This research topic “necessity is the mother of invention. Evaluate this statement in relation to scientific and technological experiment.” was chosen for studying in the area of informatics study. However, the research topic was seemed to be in the philosophical term to understand the basic need of technology more than the informatics subject, which deals with creating and developing of computer study. So that this topic needed past experience and historical background to be evaluated, but didn’t need much in education background because the topic wasn’t related to the theory or language of computer study. The topic in this area was very interested for future study because it could helps in understanding and forecasting the need of society need when developing or creating new technology or inventions which lead to the success in business. These are the fact of this chosen topic.
The analysis of the research topic
The research question is “Necessity is the mother of invention. Evaluate this statement in relation to scientific and technological experimentation”. The key words that show the content of the question are “Necessity is the mother of invention”. The relationship of this question is to show the relation between necessity and invention that necessity is the cause of the invention or not. The requirement of the question is to prove the relationship between necessity and invention by evaluates the statement according to scientific and technological experiment. The proposes of the thesis are to show that to what extent does necessity be the mother of invention and to evaluate according to scientific and technological experimentation. Three areas were analyzed during the study.
These three areas, which are communication, industry, and medicine, were studied in the area that involve in scientific and technological experimentation. The communication was studied to understand its necessity and invention of the present. The industry was studied to analyze the situation of necessity in the economical competition, which lead to the use of invention. The medicine was studied to show why it is very necessary to human life and what are the alternative inventions that come after. So all evidences were collected to support the thesis of the research question and its purposes that the study defends an argument on the proving of the necessity that lead to the invention. The diagram on the next page shows the structure of the analysis of the research topic.
The Research Method
The research was carried out in three steps. The first step was to understand the research topic by searching for definition, background history, and general information from the source books and journal articles. Then all the information was evaluated to find out which areas are mostly involved in the research topic and range, which is the scientific and technological experimentation. The second step was the collection of data to find the relevant information. The information was analyzed according to the relevancy to the research area, the objectivity of the author, and the period spent on collecting of the data. Then third step, the limitation of the information will be analysis on the certain aspects of the topic areas of the scientific and technological experimentation. Therefore, the research will focus only the necessity and invention in the areas of scientific and technological experimentation. Most of the sources that use in the research were some kinds of business and social case study such as “Cleft palate case in the medicine study”(Singer and Bergthold, 2001, pp.2161-2230).
Cotterell, A. (1988). An overview of research and co-operation in advanced information technology. In A. Cotterell, Advanced Information Technology in the New Industrial Society (pp.1-27). New York: Oxford University Press.
Written for expert manager who involve in information technology that want to find out which technologies are matched for their business area. This chapter describe about new technologies that involves in industry and focus on future technology. The improvements of communication and computer storage are used to compare in industry area to explain how necessity are they. Also, this chapter explains the expert system in new technology to shown that new technologies have invented new ideas in the industry.
Fuglsang L. (1993). The “soft” information technologies and its critics: the risk of wild policy making in science and technology. In L. Fuglsang, Technology and New Institution (pp.54-96). Denmark: Copenhagen.
Written for computer managers that involve in information system research and development of technology in future research. These chapter focuses on what invention creates by the risks which cause when new science and technology are emerging while old are crisis. The history of technology over 50 years is used to prove that risks cause necessity to create invention of new technology.
Hall, B.J. (2000). Use of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients: Was invention the mother of necessity? Journal of the American Medical Association, 283(19), 2577-2578.
This article has been written for doctor and hospital that involve in surgery area. This article discusses two studies regarding the use of pulmonary artery catheters in critically ill patients and the process of its future evaluation. The use of pulmonary artery catheters is necessary for the medicals and surgical intensive units (ICUs). It helps to manage critically ill patients.
Singer, S., & Bergthold L. (2001). Cosmetic vs. reconstructive surgery for cleft palate: A window into medical necessity debate. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(17), 2162-2203.
This article has been written for doctor in plastic surgery and people who interest in cosmetic surgery. Medical necessity is a term that used in most commercial health plan to create invention. This article is focus about plastic surgery for a cleft palate, and the debate about whether the surgery is cosmetic or reconstructive. But because of medical necessity can mean different things to different people and organization, so it could be both general meaning.
