“The formation of character is one of the most important features of the educational system at the University of Baguio. For this reason, the imposed discipline, while observant to the rights and feelings of others, is firm, especially when the reputation of the student body and institution is at stake. Students are expected to manifest both within and outside the University, the respect for order, morality, personal honor, and rights of others, which is required of God-fearing men and women.” (UB student handbook, Article XIV: 2010 Edition)
Schools have policies that are being implemented for the general welfare of its constituents. These policies provide a set of rules that the students, teachers, etc. should follow. These rules are necessary for the order and uniformity of the students within the school premises. Even with the presence of these rules, some of the students violate them disregarding the sanctions that go along with it. The word policy originated from the Latin word politia or polity.
Defined as a definite course of action adopted for the sake of expediency, facility, etc.; an action or procedure conforming to or considered with reference to prudence or expediency. (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/policy)
Educational policies are significant because these are rules that are used in schools to discipline students. These rules determine how effective and efficient the school is in managing students and personnel. The policies have great influence in the quality of education in an area. Educational policies are important because effective policies can help students in school on their day to day activity.
For a policy to become effective, it must have a well-pronounced outcome, assumptions should be clear and explicit, linkage to organizational direction must be present, due process in the development has to be observed, the priority should be on the public interest, expectations have to be made, the policy must be both efficient and effective, results should be stated in measurable terms, evaluation of results should be capable, funding and allocation of resources must be appropriate, accountability should not be vague, it should be lawful and administered, it must be based from history, ideas have to be verified before implementation, and the policy results should be well stated. (http://manuals.ucdavis.edu/resources/coordinators.htm)
One of the factors why students violate school policies can be explained through their different behaviours. Behaviour is the manner of behaving or conducting oneself; the aggregate of all the responses made by an organism in any situation. (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/behavior) Based on Operant Conditioning of B.F. Skinner “All behaviour caused by external stimuli and all behaviour can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness.” It means that the actions done by students are responses to its environment. (http://www.learning-theories.com/behaviorism)
Another type of behaviourism is Radical Behaviourism which is the connection to role of emotions and the major differences in the acceptance of mediating structures and etc. In order to resolve this problem the group found out that the best solution is the use of Biometric identification systems which can be grouped based on the main physical characteristic that lends itself to biometric identification. There are different kinds of biometric system in which the fingerprint biometrics is the commonly used one. There are also other biometric identification systems such as the hand geometry, palm vein authentication, retina scan, iris scan, face recognition, signature, and voice analysis. There are biometric systems that are composed of more than two physical characteristics to be identified.
Statement of the Problem
1) What are the reasons why these students violate such policies? 2) What are the most common policies that are violated by the violators? 3) How can the proposed biometric ID system control students from violating the wearing of ID? Scope and Delimitation
This proposal was limited only to the students of the University of Baguio including the administrative staff, teachers, faculty and utilities.
Significance of the Study
With the help of this proposal, the University of Baguio would be able to control every entrance and exit of the school. The act of not wearing IDs for the students would no longer be possible because they will not be able to enter the school without their IDs. The biometric ID system would strengthen the security of the academe for the safety of the students. The time when the students would enter and leave their classes would be monitored. The system would be able to determine if the students will skip their classes. Also, the entry of thieves and pick-pocketers within the school premises would no longer be possible due to this proposal. With this modernized system to be established in the University, all of the students and personnel of the school will benefit from it.
The leniency of the marshals in checking the ID’s and proper wearing of uniforms, students not following the rules and regulation of the school and to monitor the entrance and exit of the students of University of Baguio within the school’s vicinity are the reasons why the researchers proposed an ID Biometric System.
The students violated the above mentioned rules due to leniency, habitual actions of students, laziness, and unwanted behaviours of students. Some students just wanted to violate such policies because they thought that it was a fun and interesting thing to do.
