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Nervous system Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Cranial Nerves

The human body is a unique and fascinating entity. There is not much notice taken of the features the human body is capable of. The brain is necessary to perform day-to-day actions, such as the ability to speak, and see amongst us. This brain is made up of simple mater (Pia mater, Arachnoid mater, Dura mater) and the cranial surface to protect the brain. We live our daily lives without acknowledging the importance of this organ, the brain, unless you’re a medical student of course! Despite that people go on with their daily activities using the human natural senses. Looking at the world through the eyes, watching for any danger around us; ears for hearing the sounds detecting something that…

Measurement of Compound Action Potentials from the Frog Sciatic Nerve

Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to examine how the compound action potentials propagate down the sciatic nerve of a frog based on varying stimuli. Before the nerve could be tested it needed to be extracted from the thigh of the frog and then submerged in saline. Several varying stimuli were used and recorded by a software package. The second experiment requires a constant stimulus with varying reference pin locations. From this the velocity of the action potential propagated can be determined. The experiment revealed that as the intensity of the stimulus increased so did the intensity of the compound action potential (CAP). Introduction: As taught to us during class different stimuli are going to have different effects on…

Neurofibromatosis Case

Effects / Symptoms Neurofibromatosis causes a deficiency targeting the nervous system as part of a genetic disorder. The two most common types are abbreviated into NF1 and NF2. NF1 is characterized by café au lait spots, or patches of tan and light brown skin. Another characteristic would be neurofibromas, which are soft, fleshy growths that grow on the skin, and in some cases, under it. The disorder also enters the skeletal level and enlarges and distorts bones as well as adds curvature to the spine. Occasionally tumors develop on the brain or spinal cord. Half of the people with NF1 also inhibit learning disabilities. The less common disorder, NF2, characterizes itself by multiple tumors on cranial and spinal nerves. Hearing…

The Biological Approach

One of the most perplexing issues in psychology is understanding the relationship between the mind and the brain. We all recognize that we have conscious awareness of our surroundings, and also of ourselves (self-awareness). It is this experience which has normally been described as the mind. But what is the basis of the mind? Is it the expression of a non-physical soul, or is it a product of physical processes within our body? Philosophers and scientists have been pondering this question for centuries. Explaining the nature of consciousness (that is, the mind) was regarded by William James (one of the great pioneers of psychology) as the most challenging question for psychology to answer. Today, a hundred years after James made…

Drug Interactions on Synapse

Homework on Drug Mechanisms 1. Release and degradation of the neurotransmitter inside the axon terminal. Drug: Reserpine Pharmacology: Most often used to treat mild to moderate hypertension. Mode of action: Reserpine inhibits the ATP/MG2+ pump responsible for packaging neurotransmitters into vesicles in the presynaptic neuron. This causes the free neurotransmitters to be degraded by MAO, leading to a reduction in catecholamines. 2. Increased neurotransmitter release into the synapse. Drug: Black Widow Venom Pharmacology: Neurotoxin. Mode of action: Alpha-latrotoxin (a-LTX) is the three-dimensional protein toxin unique to widow spiders. This protein has a high affinity for receptors that are specific for neuronal and endocrine cells of vertebrates. a-LTX will assemble into homotetrameric complexes which embed in the plasma membrane of the…

Optogenetics Specific Aims

Muscle disorders of the masticatory systems, or neuromuscular dysfunction, has two major symptoms: pain and dysfunction. Millions of people are impacted by muscle fatigue, muscle tightness, myalgia, spasms, headaches, and decrease range of motion each year because of this disorder [1]. Over the years, scientists have used many treatments to try to cure these muscle disorders, such as, drug therapies, physical and occupational therapies, surgery, and electrical stimulation. Although these treatments help, at present, there is no cure for most neuromuscular diseases, since scientist can not get to the exact point that causes the disorder. [2]. Recently scientists have discovered advances in genetic engineering, which have provided alternative means to drug and occupational therapies. This alternative uses a combination of…

Antidepressant Case Study

The debate over antidepressants has waged on for over more than half a century. Two heads of the Department of Psychiatry in Washington University discovered that depression was just as much biological as it was physiological meaning that people with depression had an abnormal chemical make-up in the brain. This discovery increased the demand for research on methods to alter this abnormality effectively and efficiently. Thus antidepressants were created, sparking a psychiatric revolution. Antidepressants work by blocking the reuptake of serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that is responsible for controlling human emotions. Our bodies make serotonin naturally but some particles are lost on the neuron, which is called reuptake. Antidepressants block the reuptake by placing a protein wall on the…