Stewart, J. (1992). Technological change and industrial location. In J. Stewart, The Management of Science and Technology (pp.110-192). Denmark: The Australian National University.
This book has been written for educator and manager that involve in information technology and works on the productive area of research. This chapter focus on Just-in-Time system, which is the new industry system that create by the competition in the world economic. Because of competition in the market industrial investment, the Just-in-Time system is used to because it is necessary to control cost and increase profit.
Tate, A. N., Clayton B.S. & Gourley K.G. (2001). Development and implementation of a managed care rotation in medical necessity review: Exposing students to new opportunities. Journal of American Pharmaceutical Education, 65(3), 261-307.
The purpose of this journal is for fourth-year PHD students to design a rotation in managed care through medical necessity review. The rotation involved working with the Tennessee department of Health’s TennCare Appeals Units. It shows how the impact of pharmacists can have on patients’ lives. They claim by using professional development experience to show the advantage of utilizing pharmacists.
The Literature Review
The five articles that are reviewed focus mainly on scientific and technological experiments, which separate into three major areas. These three areas are communication, industry, and medicine. The writers ‘s attitude toward the study of information technology and science, which are used in society, raised a very detailed discussion and neatly analysis on the proving of necessity as mother of invention. The sub-topics in each area contain important information involve in necessity of both individual and social points of view. Evidence is provided completely from all sources and can accurately be used to prove that necessity is the mother of invention as reasons and evidences. The purpose of the review is to make a clearly analysis on these six articles toward similarities and differences in their areas.
The first article, an overview of research and co-operation in advanced information technology by Arthur Cotterell, mostly represents in the area of communication. In this article, he discusses that the communication is important to the future of society. Cotterell compares the different between old and new mediums of communication, which lead to the social necessity. He explained the medium clearly in details and supported by using a city named Swindon (Cotterell, 1988, p.26), which wildly use fiber optic (medium) as his evidence. The successful of the fiber optic is picked up to prove his documents. In the second article by Jenny Stewart, “Technological change and industrial location”, represents in industry area, which focus mainly in competition in market industry investment and scarcity of natural resource for industrial manufacturing. She points and explains the effect of competition and scarcity lead to the change of new system.
The Just-In-Time (JIT) system, which is a new information system, is used to compare how efficiency it is with the old system. This system is the very successful system that helps reduce and eliminate cost, waste, and speed in production. She analyse automotive industry in Australia, which success in this system, as her evidence. The smaller, more technological advanced players, and accurate in the industry is the main point of the invention in this article. The third article, which is written by Fuglsang, in the article, he expresses the meaning specifically of how and why invention is created (Fuglsang, 1993, pp.54-96). The main point of his article is to show that when the time is running and population is increasing, they cause the old invention to become crisis and it is necessary to invent something new to replace the old. This article can be used as theory and reason to explain and clearly support all three areas of communication, industry, and medicine.
The phases of invention development are used to show the steps of scientific and technological improvement. In each phase provide the evidence of the development of invention clearly since past fifty years when a manual turning-machine was created to the automatic machine are used. He also supports his evidence by using the development of American technology. He mentions that the growing application of new technologies in society creates a need, so it is very important to studies more about technology network in political process. The forth article written by Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold, they mainly represents in the area of medicine. This article focuses on medical necessity by compare the different between cosmetic surgery and reconstructive surgery. They support the document that medical necessity in the area of surgery is really necessity by using “health plans” (Singer and Bergthold, 2001, p.2162). This health plans is medical necessity standard that use permanently all over the world. They also comment generally that social viewing among medical necessity in surgery is also included in some case.