If the proposed project will be fully implemented, there will be organization in the school campus and an effective monitoring of the passage ways in entering and going out of the school. Based on these factors that we have retrieved on the data that we have collected, the theory that would best support our proposal is the belief theory. We chose this theory because we, the researchers, believe that the proposed biometric ID system will work and we will therefore translate these beliefs into action. The researchers foresee that this would be able to control the reoccurring problems that are being done by the University of Baguio students and that is the reason why we have made this very proposal.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
* Biometric – pertaining to, noting, or using a person’s unique physical and other traits for the purpose of identification and security. * Coincide –to occupy exactly corresponding or equivalent positions on a scale or in a series * Identification – psychological orientation of the self in regard to something (as a person or group) with a resulting feeling of close emotional association. * Implementation – the act of implementing, or putting into effect. * Policy – a definite course of method of action selected from among alternatives and in light of given conditions to guide and determine present and future decisions. * Proposal – An act of putting forward or stating something for consideration. * Scanner – a device sensing a recorded data.
* System –a group of devices or artificial objects or an organization forming a network especially for distributing something or serving common purpose. * Units – a piece or complex apparatus serving to perform one particular function
The group assumed that if the proposal is to be approved by the Board of Directors, it would be implemented immediately. The ordered units will be put up to the designated areas and the Biometric system will start functioning. With the new system of the school, there will be an organization in school activities. The school then will be a safe and humane place to study.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERARTURE
I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In the millennial years’ rapidly advancing technological world, the issue of security is becoming a more and more pressing matter. Computer crimes and identity theft related crimes are becoming more rampant and apparent, requiring better solutions to cope with them. One of the proposed methods for solution for future high-technology security issues lies in the field of biometrics. Biometrics defined simply in its regard to security matters is any method or technology which uses biological measurements to facilitate authentication for verification or identification of a particular user.
Although still in major phases of development, biometrics is seen as a highly valuable initiative to one day replace present day security authentication practices due to its ideal concept of being virtually risk free and non-inaccurate. This paper will analyze all aspects concerning biometrics including its overall concept, how a biometrical authentication system works, controversial issues concerning its implementation, its current uses in technology, business, and governmental agencies and its future developments.
II. CONCEPT OF BIOMETRICS IN SECURITY
A. TWO CATEGORIES
Biometrics can be subdivided into two main categories. These include physiological and behavioral categories of specific measurements. Physiological measurements include biological characteristics inherent to individual human beings. Some of these would include facial structure, fingerprints, hand structure, iris and DNA structure of a particular person. Behavioral measurements measure dynamics in individual behaviors. Some of these would include keystroke behavior, signature and voice recognition.
B. VARIOUS METHODS FOR COLLECTING MEASUREMENTS
FACE: Facial recognition involves technology which scans the face and interprets the data as recognizable characteristics of a particular user, including the size and shape of the face and their relationship to each other. Facial recognition is a natural method that humans use to identify people they come into contact with, but it is not an easy method to duplicate for identification on a biometric system. This is due to changes such as plastic surgery, weight gain or weight loss which can cause the results to be inaccurate. Another emerging method of collecting biometric information involving the face is facial thermograph which detects and measures the heat patterns created by the branching blood vessels within the face and emitted through the skin.
FINGERPRINT: Fingerprint analysis has been around for centuries as a means of identifying people. It has been evidenced that ancient Chinese used fingerprinting to sign legal documents as long ago as 1000 BCE. Fingerprint analysis involves examining the ridges on an individual fingerprint in order to match them to a specific owner. HAND: Hands can be analyzed and measured in a few different ways. Aside from fingerprints, another way to use hands in biometrical analysis is through hand geometry which measures and compares the different physical characteristics of a person’s hand such as shape and size. Another method concerning hands is palm vein authentication which uses an infrared beam to penetrate a person’s hand and measure the complexity of the vein patterns within that person’s hand. This specific method is more useful than hand geometry measurement because palm vein patterns are internal to the body, and difficult to be counterfeited by an illegitimate user.