Bipolar Case Study

I. INTRODUCTION A client diagnosed with Bipolar I disorder, such as Mary Ann Garces, intrigues and challenged the student nurses to applying onto the practical field, their acquired knowledge, attitude and skills from preceding lessons in order to function as an operative and effective member of the multidisciplinary team. The group members are determined to broaden their knowledge concerning the disorder, particularly in the various methods in which they are supposed to interact with the patient, utilizing the various appropriate therapeutic approaches, therefore rendering holistic caring care to the said client. The group also aspires to gain a concrete and total exemplar of the treatment of the disease condition, having only encountered such condition in texts. Also, the group feels…

Discuss the Biological Approach in Psychology

Discuss the biological approach in psychology. Refer to at least one other approach in your answer. (12 marks) The biological approach focuses on both the physiological and evolutionary aspects which explain human behaviour. The causal level of analysis incorporates physiological explanations, such as the effect of nerves and hormones on behaviour. According to biological psychologists, behaviour is controlled by the nervous system, which consists of the central nervous system (the brain and the spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (the surrounding nerves), which itself includes the autonomic nervous system that controls automatic processes such as heart rate and the fight or flight syndrome. Within the central nervous system, neurons communicate with each other via sending chemical impulses, neurotransmitters, across…

Psychology textbook

I didn’t know that psychology actually had a goal until I read the introduction to Psychology textbook. I am learning a lot of new things on this subject. For instance science of psychology has four main goals and they are as listed, described, predict, understand, and mental process and influence behavior. In my own words here they are. Describing: collecting information from the population by certain targeted people. The prediction goal is self explanatory it’s mostly meant for making assumption or predictions of what will become of your study before you actually know what will happen. The third goal of psychology is Understand, in this area you never really know when the information that you learn will change the next…

Mirror, Mirror on the Mind

The sight of a stranger’s foot getting hammered induces an instant surge of sympathy within us. Watching a friend nauseate after eating something repulsive quickly causes our own stomachs to turn. This ability to understand and relate to another individual’s internal state has provided great motivation for research. One source of explanation arose from research on mirror neurons-which fire both during execution and observation of a behaviour (Rizzollati & Arbib, 1998). This particular class of neurons plays a crucial function in human social interactions. The importance of the mirror neuron system (MNS) for communication can be understood through its influence on nonverbal communication including facial expressions and hand gestures and verbal language. Furthermore, disorders affecting human communication-such as autism and…

Aromatherapy and Stress Reduction

My patient L.T. is a 35 year old woman who just recently migrated from West Africa. She is a mother of four children, ranging from two years of age to 12 years of age, and she has just been newly diagnosed with early cervical cancer. Even though this patient has a family history of cervical cancer (her mother died from complications of cervical cancer with metastatic) prior to her diagnosis L.T. was asymptomatic, so this came as a shock to both her and her husband of 12 years. Due to her family history of cancer and the fact that she already has children (one girl and three boys) my patients treatment of choice is to have a radical hysterectomy performed….

Fabric Softener Research Paper

Fabric softeners help keep clothes soft and colorful. While many people use fabric softeners while they do their laundry, most are unaware of the chemicals that softeners use. Many softener manufacturers do not go into detail about the compounds they use to help soften fabric. Unfortunately, many softeners are made from a wide mixture of chemicals that can have potentially hazardous effects on the human body over time. Read more: What Are the Dangers of Fabric Softeners? | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_7588099_dangers-fabric-softeners.html#ixzz2JhHu6n72 1. rritation * Fabric softener companies do warn that their products can cause irritation, especially the liquid versions, and advise that you do not allow any fabric softener to touch your skin or your eyes. Some of the chemicals used…

Nervous System (Science Report)

-The nervous system is a very complex system in the body. It has many, many parts. The nervous system is divided into two main systems, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system. The spinal cord and the brain make up the CNS. Its main job is to get the information from the body and send out instructions. The peripheral nervous system is made up of all of the nerves and the wiring. This system sends the messages from the brain to the rest of the body. -The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves that lie outside the brain and the spinal cord. These nerves carry impulses like sensations and information from the body to the spinal…

Spina Bifida Research Paper

Causes: No one really knows the exact cause of spina bifida, it remains unidentified what exactly causes the disruption of the complete closure of the neural tube, producing a disfigurement. Scientists believe that there are several factors contributing to spina bifida, genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. Research studies specify that inadequate ingestion of folic acid, which is a common B vitamin that is an essential factor in a mother’s diet during pregnancy. Treatment: There is no cure for spina bifida, the nerve tissue that is injured or missing cannot be restored or substituted, nor can function be restored to the damaged nerves. Depending on the type and severity of the disorder, treatment will be available for less severe cases. Mild…

