Neolithic development is characterized by the first agricultural revolution, when people moved from hunting – gathering to agriculture and settlement. They developed tools for farming, pottery, spinning, and weaving. 2. The Hebrew is chosen by their God to go to the Promised Land. The Hebrew covenant with their god is characterized by the Ten Commandments that they have to follow throughout their lives. The Talmud is a set of discussions regarding Jewish laws, ethics, customs and history and is held important in Rabbinic Judaism. The Hebrews came to Palestine because some parts of it were defined as part of the Promised Land or Canaan.
3. It was Ahmose I who reunified Egypt in the 8th century by conquest and expulsion of the Hykos and reassertion of Egypt’s power over Nubia and Canaan. 4. It was the Sumerian people who invented taxation in order to make taxation easier. Sumerian scribes are record keepers, which are usually for the records of taxation. Mesopotamia was generally polytheistic, or the belief in many gods. These gods are the ones which provided them whatever they needed to survive. With the harsh environment of the Middle East, these people adapted laws that would punish offenders severely so as to avoid repetition of crimes.
Egyptian and Mesopotamian religions differ with the gods they rule and the characteristics of these gods. 5. After Solomon’s death, the Hebrew state became separated, as the ten northern tribes revolted and successfully seceded to create their own kingdoms. 6. The Battle of Kadesh marked the first international peace treaty ever made, and it was between Egyptians and the Hittites. 7. Assyrians maintained political cohesion and military preparedness because they all followed only one rule, and that is of their King. 8.
The Magi is a group of people from Media who were known for their religious and funerary practices of the people of ancient Persia. Zend-avesta refers to the interpretation of the Avesta or the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism in the Avestan language. Zoroaster taught religion and philosophy, about the universe and the struggle between truths and lies. Ahriman is basically the demon in Zoroastrianism and Ahura Mazda is the god. Satraps are the governors of Median and Persian empires. 9. The weaknesses of the human condition can be overcome by not overindulging or by following a simple life.
Attachment and craving can be ceased by following the eightfold path. Nirvana is the state of being of a person wherein he is free from suffering and the cycle of being reborn. Human beings, like all things are impermanent, and there is no constant self. Human existence can be associated with suffering. 10. Jains preach that by cultivating a person’s own personal wisdom and control, he can achieve spiritual development. According to the Bhagavad Gita, the human condition is temporary and can still transcend to a supreme being. Dharma is the duty of a person that he must fulfill.
Upanishads teach about the universal spirit and the individual soul and how both asserts an identity in an individual. Here, ascetism is characterized by doing away with wants and desires and following a life away from human indulgence. 11. Zhou China boasted of an organized medical system wherein physicians have specialties. Zhou was different in the aspect of government because it became feudal. Mandate of heaven means that the rulers are legitimately blessed by the heavens, and if the heaven would be displeased, the mandate would be revoked. 12.
Yao, Shun, and Yu are the holy and virtuous mythical rulers of China who divided it into its regions. According to Confucius, the family is the basic unit of the society. A just and peaceful society would be obtained if people follow the rules. Mutual obligation would only be evident in the family, of parent and child and of husband and wife. 13. Yin and yang are the two opposing forces in any phenomenon. They are at the same time complimentary, and this is the basis of the system of correspondence in the Chinese philosophy and study of science. Daoism teaches reverence for nature, as it is a way of life.
Han Feizi taught Legalism, wherein the ruler should be the one that controls the state. This is based on the concepts of his position of power, certain techniques and laws. Sima quan is a scribe of emperor Wu who made detailed biographies of Royal affairs. Tang is known as the period of golden age for arts and literature, as they called for perfection in one’s skills if they ever wished to pass the examinations of the empire. 14. Geography affected the development of Greece because it is surrounded by other areas. This made Greece a melting pot of intellectuals though this made them vulnerable to the advances of invaders.
Hoplites are the soldiers of Ancient Greek, while Polis is the city state itself. Agora on the other hand, is an open place of assembly for the Greeks. Women in Athens are revered and treated highly while women in Sparta are treated inferior to the males. Messenian helots were mistreated and humiliated, and a Spartan can do anything he desire without fear of punishment to a Messenian helot. Greek’s defeat of Persia boosted their confidence and has set forward to more conquests. 15. Sophists taught philosophy and rhetoric. Socrates taught using the Socratic Method wherein you have to ask a series of questions in order to learn.
He taught politics, philosophy, ethics, and many more. Socrates was executed because of his pursuit of virtue and truth, and he has praised Sparta which is the rival of Athens. Women were given more importance in the public affairs in the Hellenistic society. Solon was the founding father of the Athenian polis. Greek drama originated from Greek tragedy, wherein performances were made in various festivities. Epicurus advocated for a life without pain and with the pursuit of pleasure. 16. Mystery religion restricted to those who underwent certain secret rites or process.
Greek religion is highly based on what the current ruler believes in, and the people would just follow suit. Philip II unified Greek by conquering the lands and using a great destructive army to threaten enemies to submission. The consequence of Alexander’s conquest of Macedonia is that many people aspired for his power, and when he died, the empire was divided. 17. The Bactrian camel was important because it was the only means of travel that could withstand the long arduous trade route for the Chinese. Hans used advance technologies, like cast iron and steel. Han cities were advanced with efficient agriculture and iron industry.
In order to solve the poverty among peasantry, some rich Han people were stripped of their land and was given to the peasants for them to work on. The Hans invent Hydraulic powered hammer for agriculture and iron sector and winnowing machine for agriculture. Emperor Wu expanded the Chinese territory, nearly doubling its size. Buddhism in these countries aimed to resolve the problems in a simpler way of life. Korean Buddhism made variations to it because of its inconsistencies. Shinto is a Japanese religion that was native of the country and was considered once as the state religion of Japan.
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