Since the beginning of life, nourishment is the first requirement for all kind of alive. According to Chassy (2007), early humans lived a hunter gatherer lifestyle and that around 10000 years ago they started to transition into an agricultural lifestyle. Also they feed animals to their milk, meat and eggs. Later, some people interested in agriculture in order to survive and earn money. In today’s world, technological developments and medical improvements resulted in higher life standards and world population become more and more crowded.
Lots of farmers and food companies emerged in order to meet the needs of this growing population. Organic foods started to be insufficient for human beings because of the increasing population. As a result of this insufficiency, people seek different kind of foods with the help of technological developments and they created genetically modified foods (GM foods). Genetically modified crops first appeared commercially in the mid-1990s and today GM crops are grown commercially by 8. 25 million farmers on 200 million acres spread throughout 17 countries (Schmidt, 2005).
Genetically modified foods or biotech foods can be described simply as foods derived from genetically modified organisms. These crop plants created for human or animal consumption using the latest molecular biology techniques. In his essay “Genetically Modified Foods: An Insight” Raaz Maheshwari (2012) explains that “Genetically modified foods are derived from genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified organisms have had specific changes introduced into their DNA by genetic engineering, using a process of either Cisgenesis or Transgenesis.
These techniques are much more precise than Mutagenesis (mutation breeding) where an organism is exposed to radiation or chemicals to create a non-specific but stable change. ” At the beginning, these crops have a bright and promising future. However, safety of genetically modified foods was started to questioned and become a central issue driving the genetic engineering controversy today (Carman, 2004). Although some scientists claims that food derived from GM crops on the market does not have greater risk to human health than organic foods, there is a idespread research on several negative effects of GM foods , including safety issues, economic concerns and environmental hazards. Recently, concerns about GM foods have raised by all environmental activists, religious organizations, public interest groups, professional associations, other scientists and government officials. Also, they criticized potential hazards of GM food (Whitman, 2000). Specifically, this study posed the research question: What are the general negative effects of genetically modified foods on earth’s ecology and human health.
As I mentioned earlier, humanity always requiring all kind of food. Although they meet their requires from hunting very beginning, agriculture is the main food resources when the first crop harvested. However food resources doesn’t enough for humanity because of huge crowds, because of th? s reason people find a new form of food which named genetically modified foods or biotech foods. These foods derived from genetically modified organisms. Since mid-1900s genetically modified foods using our daily meal and from these time these foods always negotiated. There is no exact consequences of these negotiations.
However, there are lots of negative effects of genetically modified foods on earth’s ecology and human health such as; allergetic diseases, poisoning both human and animals and killing beneficial insects. To begin with, lots of result of researches show us genetically modified foods are dangerous for natural life. According to Batalian(N. D. ) studies about GM products shown that these products can kill beneficial insects which most notably the monarch butterfly larvae. He also said there are other studies related to the death of bees which are died during a contained trial with Monsanto’s Bt cotton, springtails and ladybird beetles.
He said his same essay other studies about GM potatoes, spliced with DNA from the snowdrop plant and a viral parameter, show us these potatoes was poisonous to rats. Between the many insect pollinators of agricultural crops, honey bees are the best known (O’Callaghan, 2005). According to O’Callaghan, cotton nectar is really attractive to them and produces useful honey, but if these cottons are genetically modified from engineers it can be harmful for bees why these cottons not natural and it includes different types of proteins and concentrations.
Another effect of GM foods on natural life about gene transfer to non-target species. Deborah B. Whitman said his article “Another concern is that crop plants engineered for herbicide tolerance and weeds will cross-breed, resulting in the transfer of the herbicide resistance genes from the crops into the weeds. These ‘superweeds’ would then be herbicide tolerant as well. Other introduced genes may cross over into non-modified crops planted next to GM crops. ” Genetically modified foods effects the natural life where the people plant them.
For example GM trees or ‘super-trees’ are being developed which can be sprayed from the air to kill literally all of surrounding life, except the GM trees (Batalian,N. D. ). He also said these trees are often sterile and flowerless which is in contrast to rainforest teaming with life, or where a single tree can host thousands of unique species of insects, fungi, mammals and birds in an interconnected ecosphere. There are also terminator trees which has developed plants with the New Zealand Forest Research Agency to create still more lethal tree plantations.
