This report is a step by step analysis of the requirements planning and implementation of a network based on the infrastructure of an office environment. Throughout this report, the reader will see how the requirements planning is broken down into detailed sections to illustrate how each requirement has been identified for the stages of planning to implementation. In the first part of the report, we will be identifying what hardware is required for the scale of the network, taking into consideration a room for future expansion and devices to be added at a later date.
The second part of the report will be the identification of software that will be needed to run all services on the network including set-up and configuration of the software. Network Planning Why is a network required? Before actually planning the set-up of a network, the use of a network has to be justified. There are many uses to a network, some of the basic uses are • Sensitive information exchange – information is shared only between departments and/or specific users and not to other people, e. g. customer account information that contains bank information and/or other personal information.
• Internal digital mail – requests and communication between departments in a business may be increased and messages can be saved for later use. • Resource sharing – information updated constantly is shared from one location and is referenced by other departments and/or users within the same network, e. g. a database of customer details and orders for a company. • File Backup Services – information is backed up or stored in a secure location in the event of future problems and to maintain records of information.
There are other uses of networks as well but mainly they are used as a means of security. Within a company, when a network is utilised correctly, the flow of information across a network can be monitored and tracked back to the user. This is essential to ensure no information used within the company is accessed from an outside source or is used in an unlawful manner by a company employee. Scope of the network Since the network is being made for the London 2012 Olympics, we can assume that the network will be of large scale (roughly 500-2,000 users).
This means that each service, such as email and DHCP services, will require its own dedicated hardware in order for the resources to be adequately shared without any network latency or slow access experience. If the network is used on a much smaller scale, then the services could run from using only a few pieces of dedicated hardware such as the domain and email services sharing hardware. A site survey should always be performed before installation a network to ensure that wireless signals can be transmitted throughout the building or buildings and to see how the network can be modelled based on the environment it is going to be installed in.
Identifying Network Hardware In this section, we will identify different hardware and its uses on a network, how a network is connected and what devices are used to connect a network throughout a company building. Servers and Services There are many different types of services that can be hosted from a server on a network. Many of these services usually have their own dedicated hardware but depending on the scale of the network, the services can easily be bunched together on the same hardware to cut down on overall equipment usage. Domain Server
The domain server is used to authenticate users and computers included on the network. It is considered the main access control to a network because it stores all user account information used in authentication. Email Server The email server is used to direct messages to the correct recipient once the message has been processed by the server. Many companies today use a private internal mail system as a way of faster communication within departments. File Server A file server is used to provide users access to information and data across the network.
This helps reduce file duplication across different computers on the network. Permissions can be set for file access so that important documentation can be read but not written to or deleted. DNS Server A DNS server is a kind of server that translates DNS names into an I. P address that is used for communication on the internet. DHCP Server A DHCP server is used by hosts to retrieve I. P addresses and other information. Firewall Server A firewall server is used for monitoring the network for vulnerabilities and intrusions and detecting viruses in the event of an attack from the internet.
Application Server An application server is used to host applications and make them a part of the network’s resources. The servers are commonly used to save on costs for multiple software licenses compared to a site license. Database Server A database server is used to host a database for access by users. These servers can be updated and viewed. These are commonly used in finance departments or companies that host customer records that needs to be accessed and amended constantly. Network Devices
This section will better explain the other devices that make up a network such as the network equipment itself and other devices which can be considered essential to a networked environment. Modem A modem is used to connect an outside line (usually from an internet service provider) via telephone communication to the network enabling internet access or access to another site’s resources. Router A router is a device that forwards data packets between devices on a network and can manage which network node receives certain data rather than sending the same data to each node.
Routers can also have their own firewalls. Switch A switch is used to connect segments of a network together. Switches are an important part of a network as they are used to connect multiple devices at once. These switches come in all shapes and sizes, ranging from a simple 2 port switch to a 48 port switch which fits into a server rack. Wireless Access Point The wireless access point is a device that adds wireless connectivity to your network. This type of network device is often used to connect portable devices such as laptops, PDA and Smartphones to the network.
It is also used for wireless printers and installing hardware devices to computers where network cabling is not applicable. Network Printer Network printers are printers made available on the network as a resource so that many users can print from one location. This cuts down multiple hardware usage per computer which saves hardware costs and maintenance. Aside from users, all of these services and devices are what make up a network. Connecting your Network: Cabling and Access Points Now that we have outlined what services and devices make up a network, there is the matter of how a network will be connected.
