There are two aspects which influence the content of a novel. They are the extrinsic elements and the intrinsic elements (Sukada, 1987 : 47). Extrinsic elements are the elements comes from of literary work such as the elements of history, social and culture, psychology, religion and philosophy. Intrinsic elements are the whole elements which make up structure of literary work such as plot, setting, theme, character, style, etc. this case, the writer will talk about the aspect of intrinsic elements in a novel which are theme, plot, setting, and character.
It is a little hard to analyze the intrinsic elements in a novel, because many experts have different opinion to define which included to the intrinsic elements. (1987 : 54- 57). Gave some experts idea to define the intrinsic elements. 1. Jakob sumardjo stated that the intrinsic elements are: plot, character, theme, setting, atmosphere, style, and point of view. 2. Wellek & Warren stated that the intrinsic elements are: plot, character, setting, world view, tone. 3. Taylor (1988 : 2) the intrinsic elements are: plot, character, setting, theme, and point of view. The writer chooses Sumardjo’s idea which will be analyzed, some of those elements, there are theme, plot, setting, and character.
1. Theme Theme is the main discussion, which is put on important place in literary work, M,S Hutagalung (in Ahmad Badrun, 1983:85). William Kenny (1966 : 89) adds the theme is neither moral or the subject of the story. In addition, theme is meaning the story releases. Moral is a simple kind of theme, because all of themes of moral. It can be said that theme is the main discussion the story released. Add moral is a simple sort theme. Opdhal (1968 : 3) said that, theme is a idea or the concept implied in a short story .All stories have a theme or purpose no matter how seriously the author chooses to present it (Hamalian & Karl : 1978 : 327).
A Theme of a story like plot maybe stated very briefly or at a greater length, with a simple or very brief story. We may be satisfied to sum up the theme in a single sentence but we may feel that a paragraph occasionally even an essay – is needed to state it adequatel. (Perin, 1978 : 113). Theme is the controlling and informing idea a literary work. Which writer content is a true or un true; a preposition which he undertaken to defends or attack (Duffy & Pettit, 1953 : 125). Theme and character are often closely related.
The characters often symbolize an aspect of the theme. To observe the theme of a novel, (Perine, 1978 : 117). Stated that we should keep in mind the following principles. a) Theme must be expressible in the form of a statement with a subject and predicate. b) Theme is a central and unifying concept of a story. Therefore, (a) it must account For all the major details of the story, (b) the theme must not contradicted by any detail of the story, (c) the theme must not rely upon supposed facts not actually stated or clearly implied by the story. c) Theme must state as generalization about life.
d) There is no one way of starting the theme of a story. e) We must be careful not to makes generalizes larger than is justified by the terms of the story. f) We should avoid any statement that reduces the theme to some familiar saying that we have heard all our lives.
2. Point of view The same as other elements of fiction, point of view, also ties together in the short story because each element could not be separated with another ones, point of view is the author’s vision toward character in the story (Rampan, 1995 :39). So this point of view closely related to telling techniques of the author toward work of fiction. In this case, the author‘s view will give consideration that short story has made must be a unity of a story. Abrams (In Nurgiantoro, 1995 : 248) defines point of view as the technique that s used by the author media to express character. Behavior, setting and, and some events in form a literary work.
Furthermore, point of view can be mentioned as strategy, which in chosen freckly to reveal ideas and experience Both ideas and ideas and experiences are useful to find out the information of intrinsic elements, particularly point of view. Kamaly (2005 : 14) said that point of view is a way in delivering a story. Therefore, it’s a kind of tactic of the author in telling all events in that story. Abram, (In Nurgiantoro, 2002 : 249) said that point of view refers to the way a story is told .it is a way and or the view used by author as a medium in serving the character, action, setting, and the events. He and him – self concludes that point of view is essentially a strategy, technique, and tactic which are used and chosen by an author in telling story. Nurgiantoro (2002 : 242 – 271) divides point of view into three kinds they are : third single person, first person and mixed point of view.