EYES: Eyes can be used in two different ways as a part of a biometrical scrutiny process. Iris scanning involves analysis of the rings, furrows, and freckles in the pupil of the eye of a particular human. Retina scanning involves analysis of the capillary blood vessels located in the back of the eye. DNA: DNA verification uses analysis of genetic information found within a specific person’s DNA code (or genetic code) as a means of identifying that person. DNA analysis is often used now as a method for identifying paternity of a person’s child or in forensic crime investigations as a evidence for convicting individuals for crimes such as murder or rape. ODOR & SCENT: Odor and scent analysis is a fairly new development in biometrical analysis and is based on a theory entitled “individual odor theory.”
This theory is premised on the notion that each person has a particular and unique scent. In forensics, odor analysis has been used to identify people by the use of blood hounds (dogs). VOICE ANALYSIS: Voice analysis involves analyzing of the pitch, tone, cadence, and frequency of a particular user’s voice to facilitate authentication. Voice analysis can technically be seen as both a physiological trait as well as a behavioral trait because voice is not only inherent to a specific person, but also the way that person speaks is also a unique and measurable trait. SIGNATURE: Signature analysis analyzes the way a person writes his/her signature as a basic means of identification.
Although handwriting techniques vary for individuals throughout their lifetimes, handwriting identification is seen as a scientifically reliable criterion for measurement. KEYSTROKE: Keystroke analysis measures the dynamics of a person’s typing rhythms to facilitate authentication of a particular person. Keystroke analysis may be more useful than other methods of identification because unlike other biometrical authentication methods, keystroke dynamics can still be measured throughout the computer session even after the access control point has been successfully passed by the user.
GAIT: Another new developing biometrical technique is one which measures gait which is a person’s particular way of walking and facilitating motion. Gait can be used effectively to recognize people coming in from a distance. COGNITIVE BIOMETRICS: Cognitive biometrics is also a developing method in biometrics which uses measurements of brain activity responses when triggered by specific stimuli and matched within a computer database as a means for authentication of a particular user of the system. Currently, systems which utilize this kind of method are being created to trigger responses to odor stimuli. In the future, other triggers may be used to create responses.
Given the various methods for collecting biometrical data, each of these techniques must pass a set of parameters to a degree in order to be considered as a viable method for integration within a biometrical system. These parameters include: UNIVERSALITY: The principle of universality stipulates that every user should have the characteristic. Sometimes, in some cases this may not be true as it the case of a person with no hands who cannot use a hand analysis machine for verification. UNIQUENESS: The principle of uniqueness involves the degree of how separable the biometric characteristic is between each individual person. PERMANENCE: The principle of permanence involves how well the technique used for measuring is resistant to changes such as aging, human developmental processes such as pregnancy, or things such as plastic surgery.
COLLECTABILITY: The collectability principle is related to how easy the method is to acquire. Easier methods, as well as more sanitary methods are more ideal for a viable biometrical system. PERFORMANCE: The performance principle is concerned with the accuracy, speed and the strength of the technology used to authenticate the user. ACCEPTABILITY: The acceptability principle is related to the degree of social approval for use of the technology as a means for collecting biometrical data. CIRCUMVENTION: Circumvention involves, the biometrical system’s ease of adaptation to a substitute should the system need one. 1. COMPARISON OF VARIOUS METHODS WITH PARAMETERS
(Based on the Comparison of Various Biometric Technologies table by A.K. Jain, et. al. 2004) FACE: Facial scanning has a high level of universality because it is virtually impossible for any living human-being to possess no form of a face. Facial scanning scores low in its level of uniqueness due to the fact that it can be difficult to distinguish characteristics from person to person at times. This is due to some people having similar features which may be hard to distinguish. In the case of identical twins, this may not be a useful means for authentication at all. Facial scanning scores a medium ranking under the permanence factor. This is due to the fact that although a person’s actual facial characteristics never change, they are subject to transformations such as aging, weight gain or loss, and alterations such as plastic surgery or accidents. As far as collectability, facial scanning scores a high mark due to the fact that, going along with its high level of universality, every living human-being does have a face which is easy to locate on a human body.
