Reading is a complex cognitive process of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension). It is a means of language, of communication, and of sharing information and ideas. Like all language, it is a complex interaction between the text and the reader which is shaped by the reader’s prior knowledge, experiences, attitude, and language community which is culturally and socially situated.
The reading process requires continuous practice, development, and refinement. Readers use a variety of reading strategies to assist with decoding (to translate symbols into sounds or visual representations of speech) and comprehension. Readers may use morpheme, semantics, syntax and context clues to identify the meaning of unknown words. Readers integrate the words they have read into their existing framework of knowledge or schema (schemata theory).
Other types of reading are not speech based writing systems, such as music notation or pictograms. The common link is the interpretation of symbols to extract the meaning from the visual notations. The history of reading dates back to the invention of writing during the 4th millennium BC. Although reading print text is now an important way for the general population to access information, this has not always been the case. 2 With some exceptions, only a small percentage of the population in many countries was considered literate before the Industrial Revolution.
Some of the pre-modern societies with generally high literacy rates included classical Athens and the Islamic Caliphate. Scholars assume that reading aloud (Latin clare legere) was the more common practice in antiquity, and that reading silently (legere tacite or legere sibi) was unusual. In his Confessions, Saint Augustine remarks on Saint Ambrose’s unusual habit of reading silently in the 4th century AD.
Currently most reading is either of the printed word from ink or toner on paper, such as in a book, magazine, newspaper, leaflet, or notebook, or of electronic displays, such as computer displays, television, mobile phones . Handwritten text may also be produced using a graphite pencil or a pen. Short texts may be written or painted on an object. Often the text relates to the object, such as an address on an envelope, product info on packaging, or text on a traffic or street sign. A slogan may be painted on a wall. A text may also be produced by arranging stones of a different color in a wall or road.
Short texts like these are sometimes referred to as environmental print. 3 Sometimes text or images are in relief, with or without using a color contrast. Words or images can be carved in stone, wood, or metal; instructions can be printed in relief on the plastic housing of a home appliance, or a myriad of other examples. A requirement for reading is a good contrast between letters and background (depending on colors of letters and background, any pattern or image in the background, and lighting) and a suitable font size. In the case of a computer screen, not having to scroll horizontally is important.
The field of visual word recognition studies how people read individual words. A key technique in studying how individuals read text is eye tracking. This has revealed that reading is performed as a series of eye fixations with saccades between them. Humans also do not appear to fixate on every word in a text, but instead fixate to some words while apparently filling in the missing information using context. This is possible because human languages show certain linguistic regularities. Reading is typically an individual activity, although on occasion a person will read out loud for the benefit of other listeners.
Reading aloud for one’s own use, for better comprehension, is a form of intrapersonal communication. Reading to young children is a recommended way to instill language and expression, and to 4 promote comprehension of text. Before the reintroduction of separated text in the late middle Ages, the ability to read silently was considered rather remarkable. 5 I. READING TECHNIQUES i. The purpose of this technique is to help you interpret the context of the reading. To sink in the information’s you need to know. You can also easily interpret those books you can read. ii.
You can learn more effective ways to speed up your reading skills and getting knowledge further. A. Have him read aloud. 1. This forces him to go slower, which gives him more time to process what he reads, which improves reading comprehension. Plus, he’s not only seeing the words, he’s hearing them, too. You can also take turns reading aloud. 2. To enhance fluency. Fluency is an essential part of successful reading. Fluency is based on automaticity (a reader’s ability to recognize words automatically). If children are to become both automatic and fluent readers, they need practice.
Preparing to read a text aloud expressively provides children with the time and means to recognize words automatically and to read a text with a high percentage of accuracy. 6 3. To strengthen comprehension. When children use techniques for expressive oral reading, their comprehension of what they are reading dramatically increases. Since fluency is closely tied to comprehension, when children become smoother and more accurate readers they will also become more knowledgeable ones.
4. To develop critical reading skills. For children to read expressively, they must make conscious decisions about how to read and what they should emphasize while they are reading so that they can effectively communicate both the surface and deeper meanings of a text. 5. To develop other important reading skills. When children prepare to read expressively, they will develop competence in grammar, memory, attention, sequencing, and understanding cause and effect. Reading well takes time, focus, and attention; and if children are going to read aloud well, they must give the requisite time, focus, and attention to prepare the text.
