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Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) Essay

1. Introduction:

To accelerate the progress of sanitation in rural areas, Government of India is implementing from 1.4.2012, the ‘Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA)’, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme [earlier Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC)]. Similarly, to provide drinking water to rural population in adequate quantity, the Govt. of India is implementing a centrally sponsored Scheme called the National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP).

New Delhi:

The union cabinet Wednesday gave its approval for restructuring of “Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan”” into “Swachh Bharat Mission”. The programme is aimed at creating a clean India by 2019 with people’s participation. “The cabinet has approved the Swachh Bharat Mission,” union Law Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad said here after a cabinet meeting chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Prasad said the mission will be launched Oct 2, the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.

The prime minister has been striving to make the mission a mass movement. The cabinet also approved a “Swachh Bharat Mission” for urban areas, which will be part of a joint “Swachh Bharat Mission” which has another component for rural areas. The drinking water and sanitation ministry will implement the programme in rural areas while the urban development ministry will do the same in urban areas. “The ‘Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan’ will be restructured into the ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’ with two sub-missions – ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’ (rural) and ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’ (urban). Budgetary provisions for the two sub-missions will be provided separately in the demand for grant of the ministries of drinking water and sanitation (for rural) and ministry of urban development (for urban),” an official statement said.

“I take this pledge that I will remain committed towards cleanliness and devote time for this. I will devote 100 hours per year — that is two hours per week — to voluntary work for cleanliness. I will neither litter nor let others litter. I will initiate the quest for cleanliness with myself, my family, my locality, my village and my work place. I believe that the countries of the world that appear clean are so because their citizens don’t indulge in littering nor do they allow it to happen. With this firm belief, I will propagate the message of Swachh Bharat Mission in villages and towns. I will encourage 100 other persons to take this pledge which I am taking today. I will endeavour to make them devote their 100 hours for cleanliness. I am confident that every step I take towards cleanliness will help in making my country clean.” – Narendra Modi

2. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan:

The present goal under NBA is to achieve 100% access to sanitation for all rural households by 2022. Under Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA), the Goal is now pre-phoned to make India Open Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2019 by construction of individual, cluster & community toilets; and villages will be kept clean, including through solid and liquid waste management through Gram Panchayats. Water pipelines have to be laid to all villages enabling tap connection into households on demand by 2019.

In this matter, co-operation and convergence of all Ministries, Central & State schemes, CSR & bilateral/multilateral assistance may become necessary as well as new &innovative ways of funding such interventions. In a federal set-up like ours, where sanitation and water are state subjects, it is all the more important that states take the initiative to complete all activities to achieve Swachh Bharat by 2019 by dove-tailing all schemes – Central or State.

Swachh Bharat Mission: Facts and Figures
Project Cost: Rs. 1,96,009 crore
Project Start Date: 2nd October 2014
Project Estimated End Date: 2nd October 2019
Ministries Involved in Project: Ministry of rural development, ministry of urban development, ministry of drinking water and sanitation, Public Sector Undertakings ( PSUs), corporations, NGOs, state governments etc. Purpose of Project: To make India a filth-free country in five years, to construct community and public toilets in rural and urban areas, to provide running water supply, to treat waste water, to keep roads, pavements and localities clean etc.


3.1 Individual Health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability of drinking water and Proper sanitation. There is, therefore, a direct relationship between water, sanitation and health. Consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, improper environmental Sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene have been major causes of many diseases in Developing countries. India is no exception to this. Government started the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) in 1986 primarily with the objective of improving the quality of life of the rural People and also to provide privacy and dignity to women.

3.2 The concept of sanitation was expanded to include personal hygiene, home sanitation, safe water, Garbage disposal, excreta disposal and waste water disposal. With this broader concept of sanitation, CRSP adopted a “demand driven” approach with the name “Total Sanitation Campaign” (TSC) with effect From 1999.

The revised approach emphasized more on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Human Resource Development, Capacity Development activities to increase awareness among the rural people and generation of demand for sanitary facilities. This enhanced people’s capacity to Choose appropriate options through alternate delivery mechanisms as per their economic condition. The Programme was implemented with focus on community-led and people centred initiatives. Financial incentives were provided to Below Poverty Line (BPL) households for construction and usage of Individual household latrines (IHHL) in recognition of their achievements. Assistance was also extended for construction of school toilet units, Anganwadi toilets and Community Sanitary Complexes (CSC) apart From undertaking activities under Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM).

