The urge to be an effective leader demands you to become a good manager. When describing the ideal characteristics of a good leader, there are essential skills that a good manger should portray. In this case, it is considered that a good manger should be equipped with human, technical and conceptual skills. These skills are vital in the delivery of organizational services. In addition, such skills will be used to determine the capacity of a manager in the bid to measure one’s effective leadership. Human skills involve the capability to handle issues that relate to humanity and members of the society. Technical skills are the tailored skills to deliver some efforts based on the available technical facilities. Lastly, conceptual skills cover multiple issues that an organization desires to achieve in the business ventured. Following the integration of these skills in varied dimensions, it is possible to establish the effectiveness in leadership.
As such, it is considered that good managers are effective leaders. Although the term leadership and management are interchangeably used when referring to people spearheading organizations or a group of people, they distinctly imply different forms of overseeing people. Leadership involves the incorporation of creativity and innovation in leading people to partake in something that can be believed to be useful for all lives. On the other hand, management involves the understanding of an organizational vision and mission, which allow one guide it as per the formulated plans. Since these two concepts are vital for any organization, one should be a good manager to be an effective leader. This demands the understanding of what makes one a good manger to achieve the attributes of an effective leader. In this essay, I will discuss one of the great leader Mr. Nelson Mandela. His direction and leadership style has given freedom to South African people.
Effective Leader – Nelson Mandela
In the twenty first century, leaders are required to build a greater impression in which people believe in strategy, trust in management decisions, and trust in their work. Once people believe in management choice, there will be enthusiasm inside an organization. Such an environment helps the organization growing or flourish. A doing well leaders create a surroundings in cooperation inside and outside the organization. (Subir chowdbhury management, 21c financial times prentice hall (2000). The world hopeful in political leaders but unfortunately, a few of live up to the leadership main beliefs and values. In fact, a lot of political leaders seem to severely be deficient in numerous of the majority necessary leadership qualities. This assay will be analyzing on one of African president ever recognized as dedicated leader; who dedicated his entire life fighting for freedom of his nation.
Rolihlahla Mandela was born in Transkei in a small rural community in the easterner cape of South Africa. On 18th July 1918 and named Nelson by one of his teachers, Mandela led the struggle to reinstate the apartheid rule of South Africa against racial discrimination. As well-known as a democratic leader he was incarcerated for 27 years. Has been awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1993 and 1994 Nelson Mandela been voted as South Africa first black president. (BBC news-Mandela’s life and times2008) The essay will seem at his behavior, characteristics as leader, and the style of his leadership at last relate his leadership with particular theory of leadership that is transformational leadership model.
Leadership is a function of personal and professional qualities (retrospection), the conception of a vision, structure and satisfying a sense of collective purpose, and make sure carrying out, with strategy and culture as two situational or contextual factors (cannon,2004; gil,2006)
Characteristics traits or personality
Mr. Nelson Mandela Charismatic personality he’s self-determined, sense of humor, integrity, strong minded, intelligence, empathy, self-nelson Mandela charisma encouraged people by changing their goals, values, need beliefs and objective he bring about this change by attempt to south Africa people self-idea specifically make the people feel valued and personal identity the lack of resentment over cruel treatment received. Nelson Mandela spiritual strengths beliefs which show the integrity and willingness never to give up (BBC news – Mandela’s life and times 2008)
As admired leader
Mr. Nelson Mandela as peace maker struggle to reinstate the apartheid rule of South Africa with multi-racial democracy, During the period of his incarceration sacrificed his family were he was absent in nurture of his children or in any feature of everyday life he has been shared with the world for his struggle for a nation not only for an individual or for own individual family. Mr. Nelson Mandela believed that to be a freedom fighter one must suppress many of personal feelings that make one feel separated individual rather than part for the liberation of millions of people, not glory for one individual. (Long walk for freedom chapter 11)
Not all freedom fighter live to see their struggle bring about the change they are fighter for in the life time’s sometimes they set the stage for the next generation to realize the fruits of their labor, social change happening when individual make change a choice to fight for justice and against oppression. (Frontline the long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s &ump; teachers’ guide p11)
Nelson Mandela growing up with tribal traditional costumes’ Mr Mandela erudite that listening to others ideas is most important than talk or make own decision without consulting others. Mandela’s ideas about resolving disagreement grew as developed common sense of individuality and vision for leading people. Has combined the tactic and procedure observed from tribal chiefs, formal education and experiences to the ways of ruling parties. Mr. Mandela observed the ways of oppressors and well-known that they did little to dishearten, and in fact give confidence division along with the different tribes or groups of black and Asian South Africans. This taught that leaders might use their power to bring people together or slash apart. (Frontline the long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s &ump; teachers’ guide p18.)