There are a few methods of connecting a network, each with its own pro’s and con’s. The standard method of connecting a network is via cable. Cable Connection Cable connection for a network is one of the most trusted methods of connecting users to resources. The reason for this being that wired connections were the first standard and constant communication to be used with computers. Wireless connection is still a fairly new method of communication and is therefore still changing. Types of Network Cables There are quite a few types of network cables that are used today in business, each suited for different purposes.
Twisted Pair is a type of copper cabling that is used for telecommunications and most Ethernet networks. There are two types of twisted pair cabling. • Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) – UTP cables have a range of 100 meters and rely solely on the cancellation effect produced by the twisted-wire pairs that limits signal degradation. • Shielded twisted pair (STP) – STP cables reduce electrical noise from within the cable since each pair of wires is wrapped in metallic foil to better shield the wires from noise.
Four pairs of wires are then wrapped in a metallic braid or foil. Coaxial cable is a copper-cored cable that is surrounded by heavy shielding. There are several types of coaxial cable. • Thicknet or 10BASE5 – used in networks and operated at 10mbps, maximum length of 500 meters. • Thinnet or 10BASE2 – used in networks and operated at 10mbps, maximum length of 185 meters. • RG-59 – Most commonly used with cable television. • RG-6 – Higher quality than RG-59, with more bandwidth and less susceptibility to interference.
A fibre optic cable is either a glass or a plastic fibre that carries light along its length. Fibre optic cable can reach distances of several miles before the signal needs to be regenerated. Fibre optic is more expensive than copper cable and connectors are more expensive and harder to assemble than other connections. Wireless Connection Wireless technology is also a greatly utilised technology in business today even though the reliability of wireless connection does not compare to that of a cable connection. Security There are a few different ways to apply security in a network.
Some security protocols may be placed during network design and some protocols when the network is running. Network security during the design During the designing of the network, avoid giving anyone outside the implementation team or network designer any information, such as work plans about the network design or the materials that will be used for the network, which will help Vandals infiltrate or use the network inappropriately. Basic security that should be present in a network 1. Firewall – will offer a tougher barrier between the private network and the Internet.
Firewalls will prevent unwanted users or hackers from accessing the network. 2. Proxy – can be used to provide users a way to connect to the proxy server by requesting authentication from the security service during the exchange of files in the network. 3. Antivirus – is used to prevent viruses from penetrating the network and the computers connected to it. It also eliminates the counter-espionage potential within a network. Since there are many antivirus softwares available, the network has the freedom to choose the appropriate antivirus for the network.
4. Strong password – encourages all network an web users to use a password that contains letters, numbers and symbols so as to increase the difficulty of breaking or cracking the password and steal any information from the network. 5. Packaging – cables used to make sure no unauthorized person have access to data and change it. Disaster Planning and Recovery Before setting a network, the manager of the project requires designers and developers of the network to take into account unforeseen circumstances, such as natural disasters and hardware failure, to reduce their impact.
Earthquakes, floods, fires and such disasters may be given a solution using the following points • The proximity of cables to main electrical wirings must be significantly distant to avoid fire. • As much as possible, servers must be placed outside the building. Extra security protocols must be applied to avoid losing information. • If a building has multiple servers, it is advised that all servers be placed on an isolated location and away from public gathering places. This will require the development of additional security precautions. • Different types of cables should be considered in setting up a network to maximize its us
• Do not put cables near bodies of water or water discharge sa this may damage the cables • Provide rooms with electric generators in case a power outage occurs. Make sure that these rooms are close to their central control devices to avoid technical problems in connecting the machines to the generator. • Provide fire-preventing equipment such as fire extinguishers near the whereabouts of control systems • Provide water and fire alarms to inform personnel if water or fire gets near the data storage devices • The network team should provide a spare or backup server to perform full back up planning after disaster
With the increase in number of intrusions and attacks on networks trying to take data and information, a way of protecting these data should be prioritized in a network. Since the data are, most of the time, secret and important to companies, detection and control of intrusions must be strictly implemented. Through the latest presentations that we have done in class, we have learned new techniques and OSI Models that should be taken into account to provide the highest standards of security and quality. Some of these techniques are firewalls, proxies, encryptions, IP security, data authenticity, communications type and satellites.
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