The case of a cleft palate patient is used to analysis and discusses the different between cosmetic and reconstructive case. Then they argue and support that medical necessity determinations involving the condition that proven to be especially problematic not self-desirable. The fifth article written by Jesse B. Hall, “Use of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients: Was invention the mother of necessity?” the article show that pulmonary artery catheters is necessary to most patients that involve in heart, lung, and blood problems. He analysed this technology from 10217 patients in 34 medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in 1998. According to Hall, the pulmonary artery is used in the case that no medicine can used to cure the sickness. He suggests that this invention still has high risk, so this is very necessary to improve this invention to help critically ill patients and the process of its future evaluation.
All issues in five sources, which written by Arthur Cotterell, Jenny Stewart, Fuglsang, Jesse B. Hall and Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold, are considered very important to show the audience the historical and current significance of continuity about necessity as mother of invention in the term of scientific and technological experiment. This is because when the old invention is considered as the necessity for the future improvement, the continuing improvement to the new invention will be created. Arthur Cotterell writes about the use of communication medium during the past 10 years until the use of new medium today (Cotterell, 1988, p.26). His examples of twisted pair and fiber optic cable show the fact that the why the increase of performance of new medium are used by the change in society. It shows the audience clearly the distance between time in the past and present of social necessity. This article also talks about the rapidly increases of necessity which lead to the improvement of new medium in the future continuously. In the issue of Jenny Stewart and Fuglsang have the similar area in the industry that also express the same meaning of need in the industry. Jenny Stewart shows the change in industry system by using automotive industry in Australia since 1990 (Stewart, 1992, p.124).
Fuglsang shows the rationalization phase (Fuglsang, 1993, p.56), which is one of 4, phases in technological invention development. This phase analyses from the past 50 years of the development. Both Jenny Stewart and Fuglsang’s article shows the change in the industry, which involves in commercial interests and competition. This article helps to show the link between competition and tutorial in the industry, which leads to the use of the new invention. In the rest of the issues from Jesse B. Hall, and Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold are involved in medicine area that involve in the surgery. Jesse B. Hall talks about the result of the use of pulmonary artery catheter (Hall, 2000, pp.2577-2578). This result shows the need of cosmetic surgery among the people who have problem of the natural disable of the body and also explain the use of the invention to help solve the problem.
Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold article also help to shows that since from the past the meaning of medical necessity is mean only reconstruction to the normal state of patients. Both issues from Jesse B. Hall, and Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold come form the different medical case but they have similar thesis, which are medical necessity that lead to the invention of new medical invention. All the writers come from the different areas but they have the same meaning of their issues that the continuing of the time lead to the increase of need of invention in both new and improvement. So that their issues are strongly support the statement that necessity creates the invention in the part of science and technological experimentation.
There are three articles which surely are the objective of the writers when they present research their research results and evidence to support their arguments because these articles provide complete information and details of the document. The first article, which is objective, by Arthur Cotterell supports and expresses the meaning of his argument clearly by using the complete examples and information of communication mediums (Cotterell, 1988, pp.1-27). He shows the detail number of capacity, speed, range, and material made in each medium sample clearly. He also compares the different in each medium by mathematical calculation. This helps audience to easily understand the different even technical term. The second article, which is objective, from Fuglsang is objective because he has the acknowledgment from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States (Fuglsang, 1993, pp.54-96). His article and support evidences come from the case studies in Denmark, US, and Sweden. They are emphasis and detail clearly on the influence of culture, organizational choices and institutional concerns through research.
The third article, which is objective, from Jenny Stewart is objective because her argument and sources come from the federalism research centre (Stewart, 1992, pp.110-192). She provides the information clearly in the example of automotive industry in Australia in percentage of profit, time, competitor, and increase of product output. The other two articles from Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold, and Jesse B. Hall are not objective because they provide the information too general. It is general because the information they provide is not specific in number of result from the succession in medical treatment. Both of them show only the result from the invention by using only reasons, causes and effects after treatment (Singer and Bergthold, 2001, 2162-2203).
This is because most of the article is the summary of the result of the cleft palate research, so that they just mention about the need and future development, which result from the succession of cleft palate surgery. Although they don’t provide completely information, the area that they work is in medicine area, which concentrates only the result of necessity. So that their article can express their main ideas easy and clearly understand by using reason, cause, and effect documents. By compare all the articles which each others, the information that provided by the authors are enough to support the necessity of invention by using their specific details and information, research, reasons, causes, and effects. Their sources are considered as essential in comparative and explaining the necessity as mother of information in scientific and technological experiment.