Biology of Mind

* Everything psychological is simultaneously biological  * Plato correctly located the mind in the spherical head * Aristotle believed mind was in the heart  * Although heart is the symbol for love, psychology has proven that you fall in love using your brain * 1800s Franz Gall (German psychologist) invented phrenology theory that claims that bumps on our skull could reveal our mental ability and character traits * Biological Psychology – the branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behaviour * Biological psychologists sometimes called Behavioural neuroscientist, neuropsychologist, behaviour geneticist, psychological psychologist, bio psychologist … * We are a system of substances, that are composed of even smaller substances (tiny cells make up body organs) * Body’s…

Sannu’s Story

A. In Sannu’s case why is there both sensory loss and muscle weakness? Leprosy is a disease that has been known since biblical times. It causes skin sores, nerve damage, and muscle weakness that gets worse over time. Leprosy is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. It is not very contagious and it has a long incubation period (time before symptoms appear), which makes it hard to know where or when someone caught the disease. Children are more likely than adults to get the disease. Leprosy has two common forms: tuberculoid and lepromatous. Both forms produce sores on the skin. However, the lepromatous form is most severe. It causes large lumps and bumps (nodules).Leprosy is common in many countries worldwide,…

Human as a Complex Unit of Life

The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. The continual need for energy engages the senses and skeletal muscles in obtaining food, the digestive system in breaking food down into usable compounds and in disposing of undigested food materials, the lungs in providing oxygen for combustion of food and discharging the carbon dioxide produced, the urinary system for disposing of other dissolved waste products of cell activity, the skin and lungs for getting rid of excess heat (into which most of the…

Psychology and Physical Response Laughter

The field of counseling will finally reach it’s highest potential when people enter therapy because they feel they don’t laugh enough in their lives You may be surprised to learn that not everyone can spontaneously laugh nor can everyone experience a belly laugh. This depends to a large degree on the capacity of the nervous system to handle the activation necessary for such a physical response Laughter keeps your nervous system healthy. If you’ve ever watched a funny movie and later felt a warm, tingling feeling all over your body then you were likely discharging. You see laughter is an ideal means of discharger Laughter is believed to be a right brain activity with the capacity to help us feel…

The Psychology of Heroism

Recently I read this article written by John Cloud in the online Behavior section of Time on August 9th, 2012. Seems like every day acts of violence are becoming more and more random as well as frequent. While this is not a comforting fact it does allow the opportunity to separate the heroes from the rest of us. In an age where someone has carelessly opened fire into a crowded movie theater, it is comforting to know that built in some of us is an unwavering altruistic character. One thing the article pointed out that I had never considered is how hard it would be to study someone considered a “hero.” The main reason being that someone willing to stand…

The Current State of Medical Bci Technology

For ten long years, Scott Routley had been lost. Sure, his family could visit him every day, hold his hand and see his face, but, being in a vegetative state, they were no more aware of each other, than if they had been on distant planets. Or so medical science has believed. But, according to the BBC, on November 12th, 2012, something extraordinary happened. Using brain-computer interface technology, Scott’s doctor was able to ask him questions, and receive coherent answers. Using a combination of techniques, Professor Adrian Owen was able to ask Mr. Routley if he was in pain, and Scott said no. Just like that, one of the most troubling moral questions a family can encounter- that of whether…

Learning and Memory

If one were to explain what it is to learn something new, they would certainly mention memory somewhere in their explanation. As well as if someone was to explain memory, they certainly would have learning mentioned in their explanation. This is because learning and memory go hand in hand. When one learns, they store what they learned in their memory whether it is short term or long term. It would go without saying that memory and learning has to do with the brain, hence the importance of keeping one’s brain functioning properly by insuring proper stimulation and continuously learning new things. Now, the ability to learn and to memorize what is learned stems from different areas of the brain. The…

Relationship and Differences Between the Central and Peripheral Nervous System

“From the brain, and from the brain alone, arise our pleasure, joys, laughter, and jokes, as well as our sorrows, pains, griefs, and tears. Through it, in particular, we see, hear, and distinguish the ugly from the beautiful, the bad from the good, the pleasant from the unpleasant. ”(Attributed to Hippocrates, 5th century BCE, as quoted by Kandel et al. , 2000, as cited in Baars and Gage, 2012). Animals known as bilateria, (animals with bilateral symmetry) which includes most vertebrates and invertebrates all have a central and peripheral nervous system, although they vary greatly in the number of cells which make up their nervous system (Franks, 2012). Cells are the fundamental units of the nervous system, responsible for transmitting…