As children prepare a text for oral reading, they will gain a greater understanding of how grammatical and rhetorical structures (sentences, stanzas, and paragraphs) work and how the sequencing of words and ideas plays an important role in the delivery of meaning. 7 6. To build confidence. When children read with expressive skills, they will also develop more confidence in themselves as readers. No longer limited either to rapid word-calling or to stumbling over print, children will discover that, with practice and guidance, they can become more fluent, purposeful, and effective readers of the kinds of print material that had previously frustrated or befuddled them. B.
Provide the right kinds of books. 1. Make sure your child gets lots of practice reading books that aren’t too hard. She should recognize at least 90 percent of the words without any help. Stopping any more often than that to figure out a word makes it tough for her to focus on the overall meaning of the story. 2. Almost any book can help build vocabulary and improve writing skills. It was advisable reading as many different genres and as many different books as possible. 3. Letting them choose their own books as soon as they start showing a preference for one over another.
If a book is beyond a child’s reading ability, it can be read to him or her now. 8 4. Finding out what students is interested in, and choose books that are related to his interests either an informational book or a novel in an area of specific interest. 5. Find picture books because of the subject or artwork, will be just right for a young reader , An interesting story in a beautiful, well-illustrated book offers the students an aesthetic experience to enjoy over and over again. 6. Pick books depending on your reading level, no matter what your age. C. Reread 1. If you don’t understand what you are reading, read over the sentence(s) again.
Try reading the words out loud to yourself. If you still don’t understand something, ask a good reader nearby to explain the sentence(s) to you, or simply pick up a book that is easier to read and more appropriate to your reading level. 2. Feel free to use your finger as a pointer. It will keep your eyes focused on the line you are reading, improving your understanding. 3. To gain meaning from text and encourage reading comprehension, your child needs to read quickly and smoothly – a skill known as 9 fluency.
Rereading familiar, simple books gives your child practice at decoding words quickly, so she/he’ll become more fluent in her reading comprehension. 4. The more you read you the more you will remember them. Some of the experts suggest reading a chapter twice and then reading it again before a test.
This technique is definitely effective; it is time-consuming, especially if you read slowly. D. Study Reading Vocabulary 1. As your student reads books, have her make a list of words that were difficult or unfamiliar in the book. Make flashcards of these words, spend some time together talking about the meanings and looking them up in the dictionary. Take turns showing the cards and guessing the words and meanings.
As the student masters each word, remove it from the deck and put it in a place of honor. When the whole deck is mastered, celebrate with a special reward. E. Participate in Library Reading Programs 1. Most libraries offer organized reading programs during school breaks for students based on their school levels. Many of these 10 programs are themed and showcase some of the best works for children and young adults. a. The library staff may host activities based on books and have special events and field trips designed to help students explore the literature on a deeper level.
Librarians are usually happy to help your child and can help find ways to involve all levels of readers within an age group. F. Mind mapping 1. A mind map is a non-linear diagram that makes it easy to capture key thoughts and connections between ideas in a graphical / visual format. Starting with an idea, concept, or question in the center, you capture information by connecting key concepts and thoughts to the central idea. More detailed information related to these thoughts is then captured in branches that radiate out from the key concepts, away from the central idea.
a. It is a useful technique to use while reading, since the non-linear format allows you to view the entirety of your notes at a glance, then easily place new information in the appropriate branch or make connections between ideas. 11 It’s also a useful technique when solving problems or planning projects: start with a question or project description, then capture all ideas or necessary tasks in the appropriate branches. G. Scanning 1. A technique you often use when looking up a word in the telephone book or dictionary. You search for key words or ideas. In most cases, you know what you’re looking for, so you’re concentrating on finding a particular answer.
Scanning involves moving your eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. Scanning is also used when you first find a resource to determine whether it will answer your questions. Once you’ve scanned the document, you might go back and skim it. a. When scanning, look for the author’s use of organizers such as numbers, letters, steps, or the words, first, second, or next. Look for words that are bold faced, italics, or in a different font size, style, or color. 12 b. A process of quickly searching reading materials in order to locate specific bits of information.