Facial scanning is low in performance because it can tend to be highly inaccurate due to the dynamical aspect of human faces. Facial scanning also scores high in acceptability as a comfortable and accepted way people would want to collect their biometrical data, but it scores low in circumvention because it doesn’t have an easy substitute which can replace it. Facial thermograph scores high in universality, uniqueness, collectability, acceptability, and circumvention. It scores low in permanence and medium in performance. FINGERPRINT: Fingerprinting scores medium in its level of universality. This is due to the fact that although all people inherently possess fingerprints at birth, fingerprints can still be damaged via rare skin diseases or through loss of fingers, abrasions, etc.
Fingerprinting has a high level of uniqueness and a high level of permanence. Fingerprinting has a medium level of collectability and performance due to the fact that although it is easy to acquire for measurement, there is a 5% failure to enroll rate which exists for everyone even with good sensors and analysis software. Fingerprinting has a medium level of acceptability by the public as a means for collecting data. This is because although it is an easy method of measurement, it may be unhygienic, inaccurate as well as easy to duplicate unlawfully. Fingerprinting has a high level of circumvention due to its ease of adaptation to a substitute if deemed necessary. HAND: Hand geometry scores medium in its universality, uniqueness, permanence, performance, acceptability, and circumvention. Hand geometry scores high in its collectability aspect. Hand vein analysis also scores medium in universality, uniqueness, permanence, collectability, performance, and acceptability; but it scores high in circumvention.
The overall reason why hand analysis carries a medium ranking in virtually all the parameters listed is because of a human-beings ability to live without them. EYES: Eye analysis provides for a more accurate analysis approach in a biometric system. Iris scanning scores high in universality, uniqueness, permanence, performance, and circumvention. This is due to the complexity and exclusivity of iris patterns which does make them a better choice method of biometric authentication. Iris scanning received a medium score in collectability and a low score in acceptability due to the complexity of the method and its suitability to the general masses. Retinal scanning also received similar scores, scoring high in universality, uniqueness, performance, and circumvention; receiving a medium score in permanence, and low scores in both its collectability and acceptability. DNA: DNA analysis has split results, scoring high in universality, uniqueness, permanence, and performance, and scoring low in collectability, acceptability, and circumvention.
Although DNA can be extracted from a numerous amount of different ways, a method of extracting DNA in order to be used in a biometrical authentication system cannot be done without seeming invasive or unsanitary. Also, many people may be concerned with privacy matters concerning DNA analysis. ODOR & SCENT: Odor and scent analysis scores high in universality, uniqueness, and permanence. Although scents can be masked by deodorants, fragrances and lotions, the underlying biological scent of a person cannot be concealed. Odor analysis also scores low in collectability, performance, and circumvention, with a medium score in acceptability. VOICE ANALYSIS: Voice analysis scores medium in its universality and collectability. It scores low scores in uniqueness, permanence, performance, and circumvention, making it not an ideal method for use in a biometrical system.
This is because not only does a person’s voice change throughout time, but people can knowingly change their voice or use technology to change their voice (such as a recording) in order to dupe a system. Voice analysis scores high in acceptability due to the simplicity of the method. SIGNATURE: Signature analysis scores low in universality, uniqueness, permanence, performance, and circumvention. It scores high in collectability, and acceptability. Signature analysis may not be an ideal method for authentication because although graphology experts can distinguish identities through meticulous handwriting analysis, it may be more difficult for a biometrical system to accurately analyze differences in handwriting for each individual person.
This is because a person’s handwriting can change depend on various things such as the mood of the person. Also some people may write similarly or use forgery to try to dupe the system. KEYSTROKE: Keystroke analysis is another method which may be seen as not as reliable as some of the other methods for collecting biometric information. Although it has the advantage of being able to simultaneously authenticate a user while he/she is still within the work session, keystroke analysis scores low for universality, uniqueness, permanence, and performance. It also has medium scores for collectability, acceptability, and circumvention. This may be due to the behavioral aspect of typing which can be easily changed if a person learns to type in different ways.