These super deadly trees are look like super-trees, however these kind leaves exuding toxic chemicals to kill caterpillars and other surrounding insects(Batalian,N. D. ) Like the other effects of GM foods it also causes increasing numbers of resistant pests. According to Mellon (N. D. ), “There are signs that the most popular HT crops-those resistant to the herbicide glyphosate-will lose effectiveness as weeds become resistant to the herbicide. Scientists expect that BT crops, too, will succump to pests that evolve resistance to the BT toxins. Secondly, consumption of genetically modified foods from humans effects their health negatively. First effect of GM foods on human health is allergenicity. According to Bakshi (N. D. ), food allergy is a very important health issue with the prevalence of immunoglobulin E antibody-mediated food allergies among adults being approximately 2% and nearly 5% in children. Bakshi also said consumption of genetically modified foods may trigger allergic reaction. For example Bakshi said kiwi fruit not associated with any allergies in the 1960s.
However , there are some people who are currently allergic to it; the allergenic protein in the kiwi fruit was identified to be actinidin. Bakshi also said “Genetically modified foods can introduce novel proteins into the food supply from organisms that are never consumed as foods. Some of those proteins could be allergenic. ” Second effects of GM foods on human health is antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of an organism to be unaffected by the antibiotic, occurs naturally by evolution. According to Bakshi(N. D. , genetic engineering usually involves the use of genes for antibiotic resistance as ‘selectable markers. ’ These markers help to choose cells that consolidated foreign genes. There are concerns that these chosen genes might recombine with pathogenic bacteria in the environment or with naturally occurring bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals who consume genetically modified food, contributing to the growing public health risk associated with antibiotic resistance for infections that cannot be treated with traditional antibiotics.
It must be true negative effects of GM foods because lots of European countries including Britain have refused to allow the Novartis Bt corn to be grown because the ampicillin resistance gene might be transferred from Bt corn to bacteria which these bacterias making a far less effective antibiotic against bacterial infections (Bakshi,N. D. ). Similarly Bakshi , enhs. umn. edu, said “ In recent years health professionals have become alarmed by the increasing number of bacterial strains that are showing resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics by creating antibiotic resistance genes through natural mutation. Third effect of GM foods on human health is cancer and degenerative diseases. According to article of Batalian (N. D. ) , lots of researches show us GM foods or hormones which is used for increased milk production in cow causes breast and prostate cancer. Also he said some of Canadian researches prove that GM organism which injected rats mammals like humans, this organism damaged thyroid cysts and internal organ. Besides , consuming GM foods causes autoimmune diseases, inflammation, arthritis and lymphoma(Batalian,N. D. ) Lastly, gene transfer from GM foods to body cells can cause disease.
According to WHO(N. D. ), “Gene transfer from GM foods to cells of the body or to bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract would cause concern if the transferred genetic material adversely affects human health. This would be particularly relevant if antibiotic resistance genes, used in creating GMOs, were to be transferred. ” In the light of all above mentioned studies, it could be said that scientist have not discovered the true researches consequences about genetically modified foods. They growth a non-natural nutrition, however they do not know their effects on human body and environment.
It can be cause lots of bad diseases on human body and harm environment. Because it is dangerous for all kind of alive and natural systems, GM foods production processes should be controlled by new ministry and GM foods may be tested before selling in markets. Those who are support GM foods said these foods have benefits on future hunger and they also support we all need these foods in future. According to Feuilherade (2011),humanity needs 40% more foods by the middle of the century and GM foods is the only solution of this big problem.
He also add these foods are healthy for human body because if we change the DNAs of foods, lots of vitamins and drugs may added inside the foods. However, www. webmd. com(N. D. ), mentioned these foods are not natural and has no guarantees, also has some important risks, such as; introducing allergens and toxins to food, accidental contamination between genetically modified and non-genetically modified foods, antibiotic resistance and adversely changing the nutrient content of a crop.
Scientists and governments always discuss this topic, however there is no exact result about harms or benefits of GM foods. Nobody do not know consequences of GM foods. Maybe after 50 years it will cause lots of diseases even will kill millions of people. There should be more and more researches about these foods and scientist and governments should give more importance, also all government which country interest growing GM foods, they should open new ministry and specific research center of GM foods before sell these product to innocence people.
In conclusion, about GM foods, there are lots of researches and its effects on health and environment are not obvious. The scientist will move to improve these foods and sell them billions of people worldwide. With the support of governments and big bosses, poor and ignorant people buy these uncertain foods. Finally, I personally believe that GM foods will cause lots of die forth coming years, because of these reason these procedure should limited and controlled strictly by the government before selling. Also natural agriculture should be supported and use of organic food promoted.