When scanning you don’t start from the beginning and read to the end. H. Skimming 1. It is another technique whose purpose is to gain a quick overview in order to identify the main points. When skimming, you will often skip words, sentences, and paragraphs. a. Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. People often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time. Use skimming when you want to see if an article may be of interest in your research. b. The students may read the first and last paragraphs using headings, summarizes and other organizers as they move down the page or screen.
You might read the title, subtitles, subheading, and illustrations. Consider reading the first sentence of each paragraph. This technique is useful when you’re seeking specific information rather than reading for comprehension. Skimming works well to find dates, names, and places. It might be used to review graphs, tables, and charts. 13 I. Make your own study guide 1. An extension of the concept of composing questions about your reading, this technique involves creating a set of possible test questions and answers and studying from those.
Determine what your professor is likely to ask, compose questions, and write the answers under them. Study from your study guide until you feel you know it well. Then create a version that omits the answers and see how well you do answering the questions. Those you miss are the ones you need to study more. J. Recite and teach material to others 1. Many experts swear by the effectiveness of reciting important parts of the reading orally[md]not reading aloud, but reciting section summaries you’ve composed yourself or questions and answers you’ve posed about the reading. Since you might find it awkward to recite aloud with people around, you may want to find a private place.
In the same vein, teaching the material to others can dramatically boost your memory of it. Study groups are an excellent setting for doing so. If all else fails, consider teaching concepts to your dog or one of your stuffed animals. K. Keep reading 1. Try to read as much as you can on your free time. Reading will help you in lots of ways; your vocabulary will become larger and 14 more sophisticated and you will notice your grades change for the better in school. Have fun reading. II. FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENT READING i.
The students nowadays are just refusing to read, Psychological studies have shown that children who become adults who do not read very well are less successful in life than their peers. Of course we can break the reasons why students hate to read down to both medical and psychological factors: 15 A. Medical 1. They may have difficulty seeing the text and need glasses. Or they may have an organic brain disorder B. Psychological 1. They may be a developmental or learning disability such being mentally handicapped or they may have a learning disability such as dyslexia making it extremely difficult to read.
a. Dyslexia is a very broad term defining a learning disability that impairs a person’s fluency or comprehension accuracy in being able to read,  and which can manifest itself as a difficulty with phonological awareness, phonological decoding, processing speed, orthographic coding, auditory short-term memory, language skills/verbal comprehension, and/or rapid naming. C. Other psychological factors 1. They are simply distracted. In the past there were fewer distractions. Today there is TV, video games, and so on, which can take them away from reading. a. Nowadays there are internets that they can read far quicker, you do not have to read books. D. Lack of self-confidence 16 1.
They may feel embarrassed to read out loud which is also related to self-esteem. Some kids will say they don’t like the sound of their voices. They may compare themselves to better readers and feel they are not as good. This may not even be the case. They may be just as good as the other readers. Only, they just fail to see it. E. Boredom 1. They get bored with reading and once the students lose interest in reading it is hard to get them back on board. Some of this boredom can be attributed to the dullness of the classroom reading assignments which have very little to do with the lives of the students who are reading them.
F. Lack of practice 1. If the students are not motivated to read they will not practice. Motivation decreases with age. Even high school students who are good readers can feel like they are climbing a mountain when they have to read a chapter from a book. Without practice students will not develop the required skills and ease of reading. They will not read fast and later on in life this will also affect their university studies when enormous amount reading is requires in many disciplines.
17 a. The ability to read well and comprehend what is read is also crucial for adults in the work, environment, social environment, and at home. III. TIPS ENCOURAGE THEM TO READ A. The first step to read to your child at an early age. 1. Many people have fond memories of their parents reading them bedtime stories, and reading to your child will help foster a love of words and reading. B. Fill your room with books 1. Kids who grow up with books all around them learn to think of books as friends, and allies in their pursuit of adventure and learning. a. The books like encyclopedias, dictionary, atlas, newspapers, magazines, almanac and etc.
C. Be a good reading “role model”. 1. Let them see you reading, and how much you enjoy reading books and magazines. a. Encourage joining you as you read; it can be your “bonding time” with them. D. Introduce them to books that match their interests and hobbies. 18 1. Show them how a good book can expand their knowledge in a particular area, and expand their horizons as well. E. Encourage them to find new books on their own to read. 1. While showing your books is a good way to build their interest level, a child who finds new books on their own can benefit from an increased sense of independence. 2. Let them to choose their own interest book. F. Get your child a library card. 1.
