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Nipa Palm Fruit Documentation Essay

Nypa fruticans known as Nipa Palm in the Philippines is the only palm considered a mangrove in the Mangroves Biome. This species is a monotypic taxon, the only one in the genus Nypa. Nipa palms grow in soft mud and slow moving tidal and river waters that bring in nutrients. The palm can be found as far inland as the tide can deposit the floating nuts. Nypa fruticans, the Nipa palm, has a horizontal trunk that grows beneath the ground and only the leaves and flower stalk grow upwards above the surface. Thus, it is an unusual tree, and the leaves can extend up to 9 m (30 ft) in height. The Nipa Palm is one of the most important economic Philippine crops. It differs from most palms in the lack of an upright stem, trunkless, developing inflorescences at 1 meter height. The leaves are commonly use for thatching.

Leaflets are used for making hats, baskets, mats, raincoats, wrappings for suman. The midribs are used for making brooms; the petioles for fuel. Nipa is a monoecious palm, with stout, subterranean, trunkless and thornless rootstock. Leaves are at the ends of the rootstocks, large, rosette and compound, 5 to 10 meters long, arising from the stout underground stem (rhizome). Leaflets are numerous, rigid, lanceolate, up to 1 meter long, 2 to 7 cm centimeters wide. Male inflorescence is brown, erect, up to 1 meter high. Female inflorescence is stout, 1 meter high or less. Fruit is globose, nodding, up to 30 centimeters in diameter. Carpels are numerous, dark-brown, striate, smooth, 10 to 14 centimeters long, compressed, obovate. Seeds are hard, white, and as large as a hen’s egg. It can be cultivated or wildcrafted.

Nipa palm has many uses. Young seeds are edible. It is also a source of alcohol, sugar and vinegar. The fermented juice, tuba, is extensively use as beverage. Leaves are one of the most commonly used materials for thatching. Leaflets are used for making hats, raincoats, baskets, bags, mats, suman wrappers. Midribs used for making brooms. Petioles used for fuel.

In the Philippines and Malaysia, the flower cluster (inflorescence) can be tapped before it blooms to yield a sweet, edible sap collected to produce a local alcoholic beverage called tuba, bahal or tuak. Tuba can be stored in tapayan (balloon vases) for several weeks to make akind of vinegar known as Sukang Paombong in the Philippines and Cuka Nipah in Malaysia. Tuba can be also distilled to make arrack, locally known as lambanog in Filipino and andarak in Indonesian.

Young shoots are also edible and the flower petals can be infused to make an aromatic tisane. Attap chee (Chinese: 亞答子; pinyin: yà dá zǐ) (cheemeaning “seed” in several Chinese dialects) is a name for the immature fruits—sweet, translucent, gelatinous balls used as a dessert ingredient in Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore.

Nipa palm has many benefits. Decoction of fresh leaves is used for indolent ulcers. In Malaya, the juice of young shoots, with coconut milk, used as a drink for treating herpes. The ash of roots and leaves is used for headaches and toothaches. Fresh leaves, in cataplasm or lotion form are used for treatment of ulcers. The fermented sap diluted with water used as eyewash in eyelid and conjunctival inflammations. In Bangladesh, it is used as a tonic and stimulant for debility.

Zinc Corrosion Inhibition: Study showed Nypa fruticans leaves extract and DPC (diphenyl carbazone) inhibit the corrosion of zinc comparatively, possibly through the protonation of the hydrogen evolution process or formation of a soluble complex on zinc surface by molecules of N. fruticans or DPC.

Antioxidant Capacity: Evaluation for antioxidant capacity showed total phenolic and flavonoid content of immature fruits were higher than mature fruits. The immature fruits showed a high DPPH radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity, even higher than BHT and mature fruits.

Ethanol Production from Sap: Study evaluated the production of ethanol from the sap. With its incredibly high sugar-rich sap yield, researchers estimated 15,000 to 20,000 liters of biofuel yield per hectare (compared
with sugar cane at 5000-8000 liters, and corn at 2,000 liter), on a continuing basis, year-round, for up to 50 years.

Biology and Sap Yield Estimate: An April-May 2009 survey done in the Philippines to study the biology of nipa with emphasis on potential for alcohol production showed the estimates of sap yield to be much lower than the ones reported in literature.

Biofuel Energy: Study evaluated the optimum bacterial concentration for fermentation to produce high concentration of bio-fuel. Results showed the highest yield of bio-ethanol (8.98%) was produced with 7.5% of starter concentration and 6 days of incubation time.

Statement of the Problem
The general problem is “How Nipa Palm fruit used as an ingredient in dessert specifically in tart”
Specifically, this study sought to answer the following question: 1. What are the ingredients and procedures used in the development of Nipa palm tart? 2. What are the microbial properties of Nipa palm fruit in terms of:

2.1. Aerobic plate Count;
2.2 Coliforms Count;
2.3 Yeast and Molds Count;
2.4 Salmonella Determination Count?
3. Is Nipa Palm Fruit acceptable in terms of sensory evaluation?
3.1 Appearance;
3.2 Aroma;
3.3 Texture;
3.4 Flavor;
3.5 After taste?

Significance of the Study
The main concern of this study was the Development of Nipa Palm Tart. This study would be significant to the following: Students- To discover that Nipa Palm fruit can be eaten in the form of tart and help them to be aware that this unfamiliar fruit is nutritious. CHE Faculty members- It will give them a new idea that there’s more to do, made and develop from the “sasa” which they can teach to their students. Entrepreneurs- They may use Nipa Palm fruit as their income generating product which can help them to introduce this product to the market. Community- It can be a livelihood and promote Nipa Palm as one town, one product through delicacy. Consumer- to enjoy other product from Nipa Palm fruit.

Bulacan Province- To establish the product and give pride to the people of Bulacan. Nipa Palm Plantation Owner- This product will provide them an extra income in terms of producing new products that comes from the Nipa Palm fruit. Future Researcher- This would serve as a future reference to their research.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study focused mainly in developing a Nipa Palm fruit used as an ingredient in making the Nipa Palm Tart. It also consists of definition of terms and description regarding to the Nipa Palm fruit. It contains the ingredients, tools to be used and the microbial analysis determined at the BSU-DOST Food Testing Laboratory and the evaluation form.

Notes in Chapter 1
http://books.google.com.vn/books?id=Fk5ud3uuLW8C&pg=PA83&lpg=PA83&dq=Nypoideae&source=bl&ots=GLh89V2U04&sig=rXN3kSbWv1bOs8xgcDThEfC84&hl=vi&sa=X&ei=ekWRT4iCJ4TeigfavvSJBA&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2011.00147.x/full http://nipasyrup.blogspot.com/2011/04/what-is-nipa-palm-tree-and-benefits.html http://wildernessarena.com/food-water-shelter/food-food-water-shelter/food-procurement/edible-wild-plants/nipa-palm http://www.stuartxchange.com/Nipa.html

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