3.3 To give a fillip to the TSC, Government of India also launched the Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) that Sought to recognise the achievements and efforts made in ensuring full sanitation coverage. The award Gained immense popularity and contributed effectively in bringing about a movement in the community for attaining the Nirmal Status thereby significantly adding to the achievements made for increasing the Sanitation coverage in the rural areas of the country.

3.4 Encouraged by the success of NGP, the TSC is being renamed as “Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan” (NBA). The Objective is to accelerate the sanitation coverage in the rural areas so as to comprehensively cover the rural community through renewed strategies and saturation approach. Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) envisages covering the entire community for saturated outcomes with a view to create Nirmal Gram Panchayats with following priorities:

Provision of Individual Household Latrine (IHHL) of both Below Poverty Line (BPL) and Identified above Poverty Line (APL) households within a Gram Panchayat (GP). Gram Panchayats where all habitations have access to water to be taken up. Priority May be given to Gram Panchayats having functional piped water supply, Provision of sanitation facilities in Government Schools and Anganwadis in Government Buildings within these GPs Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) for proposed and existing Nirmal Grams Extensive capacity building of the stake holders like Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), Village Water and Sanitation Committees (VWSCs) and field functionaries for Sustainable sanitation. Appropriate convergence with MNREGS with unskilled man-days and skilled man-days

The main objectives of the NBA are as under:

a) Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas. b) Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Nirmal Bharat by 2022 with all gram Panchayats in the country attaining Nirmal status. c) Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions promoting sustainable sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education. d) To cover the remaining schools not covered under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and Anganwadi Centres in the rural areas with proper sanitation facilities and undertake proactive promotion of Hygiene education and sanitary habits among students. e) Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable Sanitation. f) Develop community managed environmental sanitation systems focusing on solid & liquid waste Management for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.


The strategy is to transform rural India into ‘Nirmal Bharat’ by adopting the ‘community led’ and ‘People centred’ strategies and community saturation approach. A “demand driven approach” is to be continued with emphasis on awareness creation and demand generation for sanitary facilities in houses, Schools and for cleaner environment. Alternate delivery mechanisms would be adopted to meet the Community needs. The provision of incentives for individual household latrine units to the poorest of the poor households has been widened to cover the other needy households too so as to attain Community outcomes. Availability of water in the Gram Panchayat shall be an important factor for sustaining sanitation facilities created.

Rural School Sanitation remains a major component and an entry Point for wider acceptance of sanitation by the rural people. Wider technology options are being provided to meet the customer preferences and location- specific needs. Intensive IEC Campaign is the Corner stone of the programme involving Panchayati Raj Institutions, Co-operatives, ASHA, Anganwadi Workers, Women Groups, Self Help Groups, and NGOs etc. A roadmap for engagement of corporate houses is being introduced. More transparent system involving social audit and active people’s participation in the implementation process of NBA is being introduced. Convergence with MNREGS shall also be Important to facilitate the rural households with fund availability for creating their own sanitation Facilities.


The Guidelines of NBA and the provisions hereunder are applicable with effect from 01.04.2012. Implementation of NBA is proposed with ‘Gram Panchayat ‘as the base unit. A project proposal that Emanates from a district is scrutinized and consolidated by the State Government and transmitted to The Government of India (Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation) as a State Plan. NBA is to be Implemented in phases with start-up activities. Funds are to be made available for preliminary IEC work. The physical implementation gets oriented towards satisfying the felt-needs, wherein individual Households choose from a menu of options for their household latrines.

The built-in flexibility in the Menu of options gives the poor and the disadvantaged families opportunity for subsequent up gradation Depending upon their requirements and financial position. In the “campaign approach”, a synergistic Interaction between the Government agencies and other stakeholders is essential. To bring about the desired behavioural changes for relevant sanitary practices, intensive IEC and advocacy, with Participation of NGOs/ Panchayati Raj Institutions/resource organizations is envisaged.

NBA will be implemented with a district as the project. The States/UTs are expected to Prepare/revise NBA Projects for all the districts, consolidate at State level as State Plan and submit Before the Government of India.


