1.1 Identify the reasons people communicate.
There are several reasons why people coomunicate in the work setting.
* To promote relationships and offer support – Arranging regular contact and building a shared system of support. * To maintain relationships – As the practitioner, it is important to be able to build and maintain a strong bond and trust between yourself and the child and also with the parents/carers. * To exchange information – This could be verbal and non-verbal. Staff can exchange information in the form of ‘handing over’ in settings such as respite care homes. Information can be exchanged by writing in ‘communiction books’. Practitioners and parents/carers also exchange information regularly. * To negotiate and liase with others – Early years managers will often liase with the parents/carers and also other professionals. * To express needs and feelings – Children and young people should feel free to express their needs and feelings to adults. They should feel confident that we will acknowledge them and try our best to meet their needs.
1.2 Explain how communication affects relationships in the work setting. Communictaion is the key to creating a positive working environment. Creating effective relationships in the work setting allows you to support other people in times of need and vice versa.
2.1 Explain how to establish the communication and language needs,wishes and prefernces of individuals. As a practitioner, you havr to accomodate the individual needs,wishes and preferences of the people you encounter. Culture, language, Gender, Religion, disability and environment are all things that could becaome a communication barrier between the practitioner and other people. You need to be able to show empathy and give support at the appropriate time. Take into account the individuals preferences and wishes and meet their needs as much as you can.
2.2 Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication. There are many factors to consider when promoting effective face-to-face communication. A busy and noisy environment will deter effective communication, whereas, a quiet place will allow the children and young people to feel more relaxed. Personal space also needs to be valued. Being too close may make the other person feel uncomfortable.
2.3 Explain a range of communication methods and styles to meet individual needs. As mentioned before, communication is not only verbal, it is also non-verbal. Effective communication consists of listening, responding, questioning and understanding at the appropriate times and in the right manner. There are a range of methods we can use to communicate, such as;
* Facial expressions and eye contact
* Body language
* Tone of voice
In order to know and choose which method is most effective, you have to take into account their culture/religious beliefs, for example, as a muslim, eye contact is considered a form of disrespect.
2.4 Explain how to respond to an individual’s reactions when communicating. When communicating there are cues and signals the other person gives to us. We need to learn how to pick up and respond to those signals appropriately. There are a few points that can help, such as:
* Maintaining eye contact (if appropriate) considering each culture. * Maintaining an open posture – Try to keep your body and hands neat and relaxed. Nodding occasionally for positive support. * Showing that you are listening – Giving the speaker brieg prompts to continue, such as ‘yes’ or ‘go on’ * Listening with undivided attention – Give the speaker the time to talk. Do not interrupt. Allow them to finish. * Listen to what is not openly said – The soeakers body language may give you a clue to their ‘hidden feelings’. These points allow you to be an ‘active listener’ Active listening is when you are not only focusing on what is being said, but also the feelings and emotions that are being expressed.
3.1 Explain hwo people from different backgrounds may use and/or interpret communication methods in different ways. People with different cultures and beliefs communicate in different ways. We need to have respect for their views and give them the confidence to express themselves freely and make choices without being judged or scrutinized. A person with confidence issues may struggle to express themselves. They should be encouraged to practice their communication skills with others but in their own pace. A childs family background may affect the way they communicate, as every childs home life is unique. This needs to be taken into consideration.
3.2 Identify barriers to effective communication.
There are a variety of barriers to effective communication, such as: * Environment – A noisy setting with lack of privacy, or maybe a building which is not accessible to all, e.g – wheelchair users. * Disabilty and impairment – Children with disabilities and impairments may communicate in different ways. Staff may have to be trained to recognize and familiarize themselves with this kind of communication barrier. * Additional language – Enhlish may not be the mother tongue of every child. Practitioners need to support the child to develop an additional language which may only be applied in the setting. * Blocking the others contribution – During face-to-face communication there are several facial expressions which may block the communication of the other person, such as: yawning, fidgeting, a look of boredom etc.
3.3 Explain ways to overcome barriers to communication.
There are a variety of reasons why there may be a communication barrier. The key to overcoming barriers is identifying the particular problem and then you will be better prepared to overcome it. There are several things you can do to help overcome communication barriers. I speak clearly and maintain eye contact depending on religion, as some religions find this offensive. I allow plenty of time for communication it is important to give the other person your undivided attention and make them feel that their contribution is important to you.
I put the other person at ease by keeping my body and hands relaxed and talking to them in a quiet place where we are less likely to be disturbed, if possible. I avoid making assumptions or judgements, I understand that some people have difficulty expressing themselves. I never assume that I know what they are trying to say and always check that I have understood.
3.4 Explain strategies that can be used to clarify misunderstandings. Misunderstandings can cause lack of trust and resentment, both of which lead to flawed relationships. There are two practical techniques for checking understanding: Paraphrasing: Paraphrasing means using your own words plus the important main words of the other person, to check accurate understanding of wht he or she has just said. This allows the practitioner to clarify that he/she has understood what the other person has said, and the other person will have his/her story presented back to them clearly. Reflecting: In this way, the emotional content of the message is explained. This helps the other person to understand and appreciate the effect the problem is having on his/her life. The practitioner will also be reflecting a feeling of empathy.
3.5 Explain how to access extra support or services to enable individuals to communicate effectively. In the setting, there may be people who are unable to communicate as well as others. Practitioners need to know when to call in help from outside professionals. There are a few training courses that practitioners can also take part in that would help, such as: Makaton, PECS, British sign language and signalong.
4.1 Explain the meaning of the term confidentiality.
Confidentiality means respecting the privacy of any information about a child and his/her family. Confidentiality is very important when working in a children and young peoples setting. All practitioners need to practice confidentiality and not abuse this trust.
4.2 Explain ways to maintain confidentiality in day to day communication. In some circumstances, confidentiality may have to be shared with your line manager. If you suspect that there may be a child protection issue, this will have to be shared with your manager in strict confidence. All parents should be aware of the settings policy and understand that certain things, such as, a childs dietary requirements or allergies will have to be shared with all staff to prevent any mishaps. There may be incidents discussed in work meetings. The children should not be identified and information shared should not be discussed beyond the group.
4.3 Describe the potential tension between maintaining an individuals confidentiality and disclosing concerns.