, when it was clear that she was never going to be able to keep the act up forever. During adolescence Emma began to question her own self-worth as some friends were also making snide little comments whilst her back was turned. Emma began to hang around with men as she went into this life stage as she thought that they were a lot less cruel. The boys accepted her more as part of their group so she began to build up her self-image up again, giving her more confidence and self-belief.
Emma was affected by nature during her adulthood. During her adulthood she discovered that she was at risk of developing a variety of different genetic diseases (diabetes type one, lung cancer, breast cancer, asthma etc.). Emma also discovered that she may not be able to have children of her own because she has Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which sometimes genetic. If any relatives, such as your mother, sister or aunt, have PCOS then the risk of you developing it is often a greater chance than usual. As she began to get older her hair began to get darker and she began to get grey bits through her hair, she also has had more problems with her teeth as they are falling out or being damaged due to decay. As she got older she also began to put on weight as her metabolism started slowing down. During this life stage Emma became pregnant with Katherine and there were some complications during the birth as she had to have caesarean due to preeclampsia.
Emma was less influenced by nature as an adult as she can make her own choices and decision. When she was deciding on what course is she was going take after finishing secondary school, she knew what she wanted to do after volunteering in elderly care home. When she turned 20 Emma got her first job in a care home she was working double shifts because of the love that she had grown towards her job. After working in a care home for the terminally ill, my mother decided that she wanted a change her job outlook and she started working in a domestic abuse centre for women. When Emma became pregnant with me she started doing hairdressing from home. This was more of a hobby for my mother as she would only do family or close friends. She had had to give up her job at domestic abuse centre because it would have meant putting Katherine in danger and the people at the centre wouldn’t allow it.
Emotional development & Social development:
Emma was both emotionally and socially affected by nurture. Emma was influenced by friends and new work colleagues in adulthood, as you grow more work connections as you get older. Emotionally she began to ponder about life as a teenager, and recognized that the choices she made were the best for her. When Emma reached this life stage she found love and spent 20 years with Katherine’s father which ended after attempting to save their relationship for 2 years. Their relationship had been very successful for 18 years, but after Emma’s mother died he began to try to control her. Emma found it very difficult to deal with after her mother died as she had a few regrets about the way their relationship ended. Emotionally Emma also found out that after her mother died that she could inherit a variety of genetic diseases. This made it hard for Emma to focus on the positives after splitting up with my father and her mother dying. Socially Emma relied on her friends a lot more as she got older as her family didn’t really contact her after her mother had died. Emma had several best friends that were there to support after her relationship had ended and her mother had died.