The nature nurture debate is where philosophers and theorist argue that we are born to be the way we are. Other theorist argues that it is the way we are brought up and influenced by the areas surrounding us (environment).
Genetics plays a vital role in the development of the human life as some disorders cannot be prevented as they are genetically predisposed, genetics determine your eye colour the same way it will develop the brains efficiency. Take Down syndrome for example if there is three copies of chromosomes 21 are present. This genetic deficiency is a fact as it occurs throughout all races no matter what their surrounding environment is like. Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the lungs, pancreas, liver and intestines. Cystic Fibrosis is caused by a mutation in the gene for protein. Cystic Fibrosis is common in a lot of race and gender and is not determined by the surrounding environment as it is caused when the neither of the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is working as a result of mutation and therefore inheritance.
Sickle cell anaemia is a genetic blood disorder, it is more common in people with a sub tropical background, is called a disease as it is inherited abnormality causes pathological condition which can lead to death. When a person inherits only one gene for the condition (from either their mother or father) they are said to have ‘sickle-cell trait’. This trait may result in problems if the person becomes short of oxygen. I believe that the baby with Down syndrome is nature as the baby was born with these defects and had no say in what its social, intellectual and emotional needs were or how its development could progress as it grew.
Biological factors can also influence how a person can develop as they grow up into adulthood. It can be determined by how their mother behaved through her pregnancy, Biological defects such as foetal alcohol syndrome which is caused when a high level of alcohol is consumed during pregnancy, this can lead to psychological or behavioural problems and can also lead to other physical defects. Infections during pregnancy can also cause defects such as Rubella; if the mother becomes infected with Rubella it can cause the baby to have hearing impairments or eyesight impairments.
Cytomegalovirus is another infection that can cause deafness or learning difficulties. These biological infections before birth can affect the quality of a person’s life in which way they are treated by others. I believe that the baby that was born with Foetal alcohol syndrome is nature as the baby had no say in how its development was going to be but I also believe that its nurture as it was the mother’s lifestyle choices determined how the baby would develop socially, intellectually and emotionally.
Environmental and lifestyle experiences. Air and water pollution can influence development and be a major source of ill health. Cholera is a life threatening disease which is caused by poor sanitation and sewerage around cities. There was also a major concern that lead pollution in the air could cause a malfunction in brain development of young people. Other gases that are polluting the air such as motor vehicle fumes can cause ill health this applies more to people who live near busy roads.
Access to leisure facilities may be limited to some people, so exercise may be limited which means that someone who is living further away may experience obesity which can cause heart attacks and strokes these can be fatal if the person doesn’t do something to try and reduce the risk. Family which is a social group of people that are genetically related or by marriage, families can influence the way a person development in ways such as; * Families are where attachment and our first ever emotional attachment happen. * They provide are first experience of social interaction. * They influence our social views.
* Families support each other emotionally and help us deal with stress. All families are different and may experience different ways of living as some families may have stress about their financial situation and poor housing. If a family is experiencing stress it can have an effect on the young children as it may make it hard for them to concentrate when they are in school, if there is a problem with over crowdedness in a house a child may find it hard to develop self confidence due to constant emotional tension. The local community which consists of family and a wider range of people. Some families will have different religious views which their children will become a part of. Some families will come from a background where there is a distinctive sense of neighbourhood – where neighbours will come together to discuss local and social issues.
The community where you grow up may have influenced your mother and father’s attitudes and beliefs which they will pass on to their children and bring them up to have the same beliefs and views. Communities are influenced by what the watch and hear through the media which includes newspapers, radio and television etc. Peers groups can also influence children, peer groups provide a second option of social learning as children or adolescents might copy the attitudes and beliefs of their friends. I believe that the environment and families play apart in the development of a child and that nurture can determine how as a person we grow socially, intellectually and emotionally.
Stretch, Beryl Whitehouse, Mary (06/2007) BTEC National Health and Social care Book 1 (Harlow, Essex,) Pearson Education Limited