For each of the above theories, please prepare the following; 1. Brief biography of the theorist (person who created the theory) 2. A brief discussion of the important assumptions and concepts of the theories.
Florence Nightingale is the most recognized name in the field of nursing. Her work was instrumental for developing modern nursing practice, and from her first shift, she worked to ensure patients in her care had what they needed to get healthy. Her Environmental Theory changed the face of nursing to create sanitary conditions for patients to get care.
Biography of Florence Nightingale
Florence Nightingale was born in 1820 in Italy to a wealthy British family. She was raised in the Anglican faith, and believed the God called her to be a nurse. This call came to her in February 1837 while at Embley Park.
She announced her intention to become a nurse in 1844. Her mother and sister were angry at her decision, but Nightingale stood strong. She worked hard to learn about nursing, despite society’s expectation that she become a wife and mother. In fact, she rejected a suitor because she thought it would interfere with her nursing career. In 1853, she accepted the position of superintendent at the Institute for the Care of Sick Gentlewomen in Upper Harley Street, London. She held this position until October 1854. The income given to her by her father during this time allowed her to pursue her career and still live comfortably.
Though Nightingale had several important friendships with women, including a correspondence with an Irish nun named Sister Mary Clare Moore, she had little respect for women in general, and preferred friendships with powerful men.
She died in 1910.
Career of Florence Nightingale
Nightingale is best known for her pioneering work in the field of nursing. She tended to wounded soldiers during the Crimean War. She became known as the “Lady with the Lamp” because of her night rounds. While nursing soldiers during the war, Nightingale worked to improve nutrition and conditions in the wards. Many injured soldiers were dying from illnesses separate from their injuries, such as typhoid, cholera, and dysentery. Nightingale made changes on the wards or started the process by calling the Sanitary Commission. Her work led to a reduction in the death rates of injured soldiers from 42% to 2%. Nightingale believed the deaths were the result of poor nutrition, inadequate supplies, and the soldiers being dramatically overworked. After collecting evidence that pointed to unsanitary conditions as a major cause of death, Nightingale worked to improve sanitation in army and civilian hospitals during peacetime.
After the Crimean War, she established a nursing school at St. Thomas’ Hospital in London in 1860. The first nurses trained at this school began working in 1865 at the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary. It was the first secular nursing school in the world, and is now part of King’s College London. Her work laid the foundation for modern nursing, and the pledge all new nurses take was named after her.
Nightingale wrote Notes on Nursing (1859), which was the foundation of the curriculum for her nursing school and other nursing schools. This short text was considered the foundation of nursing education, and even sold well to the public. She also wrote Notes on Hospitals, Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, and Efficiency and Hospital Administration of the British Army. Nightingale spent the rest of her career working toward the establishment and development of nursing as a profession, paving the way for nursing in its current form.
In 1883, Nightingale was given the Royal Red Cross by Queen Victoria. In 1907, she was the first woman to receive the Order of Merit. In 1908, she was given the Honorary Freedom of the City of London. International Nurses Day is celebrated on her birthday. Florence Nightingale’s Contribution to Nursing Theory: Environmental Theory Florence Nightingale is attributed with establishing the modern practice of nursing. She also contributed to the field with nursing theories still used today. One of her nursing theories is the Environmental Theory, which incorporates the patients’ surrounding environment in his or her nursing care plan.
In this theory, the role of the nurse is to use the patient’s environment to help him or her recover and get back to the usual environment. The reason the patient’s environment is important is because it can affect his or her health in a positive or negative way. Some environmental factors affecting health according to Nightingale’s theory are fresh air, pure water, sufficient food and appropriate nutrition, efficient drainage, cleanliness, and light or direct sunlight. If any of these factors is lacking, it can delay the patient’s recovery. Nightingale also emphasized providing a quiet, warm environment for patients to recover in. The theory also calls for nurses to assess a patient’s dietary needs, document food intake times, and evaluate how the patient’s diet affects his or her health and recovery.
Determining a patient’s environment for recovery based on his or her condition or disease is still practiced today, such as in patients suffering from tetanus, who need minimal noise to keep them calm and prevent seizures.
s the founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale’s Environment Theory changed the face of nursing practice. She served as a nurse during the Crimean War, at which time she observed a correlation between the patients who died and their environmental conditions. As a result of her observations, the Environment Theory of nursing was born. Nightingale explained this theory in her book, Notes on Nursing: What it is, What it is Not. The model of nursing that developed from Nightingale, who is considered the first nursing theorist, contains elements that have not changed since the establishment of the modern nursing profession. Though this theory was pioneering at the time it was created, the principles it applies are timeless.
There are seven assumptions made in the Environment Theory, which focuses on taking care of the patient’s environment in order to reach health goals and cure illness. These assumptions are: 1. natural laws 2. mankind can achieve perfection 3. nursing is a calling 4. nursing is an art and a science 5. nursing is achieved through environmental alteration 6. nursing requires a specific educational base 7. nursing is distinct and separate from medicine| The focus of nursing in this model is to alter the patient’s environment in order to affect change in his or her health.
The environmental factors that affect health, as identified in the theory, are: fresh air, pure water, sufficient food supplies, efficient drainage, cleanliness of the patient and environment, and light (particularly direct sunlight). If any of these areas is lacking, the patient may experience diminished health. A nurse’s role in a patient’s recovery is to alter the environment in order to gradually create the optimal conditions for the patient’s body to heal itself. In some cases, this would mean minimal noise and in other cases could mean a specific diet. All of these areas can be manipulated to help the patient meet his or her health goals and get healthy.
The Environment Theory of nursing is a patient-care theory. That is, it focuses on the care of the patient rather than the nursing process, the relationship between patient and nurse, or the individual nurse. In this way, the model must be adapted to fit the needs of individual patients. The environmental factors affect different patients unique to their situations and illnesses, and the nurse must address these factors on a case-by-case basis in order to make sure the factors are altered in a way that best cares for an individual patient and his or her needs.
The ten major concepts of the Environment Theory, also identified as Nightingale’s Canons, are:
1. Ventilation and warming
2. Light and noise
3. Cleanliness of the area
4. Health of houses
5. Bed and bedding
6. Personal cleanliness
8. Offering hope and advice
According to Nightingale, nursing is separate from medicine. The goal of nursing is to put the patient in the best possible condition in order for nature to act. Nursing is “the activities that promote health which occur in any caregiving situation.” Health is “not only to be well, but to be able to use well every power we have.” Nightingale’s theory addresses disease on a literal level, explaining it as the absence of comfort.
The environment paradigm in Nightingale’s model is understandably the most important aspect. Her observations taught her that unsanitary environments contribute greatly to ill health, and that the environment can be altered in order to improve conditions for a patient and allow healing to occur.
Nightingale’s Modern Nursing Theory also impacted nursing education. She was the first to suggest that nurses be specifically educated and trained for their positions in healthcare. This allowed there to be standards of care in the field of nursing, which helped improve overall care of patients
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