Show them how a library can be a place of wonder and excitement, and can open up whole new worlds of learning to last a lifetime. And then put the library in your schedule, so you will be sure to visit frequently together. G. Setting limitations 1. Set limits on the amount of time your child spends in front of a television or video game console. a. There’s nothing wrong with watching television or playing video games, if you want to child to develop good language and learning skills, make sure they spend just as much time reading a good book. b. They might not like it now, but chances are they’ll thank you
for it later in life. H. Leaving books 1. Leave books in the bathroom within easy reach of the toilet. You are quite likely to pick one up and read it. 19 2. Put books on the breakfast table. You are reading the backs of cereal boxes already. If you have a few books right in the kitchen, these will probably end up on the morning reading menu. a. If you don’t read, it’s unlikely your children will, either. Set a good example. I. Be comfortable 1. Therefore it is wise when you are comfortable reading general material to increase your reading speed as soon as possible. 2. Use a spreadsheet creatively.
Try to read 15 to 20 minutes a day. Also, don’t judge a book by its cover. a. Spreadsheet is a grid that organizes data into columns and rows. Spreadsheets make it easy to display information, and people can insert formulas to work with the data. 3. To get the most comprehension, avoid lying down while reading. While reading in bed can help you relax and fall asleep, you can retain more information by having a good posture while reading. a. For example, sitting straight up and keeping your feet flat on the floor can increase your alertness.
b. Make sure to choose a place that is comfortable for you for the length of time you are going to read your book. This can be a couch, a chair or a bed. 20 Temperature is the most important factor to get comfortable reading. You can adjust the temperature the way you like it to be. If it’s too cold or too hot, then it will make getting comfortable to read a lot harder. The temperature is on you to decide. 4. Clothing. This is also another important factor to getting comfortable to read. You don’t want very tight or too lose clothes that make it not comfortable to read. a. Try wearing pajamas or just sweat pants and a t-shirt. Anything you are comfortable with. 5.
A nice refreshing drink. This step is optional to you. It can depend on where and what time of day or year it is. Hot and warm drinks are great for those cold or cool nights or days. Cold drinks are perfect for those warm hot days and nights. 6. Book. The main thing you are getting ready to read. It can be a book you wanted to read for a long time or just to read for fun. Make sure it’s the book you really want to read. a. Bookmark. This is also optional but highly recommended to have with you when you need to get up and take a break or use the restroom and you don’t want to lose the page you are on. 21 7.
Glasses and contacts. This step is for people with glasses and contacts. Make sure your glasses and contacts are clean enough for you to be able to read the words on the pages of the book. You don’t want dirt to make it hard for you to read. 8. Position is a key to get comfortable to read. You can adjust your position when you are reading to make it comfortable. It can be reading on your back while leaning back on something comfortable, sitting, standing, lying on your stomach, or lying on your side. It’s your choice of position you are comfortable with. a. But as much as possible do not lying on the bed because you
will quickly fall asleep. b. Take a place that have more lights, IV. STUDY WELL BY READING 22 i. By reading you can gather information not even as faster as on the internets but you can learn more from reading. It can improve your vocabulary, grammar and enhancing your self-confidence especially when you speak. ii. In doing any works it is advisable to read, by this you can get the exactly meanings or knowledge you want and you will be having an advance thought from it. A. Get all materials. 1. If you want to study properly, don’t just bring your book. You will need a notebook and pencils, pens and highlighters.
a. Highlights will help you pay more attention when reading rather than reading passively. B. Read it once. 1. During this, read for content. Try to understand the overall message or story. Put a * with a pencil when you read something that you think are important, rare, or stand out. If you want, just read a page at a time. C. Read it again. 1. Read over, and see if the points with the * are still that important. If they are, highlight them. There should be no more than 10 lines on a page that is highlighted.
The highlighted points would help 23 you find important quotes or sentences when you need them later on, or to study for exams. a. You can skip reading it again, and only have to read the highlighted important points. D. Take notes. 1. Pull out your notebook and summarize what you read.
Try to make it as short and precise as possible. a. You can make jot notes or a paragraph, whichever is easier for you to read later on. E. Study. 1. You already read through the passage twice and used your own mind to rewrite and make notes, so it should be stuck in your head. But remember to review every 2-3 days to make sure you don’t forget. a. You can recite it with anyone as much as possible. b. Avoid any distractions.