Drugs and the Nervous System Notes

Neurotransmitters within the body include excitatory and inhibitory, noradrenalin, dopamine, serotonin; acetylcholine and glutamate are examples of excitatory neurotransmitters. GABA and glycine are examples of inhibitory neurotransmitters. General anaesthetics General anaesthetics act mainly on the central nervous system to stop information processing; these may be given by inhalation or intravenously. Nitrous oxide or laughing gas is used in maintain anaesthesia with oxygen and is often used in combination with other drugs. It is a potent analgesic or pain reliever. Other inhaled anaesthetics include isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane. Commonly used intravenous anaesthetics include propofol, a rapid action and rapid recovery without a patient hangover. Thiopental is used in very brief procedures and has a sedative like affect. Ketamine is often used…

How Electrical and Neurochemical Activity of the Brain Is Related to Behaviour

In order for the brain to function correctly in an effective and efficient way it relies on the support from nerve cells that are responsible for the relay of vital information to and from the brain. This information is required to help us know how to feel, behave and perform depending on the different situations. Therefore the circuit of neurons or nerve cells develop a system where they process the information from cell to cell via the synapse eventually leading to the brain which controls how we behave and feel. This system is based on electrical and neurochemical activity performed by the brain. Presynaptic cells release chemicals known as neurotransmitters into synapses, which allow an electrical or chemical signal to…

Effects of Drugs

The impact of drugs on the central nervous system is very interesting. Choosing a medical field that uses different pain medications is very common. In this paper you will learn how certain medications will affect the central nervous system. The Effects of Selected Drugs and Diseases on the Central Nervous System The Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is responsible for all behavior, memory, perceptions, and movements. The sensory function is what is telling your brain to feel pain. Different sensory fibers release chemicals that tells your brain how bad the pain is and how to react to it. Nociceptors are pain receptors that are released whenever there has been an injury. Pain…

A researcher strongly believes

1.A researcher strongly believes that physicians tend to show female nurses less attention and respect than they show male nurses. she sets up an experimental study involving observations of health clinics in different conditions. In explaining the study to the physicians and nurses who will participate, what steps should the researcher take to eliminate experimental bias based on both experimenter expectations and participant expectations.? The first step should be to consider that using an experiment in clinical conditions is a bad idea. An ethnographic study might be a better approach. The next step should be to consider what is really being studied. Is the point of the study to determine how physicians treat female nurses when compared to male nurses,…

Knowledge & Understanding questions

1.1 Describe a range of causes of dementia syndrome ANSWER Neurodegenerative diseases is a common cause of dementia which mean that the brain cells known at the neurons either are degenerating therefore the neuron die off quicker which will lead to a more decline in the person mental health such as memory, language and sometimes their physical abilities all depending on which area of the brain is infected. Dementia affects the brain and the loss of function of the brain in such a way that the things we normally take for granted, for example our ability to remember things (time, date, events, to use language all of these things begin to disappear. Also there are more causes of dementia caused…

Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses

Activity 1 1. What happens to the resting membrane potential when extracellular K+ concentration is increased? -The resting membrane potential will become more positive when K+ concentration is increased. 2. Explain why the resting membrane potential had the same value in the cell body and in the axon. -The resting membrane potential has the same value in the cell body and the axon because the typical resting membrane potential is the same throughout the entire neuron. 3. Describe what would happen to the resting membrane potential if the sodium-potassium transport pump was blocked. -If the potassium transport pump was blocked the leakage channels would still be open allowing Na+ to leak in while K+ would be leaking out based on…

Describe how neurons in the central nervous system communicate

Human cognition, emotion, motivation and ultimately life is made possible by neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). This essay will briefly describe the processes involved in neuronal communication and discuss how this knowledge has helped improve our understanding of human behaviour, specifically with regards to neurological and psychological disorders. Neurons connected to motor neurons in the somatic nervous system control the bodies conscious action whilst neurons in the automatic nervous system control involuntary action which keeps the heart pumping and internal processes working. The soma of a neuron is electrically charged reacting to electrical disturbances from either sensory or neighbouring neurons via it’s dendrites. These brief changes of electrical voltage (action potentials) are conducted away from the soma and…