Nelson Mandela characterized by nature a peaceful and peace-loving man. But over the conduit of life’s exertion, has been forced to make hard choices in order to realize his final objective of a democratic South Africa. While the ANC’s preliminary policy was one of non-violence, over time felt forced to reconsider its effectiveness and accepted violent behavior as a strategy for achieving goal for a South Africa, once returned to original guiding principle of non-violence has transformed from the period of apartheid government to a democratic rule Nelson Mandela as eventually the beneficiary, along with F.W. Deklerk, in 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. The subsequent year has been nominated as first black president of democratic South Africa. (Frontline; the long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s &ump; teachers’ guide p17)
Style of his leadership
Under the democratic leadership style Where the focuses of leader is more with a group as an entire and better dealings within the group and leadership function are in collective with the part of team. The group member has a greater say in decision making, determination of police implementation of scheme and dealings (Laurie J. Mullins 2005). Democratic leadership as a style whereby the leader persuade an open trusting and follower oriented relationship. Leaders who adopted encouraged followers to establish their own police provided them with a perspective by explaining in advance the procedures for accomplishing the goals and granted the followers independence to commence their own tasks and congratulating them in an objective manner. According to bass (1990) leaders adopting this leadership style were described as caring, considerate, and easy to compromise and they also had a sense of responsibility and attachment to their followers.
Many writers see transformational leadership as the similar thing as charismatic, creative thinker or inspirational leadership for instance, kreitner et al. Refers to a leadership as a transforming workers to pursue organisational goals over personality interest, Charismatic leaders followers by creating modification in their goal, values, needs beliefs and aspirations. Such as a new theory of leadership contain greater than recent years evolved as central to understanding leadership with emphasis on transformational leadership where leader stimulates group to change their motives, beliefs and values and capabilities so to the group own attention and individual goal turn into congruent with organization (Bas 1985).
An important characteristic of this leadership is charisma; and certainly conger and kanungo (1987) include developed leadership theory that particularly focuses on measurement. In bass (1990) transformational leadership as a behavioral procedure of being gain knowledge of management, it’s leadership practice with the purpose of methodical consisting of purposeful and prepared investigate for possible systematic examination and the aptitude to move about resources from areas of slighter to better production, (Bass 1990, P,53-4) the leader attain this simulation in by creating an consciousness of the task of organization and develops group to higher level of ability and potential “ (Mandel and Pherwani 2003, P, 390) furthermore transformational leaders believed to encompass the aptitude to motivate, inspire, and hold up creativity in group.
This become visible to subsist achieved throughout transformational leader illustrate evidence of a high degree of individualized thoughtfulness which “the degree to which leader attends to the group observe and listens to the leaders concern by acting as a counsellor (judge and Piccolo, 2004 P. 755) Transformational leadership theory hold further by management author in the 1980 as method of efficiently carry in relation to organizational change (Avolio et al 1991; Bennis and Nanus, 1985; Tichy and Devanna; 1986 Tichy and Ulrich 1984) these study harassed that transformational leader lend a hand to realign the value and norms (Avolio et al; 1991, P.9) of an organization endorse change. These value and norms are mainly precious while an organization comes across harsh disaster in motivating group in pursuing creative problem solving (Avolio et al; 1991).
Organizational changes achieved throughout transformational leaders creating awareness of the goal and task of the organization, according to Mandel and Phewani (2003) this awareness allow group to appear further than own interest through afterwards benefits the group and eventually the organizational. According to whitehead, for instance the most significant attribute that a high-quality leader inspiring people by create an environment where it’s acceptable for people to make mistakes and gain knowledge of them, rather than what happened in the ancient times which to hold responsibility and punish them. Leading from this position the acquisition of a high level of commitment from their people than mere compliance. Adair argues with the purpose of truthfully inspirational leader should be aware of the spirit surrounded by all people encompass the possible for greatness; inspirational leader connects through the lead, appreciates the potential of others and during trust determination release the powers in others.
