Negotiation strategies are used to make negotiations successful. Depending on the type of situation, the negotiations may differ in tactics. This essay will examine two articles different in strategies that use integrative tactics. One article will have a distributive strategy (win-lose), and the other article will have an integrative strategy (win-win). The tactics used in the articles will be related to a work setting involving prospective buyers and apartment companies to create a negotiation in a win-win outcome.
Article I – Hostage Takeover Negotiation This article is about the strategy and tactics used in a hostage takeover. Several tactics have been used in hostage takeovers throughout the years. The strategic strategies are about who holds the power. Some strategies show the hostage taker that the negotiator or the police have the power by taking items away from the hostage taker. Some items that can be taken away are the power to the building and the hostage taker’s ability to negotiate. This type of negotiation can create aggression in the hostage taker. This aggression can lead to an unsuccessful negotiation.
In the following example, a different type of strategy is used in a hostage situation. According to Justin Borowsky (2011), a strategy that helps to build the relationship between the negotiator and the hostage taker can bring a favorable outcome. Instead of aggravating the hostage taker, a negotiator can gain the trust and support of the hostage taker. This type of negotiation is a distributive strategy (win-lose) using integrative tactics. The tactics used to gain this relationship is to build rapport by affirmation of the hostage taker’s power.
This rapport and affirmation helps the hostage taker to believe he is in control. As the rapport is built, the hostage taker starts to look on the negotiator as his friend. The hostage taker starts to trust the negotiator and listens to alternatives and starts to plan for a good outcome. The negotiator displays a we-are-in-this-together scenario to the hostage taker. This scenario helps to form conversational flexibility creating the officer to obtain a role that has him working collaboratively with the hostage taker.
As the officer builds the relationship with the hostage taker, the hostage taker starts to listen and works collectively with the officer to find alternatives to hurting the hostages and obtaining what he or she needs. The officer also is uncovering the needs of the hostage taker to assist in making a smooth transaction. These strategies and tactics have led to a positive outcome for the hostage and a successful negotiation with the hostage taker. The outcome is more of a distributing negotiation as the negotiator wins and the hostage taker loses.
Article II – Disabled Individuals and Home Builders This article consists of the negotiation between house builders and the disabled buyers. In this negotiation, the builder has to understand the interests and the needs of the disabled buyer to have a successful outcome to the negotiations. The disabled population consists of 8. 5 million people. Builders are starting to realize that the disabled persons are also customers. The previous thought pattern on the disabled was that the state takes care of them. This is not true. Disabled individuals lead lives in the same manner as nondisabled persons.
A disabled person has the ability and the need for home ownership. The disabled population has had tough negotiations with building houses to meet the needs of his or her disability. The builders will allow an individual to make changes to the initial house plan to suit his or her needs. However, many disabled buyers have a difficult time with builders who do not understand the needs of the disabled. The negotiation process is oftentimes a long process to fully uncover the buyer’s needs. This type of negotiation is an integrative bargaining strategy.
An integrative bargaining strategy allows both parties to gain a beneficial outcome (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006). With changes to the house design to fulfill the needs of the disability, a disabled person can appreciate the dream of owning a home. The changes that disable persons need in a house, most builders think are extras. The builders are willing to make the changes; however, the changes made do cost the disabled person extra money (Burns, 2004). Compare and Contract Strategies The two articles addressed in this essay are very different negotiation.
However, both of the negotiations have the same tactics in relationship building to have a successful outcome. In the hostage takeover, the negotiator built a relationship on trust and we-can-do-this-together attitude. In the disabled house building, the disabled person built a relationship with the builder to gain the trust and respect needed to accomplish the goal. Another tactic used was interest based bargaining. In both articles the parties addressed the interest of the other party. This interest-based bargaining assisted in the success of the negotiations.
The difference between these two articles in the negotiation was the distributive outcome versus the integrative outcome. In the hostage takeover article, the negotiator was gaining the relationship and trust of the hostage taker to gain ground to take the hostage taker out of commission before he killed or hurt a hostage. This trust and relationship building was essential but was also not a true picture of the negotiator. The negotiator had no intentions of continuing the relationship after the success of obtaining the hostage.
The builder and the disabled person’s relationship was a true friendship. This relationship could continue throughout the years. Current Work Setting The above two articles relate to the negotiations of a buyer obtaining residential housing through relationship building. Both articles express the tactic of listening skills, relationship building, trust, and uncovering the needs of the other party. When a prospective renter is shopping for a place to live, his or her needs are the most important. However, the needs of the rental company are also important.
By entering into an integrative negotiation, both parties can have a successful outcome. For example, a prospect may be looking for a two-bedroom apartment that has a washer and drying already in the unit. The prospect may also be looking to stay under $650 in rent. The apartment company may have apartments that have washer and dryer hookups but not washer and dryers in the unit. The apartment company can elect to listen to the need of the prospect and rent the washer and dryer for the unit. The apartment company can also offer the prospect an apartment that will be within the prospect’s budget.
This type of negotiation will continue to build the rapport between the prospect and the apartment company during the prospect’s residency. Conclusion Some distributive negotiations can use the tactics of the integrative strategy in negotiations as shown in the hostage takeover. Good listening skills, uncovering needs of the other party, and gaining trust will lead to a successful negotiation. No matter which type of negotiation is to occur, preparation by uncovering the needs and wants of the other party will help a negotiator gain leverage and success in the negotiation.
Courtney from Study Moose
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