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Nano Robots Essay

ABSTRACT:

Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer (10−9 meters). More specifically, nanorobotics refers to the still largely hypothetical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots, devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometers and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. As no artificial non-biological Nanorobots have yet been created, they remain a hypothetical concept. The names nanobots, nanoids, nanites or nanomites have also been used to describe these hypothetical devices.

INTRODUCTION:

There are pressing needs in biological research today: the cost of getting new drugs to market is estimated to be 1$ billion by 2015, time to market has increased and failure rates remain shockingly high. Illnesses such as cancer,neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases continue to ravage people around the world. The broad field of nanomedicine seeks to address many of these needs in biology, creating the not so quite as broad discipline of nanobiotechnology. In the last decade, progress in developing nano sized hybrid therapeutics and drug delivery systems has been remarkable. These nanoscale and often multicomponent constructs can be seen as the first nanomedicines, already bringing clinical benefits. A good flow of related technologies is also in development. But are these ‘Nanomedicines’ really new? The educated answer is ‘not really’. The concepts of antibody-conjugates, liposomes and polymer-conjugates stem from the 1970s.

At first, they were seen as competing technologies; only one would emerge as a ‘magic bullet’ for all drugtargeting applications. But each has advantages and disadvantages. Antibodies have exquisite potential for selective targeting but, even as humanized proteins, can be immunogenic. Liposomes have high drug-carrying capacity, but can either release drug too quickly or entrap it too strongly and are prone to capture by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), even when polymer coated. Similarly, it is hard to steer nanoparticles away from the RES after intravenous injection. The ideal delivery system often merges benefits of two or more technologies. As we mark the birth of nanomedicine, it is worth reflecting on the revolution it could bring to healthcare.

It is essential that benefits of genomics and proteomics research and advances in drug delivery, are quickly harnessed to realize improvements in diagnosis and therapy. Nanotechnology is already making a key contribution, but this is just the start. There are opportunities to design nanosized, bioresponsive systems able to diagnose and then deliver drugs (theranostics), and systems able to promote tissue regeneration and repair (in disease, trauma and ageing), circumventing chemotherapy. These ideas may seem like science fiction, but to dismiss them would be foolish. Risks and benefits must be addressed carefully to yield useful and safe\ technologies. An interdisciplinary approach will ensure that the exciting potential of nano medicine’s many facets will be a practical reality in the foreseeable future.

The tightly-integrated interdisciplinary team of medical researchers, pharmaceutical scientists, physicists, chemists, and chemical engineers, has an extensive range of expertise to facilitate research on nanomedicine.The long term goal is the development of novel and revolutionary bio molecular machine components that can be assembled and form multi-degree-offreedom nanodevices that will apply forces and manipulate objects in the nanoworld, transfer information from the nano to the macro world, and travel in the nanoenvironment. These machines are expected to be highly efficient, controllable, economical in mass production, and fully operational with minimal supervision. These ultraminiature robotic systems and nano-mechanical devices will be the biomolecular electro-mechanical hardware of future biomedical applications(IGERT).

NANOROBOTS: WHAT ARE THEY?

Nanorobots are theoretical microscopic devices measured on the scale of nanometers (1nm equals one millionth of 1 millimeter). When fully realized from the hypothetical stage, they would work at the atomic, molecular and cellular level to perform tasks in both the medical and industrial fields that have heretofore been the stuff of science fiction. Nanomedicine’s nanorobots are so tiny that they can easily traverse the human body. Scientists report the exterior of a nanorobot will likely be constructed of carbon atoms in a diamondoid structure because of its inert properties and strength.

Super-smooth surfaces will lessen the likelihood of triggering the body’s immune system, allowing the nanorobots to go about their business unimpeded. Glucose or natural body sugars and oxygen might be a source for propulsion and the nanorobot will have other biochemical or molecular parts depending on its task. Nanomachines are largely in the researchand-development phase [1], but some primitive molecular machines have been tested. An example is a sensor having a switch approximately .

DISADVANTAGES

• The initial design cost is very high.
• The design of the nanorobot is a very complicated one.
• Electrical systems can create stray fields which may activate bioelectric-based molecular recognition systems in biology.
• Electrical nanorobots are susceptible to electrical interference from external sources such as rf or electric fields, EMP pulses, and stray fields from other in vivo electrical devices.
• Hard to Interface, Customize and Design, Complex
• Nanorobots can cause a brutal risk in the field of terrorism. The terrorism and anti groups can make use of nanorobots as a new form of torturing the communities as nanotechnology also has the capability of destructing the human body at the molecular level.
• Privacy is the other potential risk involved with Nanorobots. As Nanorobots deals with the designing of compact and minute devices, there are chances for more eavesdropping than that already exists. Nanotechnology as a diagnostic and treatment tool for patients with cancer and diabetes showed how actual developments in new manufacturing technologies are enabling innovative works which may help in constructing and employing nanorobots most effectively for biomedical problems. Nanorobots applied to medicine hold a wealth of promise from eradicating disease to reversing the aging process (wrinkles, loss of bone mass and age-related conditions are all treatable at the cellular level); nanorobots are also candidates for industrial applications.

They will provide personalised treatments with improved efficacy and reduced side effects that are not available today. They will provide combined action– drugs marketed with diagnostics, imaging agents acting as drugs, surgery with instant diagnostic feedback. The advent of molecular nanotechnology will again expand enormously the effectiveness, comfort and speed of future medical treatments while at the same time significantly reducing their risk, cost, and invasiveness. This science might sound like a fiction now, but Nanorobotics has strong potential to revolutionize healthcare, to treat disease in future. It opens up new ways for vast, abundant research work. Nanotechnology will change health care and human life more profoundly than other developments.Consequently they will change the shape of the industry, broadening the product development and marketing interactions between Pharma, Biotech, Diagnostic and Healthcare industries.

Future healthcare will make use of sensitive new diagnostics for an improved personal risk assessment. Highest impact can be expected if those major diseases are addressed first, which impose the highest burden on the aging population: cardiovascular diseases, cancer, musculoskeletal conditions, neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases, diabetes, and viral infections. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences Nanomedicine holds the promise to lead to an earlier diagnosis, better therapy and improved follow up care, making the health care more effective and affordable. Nanomedicine will also allow a more personalised treatment for many diseases, exploiting the in-depth understanding of diseases on a molecular level.

CONCLUSION:

Nanotechnology as a diagnostic and treatment tool for patients with cancer and diabetes showed how actual developments in new manufacturing technologies are enabling innovative works which may help in constructing and employing nanorobots most effectively for biomedical problems. Nanorobots applied to medicine hold a wealth of promise from eradicating disease to reversing the aging process (wrinkles, loss of bone mass and age-related conditions are all treatable at the cellular level); nanorobots are also candidates for industrial applications. They will provide personalised treatments with improved efficacy and reduced side effects that are not available today.

They will provide combined action – drugs marketed with diagnostics, imaging agents acting as drugs, surgery with instant diagnostic feedback. The advent of molecular nanotechnology will again expand enormously the effectiveness, comfort and speed of future medical treatments while at the same time significantly reducing theirrisk, cost, and invasiveness. This science might sound like a fiction now, but Nanorobotics has strong potential to revolutionize healthcare, to treat disease in future. It opens up new ways for vast, abundant research work.

Nanotechnology will change health care and human life more profoundly han other developments. Consequently they will change the shape of the industry, broadening the product development and marketing interactions between Pharma, Biotech, Diagnostic and Healthcare industries. Future healthcare will make use of sensitive new diagnostics for an improved personal risk assessment.


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