a) Third – single person
It is point of view in which the narrator is an out said, it then presents all characters by name or pronoun. Nelson, Sarah, and Mrs Brand, or him, her and them. The author does not included in the story in this type of story telling the narrator can tell everything about the story or the character in details. This method of story-telling is also called “the eye of god“ because the narrator is put or put himself as god like who knows everything. When the narrator comes as on observer only, it called limited omniscient narration in which the narrator will only know one of the character’s felling, attitude, and behavior this point of view is divided into two kinds they are : the first, single limited narrator or he or she limited, the second, third single person omniscient. In third single person .Limited, the narrator tells about everything the figure, knows, hears, and sees, however it is limited to one figure only. The omniscient point of view or third person omniscient is a way in which the story is told point of view “he“ however the narrator can tell everything about figure. Therefore the narrator knows everything.
b) First Single Person
In this kind of point of view the author used “I“ becomes one of character in the story. The narrator tells about him self, all the experiences he got through physically, ”I “ in this type point of view the character i comes as a narrator who tells about himself or everything he found, hears, and feel. This type of point of view is divided in to two; they are “I“ as a main character, and “I“ as additional character when “I“ becomes the main character in the story. He will tell everything about himself. All of her knowledge, feels and experiences. In short he tell all about he himself. When the “I“ comes up as an additional character, he in this position comes as a witness only who knows a little that happen to the main character. The main duty of the character in this case is just to serve the story.
c) Mixing Point Of View
The author sometimes tells from the beginning part of chapter by using first person single narrator. In other chapter the author changes his tactic by using third single person narrator. It can be seen in one of sir Arthur Conan Doyle‘s (1987 work entitled “a study I scarlet”. Thus this type of point of view is called mixing of point of view. Furthermore ,Sumardjo and Saini (1986 : 83 – 84). There are four types point of view, they are (1) omniscient point view. the author freely telling characters in the story. They determine themselves what they want to do, author knew all about the characters as the pronoun “she/he “ (Nurgiyantoro, 1995 : 275). (2) Objective point of view, the authors work as in omniscient but not reveal a comment to the story.
Readers are offered real situation without change the actual meaning. Letting the readers know the content of story freely.(Keegen, 1997). (3) first person point of view, the author tell himself as the Pronoun “I“, sometime telling his experience based on the though way. (4) observer point of view, the author might choose characters to tell their experiences, ideas and feelings but these characters just show to the readers about what they have seen. In short, an author may collaborates two kinds of point of view in his work. He may use third single person and first single person in one novel. He also may use third single person omniscient narrator and third single person limited narrator.
3. Plot Plot is a series of events created by the author to tell the story .In most of stories, these events rise out of conflict experiences by the main character. The conflict isn‘t come from internal only but conflict comes from something external too, Stanton (In Nurgiantoro, 2002 : 113) said that plot is story that contains series of events. However, the causality aspect only connects each those event. One event caused the other event to happen. Nurgiantoro (2002 : 115) said that plot is the reflection of the character‘ s behavior and attitude in acting, thinking, felling, and facing the problems of life he or she faces.
However not all of the human being experiences called plot. In addition, he added that the event, attitude, and behavior of human being would called a plot if they have special type. Syamsir Aripin as (In Kuswari‘s, 2005 : 14) said that plot is an integration of series of events that composed as functional interrelation. Plot reveals events to use only in their temporal but also their causal relationship, plot makes us aware of events not merely as element in temporal series but also as an increate pattern of cause and effect. In addition, the readers will know soonly about the end of the story as they just start reading the novel. However, they will not know about process or each detail of story until the last page of it, mixing plot, in a range. Some parts of the story are tells chronologically and the others are the flash back. Crises are the situation where as the character is give description by author‘s attitude. Climax is the moment of the greatest emotional tension so those conflicts in the story slow down. Conclusion is resolution of the story.
4. Setting Setting is illustration of times and places. It can also include complex dimension such as historical moment the story occupies or it‘s social context, because particular places and times have impersonality or emotional essence. Setting was also one of primary ways that a fiction writer established mood. When and where events occur are calls setting .They will become background of the story. Therefore, the readers of the story will get information about the condition and the situation of the places and times as the takes places. Aminudin (In Kuswari, 2005 : 16). Explained that setting is background of occurrence in fiction.