The Programme components and activities for NBA implementation are as follows:

(a) Start-Up Activities:
The start-up activities include
a. Conducting of preliminary survey to assess the status of sanitation and hygiene practices.
b. Base line survey.
c. Orientation of key personnel at the district/GP level.
d. Preparation of State Plan.
The cost of Start-up activities will be met from the IEC funds up to Rs. 10 Lakh. Additional fund. Requirement, if any, shall be met by the State.

(b) IEC Activities:

Information, Education and Communication (IEC) are important components of the Programme. These intend to trigger the demand for sanitary facilities in the rural areas for households, schools, Anganwadis and Community Sanitary Complexes through behavioural change. The activities carried out under these components should be area specific and should also involve all sections of the rural Population. IEC is not a one-time activity. IEC strategy and plan to be drawn to include creation of Demand leading to construction and use in a sustained manner. IEC should be conducted at all tiers i.e. Districts, Blocks and Gram Panchayat.

A national communication strategy framework has been developed by Government of India giving Emphasis on Inter Personal Communication (IPC) at the grassroots level. The states are to evolve their own strategy using folk media, mass media and also outdoor media like wall painting, hoarding etc. The IEC should also focus on health and hygiene practices and environmental sanitation aspects.

Interpersonal communication and door to door to door contact are recognised as the most Significant tools for attaining the programme goals. In order to strengthen communication machinery at the village level with participatory social mobilization, guidelines for engagement of village level Motivators (Swachchhata Doot / Sanitation Messengers) have been issued separately. As part of this Strategy, in addition to Swachchhata Doots, field functionaries like Bharat Nirman Volunteers, ASHA, Anganwadi workers, School Teachers etc. can also be engaged at the village level for demand creation and taking up behaviour change communication. The motivator can be given suitable incentive from the Funds earmarked for IEC. The incentive will be performance based i.e. in terms of motivating the Number of households and schools/ Anganwadis to construct latrines and use them.

Each project district should prepare a detailed IEC plan along with the Annual Action Plan with Defined strategies to reach all sections of the community. The aim of such a communication plan is to motivate rural people to adopt hygiene behaviour as a way of life and thereby develop and maintain all Facilities created under the programme. The Annual IEC Action Plan should be duly approved by the DWSC/DWSM. The Communication and Capacity Development Units (CCDUs) / Water and Sanitation Support Organisations (WSSOs) set up at the state level must support the districts in developing a good IEC plan and also in implementing it. Observance of Sanitation Day/ Sanitation Week / Sanitation Fortnight should be essential component of the Annual Action Plan.

For effective dissemination of the IEC material, funds may also be provided under this component To blocks and gram Panchayats for execution of works. The development of such material executed by the Panchayats may be standardized by the district or the CCDU.

The IEC funds should be broadly divided into pre Nirmal and Post- Nirmal phase so as to have Funds for sustaining the movement. The project districts, however, shall have the flexibility of deciding this division depending on the baseline survey reports and rate of acceleration of sanitation coverage.

Funds available under IEC may be used for imparting hygiene education to the rural communities, General public, as well as children in schools. The IEC plan should include a component for rising Awareness among school going children, teachers and PTAs.

IEC funding will be in the ratio of 80:20 between GOI and the State Governments and the total IEC Cost including start up grant will be limited to 15% of the total project cost.

(c) Capacity Building:

This component is for training of VWSC and PRI members, block and district functionaries and Grass root functionaries like ASHA and other health, education and related functionaries, Anganwadi Workers etc. SHGs can be trained in trades such as masonry work, brick-making, toilet pan making and Plumbing etc. as also for awareness raising activities. NGOs/CBOs of repute can be engaged for this Activity. State Resource Centres and Regional / District Resource Centres should be identified for Conducting such trainings.

Capacity building funding will be in the ratio of 80:20 between GOI and the State Governments and will be limited to 2% of the IEC budget.

(d) Construction of Individual Household Latrines:

A duly completed household sanitary latrine shall comprise of a Toilet Unit including a super Structure. The programme is aimed to cover all the rural families. Incentive as provided under the Scheme may be extended to all Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households and Above Poverty Line Households (APL) restricted to SCs/STs, small and marginal farmers, landless labourers with homestead, physically handicapped and women headed households. The construction of household toilets should be undertaken by the household itself and on completion and use of the toilet; the cash incentive can be given to the household in recognition of its achievement.

