An earthquake occurs when there is a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that causes seismic waves. Earthquakes are typically caused by opening of geological faults. They are however also caused by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments. The effects of earthquakes are many and far reaching. Earthquakes cause shaking and ground ruptures which result in less or sometimes more severe damage to buildings or other rigid structures.
Earthquakes also results in landslides and avalanches, which sometimes causes damage in hilly and mountain areas. After an earthquake, the place can catch fire by breaking of the electrical power or gas lines. Because of the shaking, sometimes the soil liquefies, the loose saturated cohesion less soil loses its strength and temporarily transforms from a solid to a liquid state. Soil liquefaction causes firm structures like buildings and bridges to slant or sink into a liquefied state.
Earthquakes result in loss of life, damage to property, fatal diseases, lack of basic necessities and it affects the financial and economical structure of the country. Some safety measures are used so that the government, individual and businesses can prepare themselves against this calamity. To reduce the damage, retrofitting techniques and modern earthquake resistant designs of new buildings and lifeline structures like bridges, hospitals and power plants are used in earthquake prone areas.
The emergency services under the local and state government ensure that the public is safe by dealing with the crisis. Individuals and businesses are encouraged by governments to have an earthquake kit and supplies for three days at hand. As a result of an increase of the number of seismic stations today, the earthquakes are reported more than in the past, which help in the preparation process. Slums in Mumbai Slums always existed in Mumbai. In 19th century, slums grew around mills and other places of employment.
Now they grow where ever there is empty space. Slum dwellers today cover 60% of Mumbai’s population. The government tried to rectify the problem in 1985 by passing the Slum Upgradation Project. Regrettable the project targeted only 10-12% of the slum population, those who were able to of upgrade their homes. It ignored inhabitants in slums, those who did not have homes at all. In spite of all the attempts to cure the problem of slums in Mumbai, slums are still growing. The growth rate of slums is actually greater than the growth rate of general urban.
It is estimated that everyday 100 to 300 new families come to Mumbai. Most of them end up in a slum colony or just put up a shanty on the on the footpath. Due to migration, the city’s population is increasing and with it the slums. These facts show that migration has to stop to cure the problem of slums. According to Professor RN Sharma, (the head of the Urban Studies Unit in Tata Institute of Social Sciences), Mumbai, the city is unquestionably disintegrating into slums.
A Jockin of SPARC, (the NGO that works for slums) said that the rehabilitation process is the only solution to the problem of slums in Mumbai. He said: “This talk about Mumbai having predominantly slums is rubbish. Already 67 per cent of slums on railway land have been re-settled. The airport project and the rehabilitation near Mithi River is also happening at a good pace. These figures of slum population rising is not true”. Former housing minister Nawab Mallik also agreed that rehabilitation is a best way to get rid of slums. References: Earthquake.
(2007, November 4). Retrieved November 5, 2007 from World Wide Web: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Earthquake Juneja, Saakshi. (2006, January 9). Mumbai Slums. Retrieved November 5, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://mumbai. metblogs. com/archives/2006/01/mumbai_slums. phtml Slums. Retrieved November 5, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www. macalester. edu/courses/GEOG61/espencer/slums. html Slums: The Magnitude of the Problem. Retrieved November 5, 2007 from World Wide Web: http://theory. tifr. res. in/bombay/amenities/housing/slum-stats. html