Don’t read for 2 minutes and text for 2 minutes. Your mind must be 100% on what you are reading. V. ADVANTAGES HAVING LIBRARY AT HOME i. The environment within the library itself highly motivates as there will be alot of focused people who will be down to serious business and thus you will feel motivated to do likewise. 24 ii. A proper library should have all the books you require thus you won’t have to spend much time looking for the books you require. A. You more likely to pick up ‘other’ books. 1.
If you have a reasonably large collection of books at home, you and other members of your family will be exposed to newer authors, genres and styles of writing. And if there is a reading culture at home it will help people pick up books belonging to diverse settings, eras and techniques. a. They are more likely to choose books addressing different issues. For instance, a young adult who only devours say a college romance can be exposed to comic fantasy and steam punk or even poetry.
B. More chances of rereading a book 1. Chances of rereading or in other words revisiting what you just read are higher if you own the book and if the book is well within reach. So chances of pulling out a motivational book from your personal library when you are feeling low are higher when the books are just stacked and kept away in your cupboard.
a. Some people are in the habit of marking important lines, writing foot notes especially beside their reads so that they can glance at what they picked up from the book. This is a great practice and truly ensures that you make the most of 25 what you have read and pick up books from your personal collection. C. Discussing with friends 1. Once you to get into the groove you could have a monthly book reading and eventually kids will follow suit.
If you have good books at home they will be exposed to newer names, authors, genres, lessons all encouraging. D. Treasuring books 1. If you keep your library well, kids too will learn to treasure books and keep them well organized. They will eventually learn valuable lessons from the books they read and will learn to love their books too.
26 CONCLUSION: Reading can be a tool, to achieve success. it gives us a lot of information and ideas that we can use to our everyday life. By reading we can increase our self-confidence with this we can competitively speaking in any people. It can be improved or vocabularies, grammars, and know more languages.
There lots of more if we read we can bring out the best on us, but the problem nowadays of the students they loss of attention in there reading habits, instead of reading to get the information they need they prefer to use the internet, we all know that all of our need ideas can’t be get in them. Are can be solve by using the techniques that are written ahead. Your friends and family can motivate you. As I’ve said it can be your “bonding time”. Reading is much fun as you think, if you just explore your imagination while you read. If you will be reading my work I’m sure you will learn more from it. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
27 A special thank you goes to those who contributed to this paper: My sister Roby Jane Gayas valuable comments and sharing her knowledge. To my friends who directly contribute to the development of my research and a special thanks’ to my family supported on me all through the way. REFERENCES : Cornelissen PL, Kringelbach ML, Ellis AW, Whitney C, Holiday IE, Hansen PC (2009). Aleman, Andre. ed. “Activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus in the first 200 ms of reading: evidence from magnetoencephalography (MEG)”. PLoS ONE 4 (4): e5359. “NINDS Dyslexia Information Page”. National Institute for Neurological.
Disorders and Stroke. Retrieved November 12, 2011. Sanabria Diaz G, Torres Mdel R, Iglesias J et al. (November 2009). “Changes in reading strategies in school-age children”. Span J Psychol 12 (2): 441– 53. PMID 19899646. Carver, Ronald P. (1990). Reading rate: a review of research and theory. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-162420-X. Legge GE, Mansfield JS, Chung ST (March 2001). “Psychophysics of reading. XX. Linking letter recognition to reading speed in central and peripheral vision”. Vision Research 41 (6): 725–43. doi:10. 1016/S0042-6989(00)00295-9. PMID 11248262. http://www. wikihow. com/Improve-Your-Reading-Skills.
http://esl. about. com/od/englishreadingskills/a/readingskills. htm 28 http://www2. le. ac. uk/offices/ld/resources/study/reading http://www. pickthebrain. com/blog/improve-reading-comprehension/ http://www. wikihow. com/Category:Improving-Reading-Skills http://braindance. com/bdiread3. htm http://www. bookchums. com/blog-detail/about-books/advantages-of-a-wellstocked-home- library/Mjgx. html Mind Maps as Classroom Exercises John W. Budd The Journal of Economic Education , Vol. 35, No. 1 (Winter, 2004), pp. 35-46 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. Article Stable URL: http://www. jstor. org/stable/30042572.
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