The incentive amount to Below Poverty Line (BPL) household/identified APLs for construction of one unit of IHHL shall be Rs.4600.00n (Rs.5100.00 for difficult and hilly areas). The central share out of this shall be Rs.3200.00 (Rs.3700.00 in case of hilly and difficult areas) and State Government share shall Be Rs.1400.00. Minimum beneficiary share shall be Rs.900.00 in cash or labour. State Governments are allowed the flexibility to provide higher incentive for a household toilet, of the same or higher unit costs from their own funds. All houses constructed with the central or/and state assistance should invariably Have suitable sanitation facility as an integral part. However, all houses constructed by the beneficiaries Under Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) or any other state rural housing scheme which did not have toilets shall also be eligible for the incentive as above for creation of sanitation facilities for the targeted groups Under NBA.

APL families not covered by the above incentives will take up construction of the household Latrines on their own through motivation. The IEC activities will provide comprehensive coverage to all the families in the GP without exceptions. APL families facing cash crunch may access the revolving fund as outlined in the guidelines.

Construction of bucket latrines is not permitted in the rural areas. The existing bucket latrines, if any, should be converted to sanitary latrines and the sharing pattern for incentive for the targeted Beneficiaries shall be identical to that of construction of individual house hold latrines.

Ministry of Rural Development notification Number S.O.l022 (E) dated 04.05.2012 regarding Convergence of TSC with MNREGS will be mutatis mutandis applicable for convergence with NBA.

(e) Rural Sanitary Marts and Production Centers:

The Rural Sanitary Mart is an outlet dealing with the materials, hardware and designs required for The construction of sanitary latrines, soakage and compost pits, vermi-composting, washing platforms, Certified domestic water filters and other sanitation & hygiene accessories required. RSMs should Ensure that a variety of pans (ceramic, mosaic, HDP, fiberglass) are available for choice by the Beneficiaries. RSM should necessarily have those items, which are required as a part of the sanitation Package.

It is a commercial venture with a social objective. The main aim of having a RSM is to provide Materials, services and guidance needed for constructing different types of latrines and other sanitary Facilities for a clean environment. Production Centers are the means to produce cost effective affordable Sanitary materials at the local level. They could be independent or part of the RSMs.

The Production Centers/Rural Sanitary Marts could be opened and operated by SHGs / women Organizations/Panchayats/NGOs etc. Support of private entrepreneurs may also be taken for ensuring An effective supply chain. DWSM/DWSC should have a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the RSMs/PCs along with A system of joint monitoring evolved to ensure that the RSMs & PCs are on track with production plans As per requirement. RSMs should have a method of quality certification of its products and a band of Trained masons and motivators.

Quality standards (where notified by BIS or by MoDWS) for each of the items of purchase should Be strictly adhered to.

An interest free loan up to Rs.3.5 lakh can be given for establishing RSM/PC out of revolving fund Available with the district. In case more RSMs are required, a maximum of up to Rs.35 Lakh from the Revolving Fund can be utilized for this purpose. Loans from the revolving fund for RSM/PC shall be Recovered in 12-18 instalments after one year from the date of receiving the loan.

(f) Provision of Revolving Fund in the District

The revolving fund may be given to Cooperative Societies or Self Help Groups whose Creditworthiness is established, for providing cheap finance to their members. Loan from this fund Should be recovered in 12-18 instalments. NBA projects will have the flexibility to decide the other Terms and conditions for sanction of the revolving fund. This revolving fund can be accessed by APL Households not covered for incentives under the guidelines. Loan can also be given to the owner of the Household where Anganwadi centre is located for construction of baby friendly toilet provided the ICDS Authorities agree to refund the loan from the rent paid to the house owner. 5% of the District project Outlay subject to a sum of up to Rs.50 Lakh, can be used as revolving fund. The revolving fund is shared Between Centre and State on an 80:20 basis.