Adair refers to the inspired instant acknowledgment and attack of a concise window of opportunity that can take action as an influential means to inspire mutually the leader and the led. (Laurie J. Mullins 2005) Beginning visioning capabilities is an additional leadership skill is normally linked with efficiency. This ability consists of a leader being able to build up a strategic vision (Lombardo and McCauley. 1985 Kouzes and Posner. 1993). Bennis and Thomas conclude that individual achievement is partly connected to a leader’s ability to “come out others in shared sense” and that effective leaders are able to “mobilize workers” in a “distinct and convincing voice” (Bennis and Thomas, 2002 P 39). In addition to visioning skills Kotter (1996) recognized align and communicating way, motivating and inspiring workforce and producing useful change as significant leadership skills to be acquired. clearly goal achievement is moreover important (Boyatzis, 1982) on the other hand performance needs to be redirected toward strategic skills (Lombardo and McCauley, 1988) directed at implementing a vision (Hitt, 1988), rather than excessively focusing on technical skills (Lombardo and McCauley, 1988)
According to Burns (2002) leaders must keep people focused on core values and mission and encourage continuous transformation of the organization as a means of pursuing its core mission. Fundamental to system-control thinking is an idea of the chase of clear organizational goals designer by the manager or leader who then motivates others to act in ways which will achieve these goals. It is suggested that this difficult for a number of reasons. Such ways of thinking about leadership based upon a unitary view of organization and are thus motivated to act in ways that will ensure the understanding of such goals. Both transformational and charismatic leadership theories can be seen to uphold unitary assumptions. Essential to Bass’s theory the view of subordinates transcending self-happiness for the goals of the organization, with Bas and Avolio (1994, p 3) for instance suggesting that “the (transformational) leader creates clearly communicated expectations that followers want to meet up and likewise Conger and Kanango (1987).
Although Bass and Avolio (1994) acknowledge that followers hold a various set of views, desires and aspirations, they suggest that through the use of inspirational motivation the leader talented to support diverse followers around a vision. Thus there remains a belief that high consensus can be achieved and thus conflict, negotiation and politics that are predictable in organizations tend to be marginalized remarkably, Barker (1997) remind of Burns’s (1978) definition of leadership which emphasizes leadership as a practice which occurs within a context of competition and conflict. Interesting Bass’s theory of transformational leadership has built upon Burns’s work and thus far downplay important dimension. The following comment from a manager study highlights the realism of conflicting organizational goals. Managers in revision moreover often described the challenges in working with others who assumed very different views and the requirement of politic king to build support for facts: This would seem to advise a slightly different reality to ideas of consensus, cohesion and willing self-sacrifice for the greater high-quality.
Moderately suggests an added complex, untidy realism where conflicts of interest succeed and as such the manager should occasionally behave in uncomfortable ways to persuade others of individual viewpoints. It may be argued that assumptions of a unitary organization might simplify the reality that found organization are somehow set and once achieved the work of the leader done. Again this seen to simplify the case. (Conger and Kanungo, 1987 p.46).reliable with systems-control thinking theories of transformational and charismatic leadership present an individualistic conception of leadership, since the forces on the leader as special person. Indeed there center on a talented individual apparently possession of almost phenomenal, magical powers that may perhaps seen to hypnotize group to act in conduct wanted by the leader. Words such as extraordinary unconventional and heroic characterize a description of leader behaviors.
Bass (1985) p.47,48) for instance, highlights the extraordinariness of transformational, charismatic leader suggesting that the unusual vision of charismatic leaders that makes it possible for them to observe around corners stems from greater freedom from internal conflict while the normal manager is a continuing victim of their self-doubts and personal traumas . Alimo-Metcalfe et al (2002) argued that new theory of leadership create dangerous myths since they create a view of leadership unapproachable to the majority usual mortals. Further, the thought that a leader should in several method gifted shows a weakening to accepted wisdom of leadership as an instinctive ability and as such suggests slight completed through way of teaching leadership indeed, in own employment found several managers who apparent leadership as an inspirational gift and therefore attempts to teach leadership were seen as limited.
A leadership in an attempt study explore the style used in large scale to find out the outcome styles in terms of extra effort effectiveness and satisfaction among employees A transformational leader move up levels of understanding and consciousness about the meaning of value of necessary result s and habits of attainment encourage offering up personality interest for the sake of the group or organization. Leadership related directly to organization task and objectives. Transformational leadership develop inspired way surroundings and creating a mutual vision that is clear and hopeful to employees. Leaders strength necessitates make over corporate strategic objectives into an individually concerned vision to motivate and convince reluctant workers of its value. The glowing communicated vision and ambition vital constituent of expecting new behaviors and new instructions for an organization and its employees.
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