The history of the DPWH stretches back as far as the history of Philippine government itself. During Spanish times, the Spanish constructed the first roads in the Philippines using significant forced labor. These public works projects were not only used in the connection of towns and fortresses, but also in improving communications. As Spain expanded the scale of its public works projects, it resorted to a policy of attraction through public works projects.
In 1867, in order to pursue this objective, the King of Spain by decree designated the Spanish Governor-General as the Chief of Public Works assisted by Junta Consultiva through a Royal Degree in 1867. Joan Lucero It was in 1868 that the DPWH was born as the Bureau of Public Works and Highways, or Obras Publicas. Alongside the Bureau of Communications and Transportation (Communicaciones y Meteologia), now the Department of Transportation and Communications, the BPWH was organized under a civil engineer known as the “Director General”. It was responsible for all public works projects being done in the islands.
During the Philippine Revolution, public works duties were assumed by a new department known as the Department of War and Public Works (DWPW). Although initially included in the portfolio of the Department of War (now the Department of National Defense), public works projects were so important to the war effort that public works were also prioritized through this department. During the American period, public works projects were initially put in the hands of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. However, this was transferred to a department known as the “Provincial Supervisions” on February 6, 1901.
This eventually became the Department of Commerce and Police (DCP) in 1902, with two public works-related agencies, the Bureau of Engineering and Construction for public works projects and the Bureau of Architecture and Construction for the construction of public buildings. Both agencies were eventually merged into a bureau known as the Bureau of Public Works and was eventually subsumed into the DCP during reorganization in 1905. To keep pace with further developments in transportation and communications, the DCP was transformed into the Department of Commerce and Communications (DCC) in 1921.
In 1931, the DCC was renamed by the Philippine Legislature the Department of Public Works and Communication (DPWC). Upon the inauguration of the Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935, the DPWC was reorganized to contain the following bureaus: the Bureau of Public Works, Ports, Aeronautics, Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Metropolitan Water District Division of Marine, Railway and Repair Shop, National Radio Broadcasting, the Irrigation Council and Board of Examiners for Civil, Mechanical, Chemical and Mining Engineers.
During World War II, the DPWC’s offices were destroyed in the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. It resumed operations in 1946, albeit with limited funds and manpower. To assist reconstruction efforts, the U. S. Bureau of Public Roads set up an office in the Philippines to coordinate with the Philippine Bureau of Public Works in implementing the Philippine highway network, which was in ruins. The DPWC was renamed in 1951 the Department of Public Works, Transportation and Communications, or DPWTC. In 1954, a body named the Bureau of Public Highways was established. This became a separate department on July 1, 1974.
Two years later, with the adoption of the 1976 amendments to the 1973 Constitution, the department became the Ministries of Public Works, Transportation and Communications, and Public Highways, respectively. In 1979, the MPWTC was split into two ministries, the Ministry of Public Works (MPW) and the Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC), now renamed as the Department of Transportation and Communications. On January 30, 1987, with the approval of the 1987 Constitution, the MPW was merged with the former Ministry of Public Highways to become the present-day DPWH.
Preface Education is the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and ideas resulting from a continuous process of experiencing and changing from the beginning to the end of life, both in and out of school. The Chief aim of this piece of work is to offer help by way of guide and suggestions to those who are taking the course Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. It does not pretend, however, to be all inclusive and to supplement entirely such books and experiences dealing the subjects. Students are encouraged to read further in the subjects if they wish and expect to expand their knowledge.
They may allude or refer to the suggested references listed under the bibliography. It is not the words to read but to understand. To whom credit and appreciation are due, the undersigned sincerely acknowledges them. Acknowledgment In colorful days passed by, in a moment of sadness or happiness, in sunrises and sunsets that gives a meaningful day to everyone. For a long time of conversation and hardship that I’ve suffered every night time in making this piece of work, I ought them my success and what I could give them in return is my whole-hearted gratitude and humble prayer for them.
So I now take the opportunity to convey my most profound and whole-hearted gratitude to the following: God, for giving me strength, wisdom, and vision; who blessed me with his grace and blessings; My family, especially my beloved parents who encouraged, inspired, supported and guided me toward reaching a piece of success; To the members of the Management team of Department of Public Works and Highways- Cagayan Tuguegarao Third District Engineering Office especially to the Maintenance Section and Quality control and Hydrologic Section, for taking their time out looking for some files and books and letting me borrow for as long as I need them.
To our understanding and loving College Dean, Engr. Fares G. Corpuz, whom with him guidance and supervision, handled me fruitful success. To my friends who extended their hands and gave their hearts whenever they are needed. And all others who, in one way or another, helped me make this possible. Dedication In doing something, it is done for a purpose. When there is a purpose, it is done by a will. And when one is willing to do something is inspired. He is inspired because there is an inspiration and it is because one is inspired in something, therefore after attaining something he dictates it to that thing.
My success is not a mere success aided by others but it is also a success done by inspiration of some people. For this piece of work, I humbly dedicate to my loving, understanding, and supportive parents. It is not their pieces of advice that they’ve given to me is my basis or measurement but it my will to show the willingness to do what I have to prove as they are my inspiration together with my brothers, sisters and friends who guided and lead me to success.
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