GAIT: Gait scores medium in universality and circumvention. Gait has low scores in uniqueness, permanence, and performance. Gait also has high scores in collectability and acceptability. Of all the various methods for collecting biometric data, some of the most reliable methods (according to the table by A.K. Jain et. Al) are iris scanning, retinal scanning, facial thermograph, fingerprint analysis, and DNA analysis. Some of the least reliable methods are keystroke analysis, signature analysis, and voice analysis. Overall, it appears that physiological data is seen as a more reliable method for collecting data than behavioral data.
III. BIOMETRIC SYSTEM A. BIOMETRIC SYSTEM
A biometrical system although seemingly complicated, has only two main steps, regardless of the methodology or the technology used to facilitate it. The system begins with a process called enrollment which is when the biometric information from individual users is collected and stored within a database and translated into a code or graph. In some instances data may be stored on a smart card which can be carried away with the user. The next operation of the biometrical system is called testing. During this portion of the system, biometrical data is detected and compared with that which is in the database.
In order for a biometrical system to be robust, it is necessary that the storage and retrieval of data within the system be highly secured. (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3c/Biometric_system_diagram.png/800px-) A biometrical system can carry out two main functions. These include verification or identification. In verification, the system’s objective is to authenticate the user in conjunction with another method such as a smart card, a username, or a password. With identification, the system’s intention is to authenticate the user only on the basis of the biometrical data alone. The goal of this function is to identify the user according to the closest match within the allowable limit of the system.
B. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS
The performance of a biometric system’s technology can be broken down into a variety of probability descriptions. These descriptions indicate the level of accuracy the system is able to achieve. FAR- The first measurement is entitled False Accept Rate. This measurement determines the likeliness of a biometric system incorrectly accepting access to the system by an un-authorized user. This measurement is calculated by dividing the number of false acceptances by the number of times an identification attempt has been made. FRR- The second measurement is called a False Rejection Rate which measures the probability that a biometric system will incorrectly reject an authorized user from using the system. This number is calculated by dividing the number of false rejections by the number of authentication attempts. EER- Equal error rate stands for the rate at which FAR and FRR are equal.
This measurement can be used to compare two different biometric systems. Whichever biometric system has a lower EER is considered to be a more accurate system than the other. ROC- Receiver operating characteristics deals with the system’s accuracy within certain environments as it relates to False Rejection and False Acceptance Rate results. FTE- FTE stands for failure to enroll rate. This measurement is calculated as a percentage of the data which failed to pass through the system due to invalidity. Failure to enroll typically happens when the sample data is of poor quality and does not match the data which is stored in the database of the system. FTC- FTC is the failure to capture rate. This measurement measures the probability that the system will fail to pick up on a biometric characteristic when it is presented accurately. High calculations of this measurement typically mean that this authentication method will be difficult as well as frustrating to use.
C. SUSCEPTIBLE AREAS OF ATTACK FOR BIOMETRICS
The three most susceptible areas of vulnerability for attack of a biometric system are: 1) Copied-biometric attacks- where the attacker obtains a substitute for the true biometric sample in order to cause proper authentication to occur via the normal system procedures. 2) Replay attacks- where perpetrators obtain valid templates from the original user and then use them to directly dupe the biometric system. 3) Database attacks- where perpetrators access a template database and obtain the ability to replace valid templates with invalid ones.
IV. ISSUES WITH BIOMETRICS
A. IDENTITY THEFT ISSUE
Although the ideal goal of biometrical authentication is to have ultimate prevention of identity theft, the issue of an illegitimate user having the ability to commit identity theft still exists within biometrics and can have even more dire circumstances than with non-biometrical authentication systems. Depending on the method used to collect the biometrical data, a person’s identity can be stolen easily. An example of this would be in the case of fingerprints which can be taken from inanimate objects such as glassware or metal objects and then duplicated in order to be used to dupe a biometrical system.