The interpretation of data is clearly in all five sources because all data can be analyse to evaluate the need of the research topic in relation to scientific and technological experiment easily. The relationship between the necessity and the invention is linked in clearly understand. There are three different ways in their interpretation of data. The first way is represented by the article of Arthur Cotterell. He interprets his information by explain the detail of old communication medium and new communication medium in technical term and estimated calculation of speed, capacity, and range. For example, he explains that twisted-pair could carry 10Khz but if compare with fiber optic (Cotterell, 1988, p.26), fiber optic is faster than twisted-pair million times. He also clarifies the use of fiber optic that it uses in linking between two or more networks and twisted-pair uses in local phone line. The second way is represented by Fuglsang and Jenny Stewart.
They interpret their sources by using the result of the time in the industrial development. They show the change and need since from the past and result of it in the present. The time between standardization and rationalization is used by the author to show the relation of the improvement of the invention from first creation to the first development (Fuglsang, 1993, 56-56). The third way is represented by Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold, and Jesse B. Hall. They interpret their sources by using the result of their information, which is the specific in medication. They summarize the result of medication from the patient and use it to support their argument. The research result of the patient in a cleft palate case is used to analysis the term of medical necessity in the surgery area of medicine.
The result after the surgery is used to compare that the surgery is reconstructive surgery not cosmetic surgery. In comparison of all the writers, they interpret all data clearly. All the data are separated into three areas, which Arthur Cotterell is in communication area, Fuglsang and Jenny Stewart are in Industry area, and Singer S. and Linda Bergthold, and Hall are in medicine area. There interpretation of data can support each others and express their understanding in analyse that necessity as mother of invention clearly.
There are three articles that are conducted the research thoroughly in order to prove the points by the writers. The complete research could help the claim of research topic to become more strong and reliable without being counter by other argument. Arthur Cotterell, Singer S. and Linda Bergthold, and Jenny Stewart are the writers who do their research thoroughly. Arthur Cotterell researches neatly on the information system research, which express all the meaning, material used, quality, and performance of each medium between communications clearly (Cotterell, 1988, p.15-27). He use a city name Swindon to do his research. This city is widely use in fiber optic and coaxial cable to link between communication which mean that it is a very efficiency sources to use on communication research. Singer S. and Linda Bergthold research on the medical necessity on surgery course. They use a patient who was born with cleft palate problem as their research (Singer and Bergthold, 2001, pp.2162-2180). They clearly research on the result before and after that patient take the surgery.
They also research on the health plan of the medical standard and analyse it with medical theory as the reconstructive medication. Jenny Stewart researches on the Australia industry. She finds out that the reasons of necessity in industry come from the competition, which lead to the need of more flexible, fast, and efficiency technology(Stewart, 1992, p.124-192). This led her to find out the new system, Just-in-Time system, and research it on the Australia automotive industry. She has the result of how efficiency and profitability it is. The other sources from Fuglsang and Jesse B. Hall are not researched thoroughly because they get the information from general source directly without fully detail.
Fuglsang picks up the history to speak to support the argument but the detail on his suggestion seem not clear on details and analysis. From Arthur Cotterell, Singer S., and Linda Bergthold, and Jenny Stewart research, they are very to understand their point of view from their research and directly connect audience to the understanding. The clearly details and information of their research link their ideas to the necessity as mother of invention in the scientific and technological experiment.
From five sources, there are four sources that provide practical and realistic suggestion by the writers. The practical and realistic of suggestion can help the article to become more clear and ease of understanding. First is Jenney Stewart, she suggests that future of the industry needs smaller, more technological advanced players, and accuracy (Stewart, 1992, p.125). The writer suggestion shows that her study is very important to the use of technology for the future use. Her suggestion is proved by her comparative of old technology and new technology that show the change of size, quality, quantity, and speed. Second is Arthur Cotterell, he suggested that by the help of computer-aided design would help to avoid a lot of tentative material cutting. The writer suggestion shows that his study is very important for the industry to increase their performance of the system. This is very useful in showing the relationship between necessity and invention.