Setting refers to place, time relationship , and social environment in which the events taken place. Setting can be divided into two; physical and spiritual setting. Physical setting refers to place and time. Spritual setting refers to custom, tradition, believe and value of the society where the event happens. (Nurgiantoro, 2002 : 218). It can be concluded that setting is background. of story the event illustrate .It refers to merely to the physical but also to non – physical .The physical setting my consist of place and space namely road, rivers and house. In addition, non – physical setting or spiritual setting refers to believe, costume, tradition and value as well.
5. Character Character is a person in a play or story (Duffy & Pettit, 1953 : 24) Character development involves both physical descriptive and classification of the mental and spiritual qualities of the person (Opdhal, 1968 : 3). Stanton stated that of story has the major character. its character, which is related to every event in the story, usually it will show the change both in the character itself or act toward the character. According to foster (Taylor, 1981 : 65) character is divided in two types: flat and round character. Flat character is less the representation of human personality than the embodiment of a single attitude or obsession in a character. Foster this calls kind of character flat because we see only one side of him.
A flat character that never surprises the readers is immediately recognizable and usually can be represented as a single formula. Milley and Clueley (1904 : 27) divided characters in two categories. They are the major and the minor characters. The major characters are that a central to the action, so continual in there presents. In which it is expected that the author explore their take up and motivation thoroughly. While the minor character as miller, said has seen by us as they imagine on the person who support the major character so that the major character action become live and logical as the real life.
Round characters are those fictional creation who has complex many faceted personalities and an independent inner life which itself invites our interest. Round characters can surprise the readers without credibility. A round character can surprise the readers without loosing credibility of a character. He must be credible, we as a reader want him to be recognizable similar in some aspects to people we have known, so that we can relate to him can understand, can like or dislike him. We may conclude that complexity of characters tends to produce lifelikeness in the world of fiction. Round character is more lifelike than flat character lifelike is one form of relevance.
No real human being can be adequately summed up in formula as a flat character. Certainly no reader of fiction would be willing to admit that he can be summed up .Real human beings are capable of surprising us. The round character can surprise us; and the flat character cannot. A character may be consistent with what we have learned about .To identify characters in a story or novel the author may use three ways: a) The author tells us whether he is like by exposition or analysis. b) The character reveals himself through his speeches and action. c) The reaction of other characters to him indicated what type of a person he is.
6. Style Style is not quite different from point of view, where style emphasizes toward telling techniques about characters, and then point of view is the author’s way to express characters. Aminuddin (2003 : 72) and Keraf (1985 : 112) defined style comes from Latin Language (slilus), is a tool for writing. Furthermore style become skill capability reveal ideas and aesthetic word and can express the meaning beyond feeling touch and readers emotion in other words. Good literary are works that have harmony and aesthetic language and make readers are not boring, enjoy and feel empathy, it depends on author’s skill how to express style, in other word skill is author personality (Somardjo and Saini, 1986 : 92) or techniques reveal thoughts through typical language ,which showing author and soul and personality (Goris Keraf, 1985 : 113).
Style is fiction refers to the language conventions used to construct the story; fiction writers can manipulate diction sentences structure, phrasing, dialog, and other aspects of language to create the style. Thus, a story’s story could be described as richly detailed. Flowing and barely controlled. Or sparing and minimalist to reflect the simple sentence structures and low range of vocabulary. By using different style in the short story, the readers also acquired different atmosphere from a story. Usually, old authors have strong style to express their work; different with young authors are still looking for a format, even styles of old writers will be followed by young writers, (Sumarjdo Saini, 1986 : 92). Language is central equipment which is used by the authors to reveal their commendations.
However literary language has own target that different with languages of magazine, newspaper and daily language. The using of literary style is based on three fundamental matter, they are; (1) diction, (2) the form of word in the sentence (3) tone (Rampan, 1993 : 63).The three fundamental matters will avoke authors typical that compare it with others. Kerap (In Rampan,1995 : 63) states that. “Style is a part of diction that confers suitable word usage in certain clause to face certain situation. Because of the phenomenon of style covering all language hierarchy; diction individually, phrase, clause and sentences or cover all discourses generally.