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Network Key Terms Essay

The Internet- The global network formed by interconnecting most of the networks on the planet, with each home and company network connecting to an Internet service provider (ISP), which in turn connects to other ISPs. Internet edge- The part of the Internet between an ISP and the ISP customer, whether the customer is a company or organization with a large private TCP/IP network, or whether the customer is a single individual. point of presence- A term used by service providers, particularly for WAN or Internet service providers instead of traditional telcos, that refers to the building where the provider keeps its equipment. Access links that connect the customer device to the WAN service physically connect into the POP. Internet core- The part of the Internet created through network links between ISPs that creates the ability of the ISPs to send IP packets to the customers of the ISPs that connect to the core.

Internet access- A broad term for the many technologies that can be used to connect to an ISP so that the device or network can send packets between itself and the ISP. analog modem- A device at the customer and ISP end of an analog circuit, created when one modem calls the phone number of the other modem, with the two modems sending data using the analog circuit. DSL- Digital subscriber line. A type of Internet access service in which the data flows over the local loop cable from the home to the telco central office, where a DSLAM uses FDM technology to split out the data and send it to a router, and split out the voice frequencies and send them to a traditional voice switch. cable Internet- A term referring to Internet access services provided by a cable company, using many components, including a cable modem, coaxial cable, and a CMTS at the cable company head end. default route- In a router, a concept in which the router has a special route, the default route, so that when a router tries to route a packet, but the packet’s destination does not match any other route, the router routes the packet based on the default route.

host name- A name made up of alphabetic, numeric, and some special characters, used to identify a specific IP host. Host names that follow the convention for domain names in the DNS system use a hierarchical design, with periods separating parts of the name. Domain Name System- The name of both a protocol and the system of actual DNS servers that exist in the world. In practice, DNS provides a way for the world to distribute the list of matching host name/IP address pair information, letting each company maintain its own naming information, but allowing the entire world to discover the IP address used by a particular host name, dynamically, using DNS protocols, so that any client can refer to a destination by name and send IP packets to that host.

Subdomain- With DNS naming terminology, this term refers to a part of a host name (or domain name).That smaller part can be the part that a company registers through IANA or some authorized agency to identify all hosts inside that company. IPv4 address exhaustion- A term referring to the very real problem in the worldwide Internet, which first presented itself in the late 1980s, in which the world appeared to be running out of the available IPv4 address space.

classless interdomain routing (CIDR)- One of the short-term solutions to the IPv4 address exhaustion problem that actually helped solve the problem for a much longer time frame.CIDR allows more flexibility in how many addresses IANA assigns to a company, and it helps reduce Internet routing table sizes through route aggregation. Network Address Translation (NAT)- One of the short-term solutions to the IPv4 address exhaustion problem that actually helped solve the problem for a much longer time frame. NAT reduces the number of public IP addresses needed by one ISP customer by using one public IP address for the traffic from many real client hosts.


BGP- Border Gateway Protocol
CATV- Cable TV
CIDR- Classes Interdomain Routing
CMTS- Cable Modem Terminating System
DSL- Digital Subscriber Line
DSLAM- DSL Access Multiplexer
FTTC- Fiber to the Curb
HFC- Hybrid Fiber Coaxial
IANA- Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
IPS- Intrusion Prevention Systems
ISP- Internet Service Provider
NAT- Network Address Translation
POP- Point of Presence
RIR- Regional Internet Registries
RJ-11- Registered Jack 11
SOHO- Small Office/Home Office

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