Third is Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold, they suggest that cosmetic or treatments intended primarily to improve appearance is exclude in medical necessity standard (Singer and Bergthold, 2001, p.2162). The writers’ suggestions are used for people to understand that the purpose of surgery is different in some case because some case could count as personal desirable such as cosmetic. This shows the relation between medical necessity and invention clearly. They support their suggestion by evaluate the cleft palate in the medical necessity term and health plans.
Forth is Fuglsang, he suggests that the growing application of new technologies in society creates a need to assign a more offensive and organized role to technology studies networks in the political process. This suggestion shows that his detail on study is very important for who is interested in technological development. The writer proves his suggestion by evaluate and show the need over past 50 years of the development of information and communication technologies in four phases (Fuglsang, 1993, p.55-58). From all the suggestion of all writers could help the audience to know what are the main interests in on the articles of the writers, which are very useful.
There is no surely use of expert opinion from all the writers. They haven’t pick up any expert opinion but they adapt to use another people and place from other sources as their expert opinion. The expert opinion on the article of Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold is not mentioned clearly. They use the term physician as their expert opinion to help support their argument in consider appropriate medication for a patient, such as treatment intended primarily to improve appearance. As same as Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold, Jenny Stewart doesn’t use expert opinion but she uses other opinion, Lamming (1998), who is one from her source. Lamming talks about the industry remaining effectively in “stress period”. This opinion helps audience understand the best period of industry development.
In the article of Fuglsang L., this writer use Sloth Andersen and Slavo Radosevic, who are not mention clearly who are they, as the expert opinion. They talk about an innovation forum, which help to support the writer about the change of technology during a century so that the view of technological change would be see as the important to the new invention. The rest of the writers do not have any expert opinion to support their argument. But in the case of their writing, the support of expert opinion is not important because the evidences and examples are enough to call as expert opinion in the case of science and technological experiment.
In conclusion, all of the five articles are clearly review, analyse, and can be reliable. All the sources talks in the areas of communication, industry, and medicine by using variety of evidence and alternative ways of using expert opinion. The objectivity of each writers are confirm in all sources and the interpretation are very clear. The thoroughness of treatment of the subject matter could confidentially be used from the analysis. Each suggestion from all writers are mentioned mostly point to the future use and analysis. For further research the study of more variety of necessity in creating invention must be more research and study to express their meaning widely in different area. This could help to look and analysis more widely in today and future development of invention. But the main point of all reviews is to find out the best ways to the result of successful future.
The Limitations of research
This research limited by certain factors. The research was limited by some limitations of the topic. The personal factor was caused by the research topic is not directly related to the past experience and educational background but mostly related to the philosophical area which is not computer study. This caused the lack of some specific or direct information that could help analyze the topic more efficiency. Another reason is the topic question is some kind of question that can answer in two ways that people could agree and disagree depends one the personal opinion so that the degree of the answer to the question is not strong enough. This caused some part of the argument easy to be counter by some situation in both side of agree and disagree.
The suggestions for future study
The problems of limitation of research need some suggestions to be made for future study. Firstly to solve the problem of lacking in specific education background, this research needs the specific education of philosophy and psychology to help provide more specific and strong supported information for the term of human necessity. This can help to improve the supported argument of the essay to become more reliable. This future study can do by focus on the continuous of inventions in each area in term of psychology, which will be very helpful in this research. The research doesn’t need to find out the started point or the first creation of the invention because this essay was only focusing in present invention.
Second future study is by searching more support from the expert opinion to help solve the limitation of unstable argument due to the meaning of research topic, which is too wide in general. The more researched findings of supported expert opinions can strongly help to support the argument and make the research become more reliable. This could be done by focus on the expert opinions that involve in the succession in each area of industry, medicine, and communication. The success of expert opinions is more reliable and couldn’t be counter by other argument easily. In conclusion, if all suggestions of future study are completely finished the research will not have any blank spaces to be counter by other counter argument.