(g) Community Sanitary Complex:

Community Sanitary Complex is an integral component of the NBA. These Complexes, comprising An appropriate number of toilet seats, bathing cubicles, washing platforms, Wash basins etc., can be set Up in a place in the village acceptable and accessible to all. Ordinarily such complexes should be Constructed only when there is lack of space in the village for construction of household toilets and the Community owns up the responsibility of their operation and maintenance. The ultimate aim is to Ensure construction of maximum IHHLs and construction of community complexes will be restricted to Only when IHHLs cannot be constructed, for whatever reason, and also teach the community of “Hygiene practices”.

The maintenance of such complexes is very essential for which Gram Panchayat Should own the ultimate responsibility. User families may be asked to contribute a reasonable monthly User charge for cleaning & maintenance. The proposal for putting up CSC will be approved by the National Scheme Sanctioning Committee (NSSC). Such complexes can also be made at public places, Markets, etc. where large scale congregation of people takes place. Suitable maintenance guidelines May be adopted by the community to ensure proper maintenance of the complex.

Maximum unit cost prescribed for a community sanitary complex is up to Rs.2 lakh. Sharing Pattern amongst Central Government, State Government and the community is in the ratio of 60:30:10. The community contribution, however, can be made by the Panchayat out of its own resources, from Grants of the Thirteenth Finance Commission or from any other fund of the State duly permitted by it.

(h) Institutional Toilets:

Children could be a good channel to influence parents to adopt proper sanitary habits. Children are More receptive to new ideas. Schools/Anganwadis are appropriate institutions for changing the Behaviour, mind-set and habits of children from open defecation to the use of lavatory through Motivation and education.

School Toilets:

Toilets in all types of Government Schools should be constructed. Emphasis should be given to Toilets for Girls in Schools. Toilet should provide access opportunity to children with special needs. A Toilet unit consists of a toilet and minimum of two urinals. Separate toilet units for girls and boys should Be provided in all co-educational schools, which are to be treated as two separate units and each unit is Entitled to Central assistance. The number of toilet units to be constructed should be adequate to meet The requirements of the school as per the strength of the students attending the school. State/UT Governments, Parent-Teachers Association and Panchayats are free to contribute from their own Resources over and above the prescribed amount.

In addition to creation of hardware in the schools, it is essential that hygiene education is imparted To the children on all aspects of hygiene. For this purpose, at least one teacher in each school must be Trained in hygiene education who in turn should train the children through interesting activities and Community projects that emphasize hygiene behaviour.

The expenditure for this purpose can be met From the IEC fund earmarked for the project. The district and Panchayat implementing agencies should Ensure good coordination with Department of Education and Health & other partners in order to fulfil The objective of SSHE i.e. to provide a safe, healthy learning environment to all children.

The Central assistance per unit will be restricted to 70 percent for a unit cost of Rs.35,000 (Rs.38,500 in case of hilly and difficult areas). Funding for School Sanitation in a NBA Project is provided By the Central and State Government in the ratio of 70:30.

Anganwadi Toilets:

In order to in still the practice of using a toilet in children from very early stage in life, it is essential That Anganwadis are used as a platform of behaviour change for the children as well as the mothers. For This purpose, each Anganwadi should be provided with a baby friendly toilet. Since there are a large Number of Anganwadis operating from private premises, following strategy may be adopted: a) In all the Anganwadis, which are in Government buildings, baby friendly toilets should be Constructed from the NBA funds provided. b) In those Anganwadis, which are in private buildings, the owner must be asked to construct The toilet as per design, and, he/she may be allowed to charge enhanced rent for the Building to recover the cost of construction. c) Alternatively, the toilet may be constructed from revolving fund component under the NBA And, suitable deductions made from the monthly rental paid to the owner to recover the Cost over a period of time.

Unit cost of a toilet shall be up to Rs.8,000 (Rs.10,000 in case of hilly and difficult areas) for each Anganwadi in the rural areas. Financial assistance to be given by Government of India will be restricted To Rs.5,600 (Rs.7,000 in case of hilly and difficult areas). Additional expenses can be met by the State Government, Panchayats or funds from Thirteenth Finance Commission, MPLADS, MLALADS, MNREGS Etc.

Construction of Anganwadi toilets is to be prioritised in the 200 high focused districts to assist in Tackling the issue of malnutrition.

All government buildings constructed with financial support of the Centre must have appropriate Sanitation facilities under the respective schemes as an integral component of the scheme. This is Considered essential to achieve the vision of ‘NIRMAL BHARAT’.

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