The main problem concerning this issue is in the fact that if an individual’s identification is stolen by another, the legitimate user may never be able to undo the damage which has been created because, unlike with non-biometrical authentication, once biometrical data has been compromised, it is compromised for the entirety of the legitimate user’s existence. One proposed possible solution for solving the issue of identity theft is to only use a portion of the biometric data, so that if the data does become compromised, it will not be entirely lost. This way, if one part of the data is stolen, another part of the original user’s biometric data can be used to replace it.
B. PRIVACY ISSUE
Privacy can also be a staggering issue with the implementation of a biometrical system from a societal standpoint. Many people may not care to have all of their biological characteristics recorded on some medium for a variety of reasons. One concern is that if information is recorded on systems used at more than one location or by more than one entity, an individual’s movements can be tracked preventing anonymity. Safety of the legitimate users can become compromised, if malevolent individuals choose to target that person in order to obtain their goal.
Another issue regarding privacy involves physical harm which can be done to an individual using a biometrical system. Physical harm can occur by use of unsanitary instruments used in the technology to obtain the biometrical information, which may cause the system to be considered unsafe. Another issue regarding privacy lies with the administrative ability to misuse user’s biometrical data without the consent of those users. Currently, few regulations exist to protect biometric information of individuals.
C. SENSOR OBSTACLES
Different types of technology (hardware & software) used within different biometrical systems can counteract one another, making it difficult to have standardized biometrical data. One of the reasons this problem exists is because each vendor of biometrical technology generates their own encryption methods for the recorded information. Unfortunately, many of these encryption methods do not coincide with one another making the use of biometrical systems more difficult and less efficient. The only way unification of the different biometrical systems can occur is by a standardizing process which would require exposing of all the concealed data. Unfortunately, this can also present a serious threat.
D. FAILURE TO MEET PARAMETERS
Another issue concerning implementation of biometrics is in the issue of a system’s failure to meet parameters. In order for biometrical data to be interminable, the biological characteristic must be unique, universal, acceptable, collectible, reliable in regards to the performance and circumvention of the technology used to collect the data, but most importantly, the data must be permanent, which is the most fragile issue concerning the parameters of biometrical data. Unfortunately, most if not all biological characteristics are not guaranteed to be permanent. Many of them can be compromised via accidents, health problems or alterations such as surgery.
V. CURRENT USES OF BIOMETRICS
Although the field of biometrics as a whole is still in need of major development before widespread implementation will ever occur there are some entities including private industry and governmental agencies which currently utilize biometrical technology. Certain examples of American organizations which currently use biometric technology include: 1) Walt Disney World: Walt Disney World uses fingerprint analysis technology to authenticate the fingerprints of guests in order to ensure that season tickets are used by the authorized ticket owner. This is in order to prevent lost sales through ticket sharing, as well as thefts. 2) First Tech Credit Union: First Tech Credit Union is an Oregon based credit union which utilizes keystroke recognition technology for authentication of users on its online website.
3) Casinos: Over 100 American casinos such as the Imperial Palace casino in Las Vegas use facial recognition technology to identify and prevent known cheaters or dishonest patrons from entering into their establishments. 4) Missing Children’s Clearinghouse: A West Virginia based organization entitled Missing Children’s Clearinghouse uses biometric technology which utilizes scanned digital photographs to search for missing children. 5) Citibank Singapore: Citibank in Singapore uses fingerprint scanning technology for customers who use their clear platinum card for point-of-sale purchases.
6) Coca Cola: Coca Cola uses hand scanning machines to replace time cards for employees in order to document worker time keepinsg records. 7) Welfare crack-down: New Jersey as well as six other states use biometric technology to crack down on individuals who abuse the welfare system by claiming benefits in multiple names. 8) Notebooks: Computer products such as the Compaq Armada E500 are being developed to use fingerprint scanning technology to verify the identity of the user. 9) Prisons: Up to 100 American Prisons use biometric technology to regulate methadone dispersement among prisoners.
VI. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMETRICS
Since the occurrence of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, a surge in the demand for biometric technology has begun. Stocks in publically trade biometric companies such as Visionics, Viisage Technology, and Indentix have soared with the overall biometric technology industry projected to have revenues approaching $10 billion dollars annually by 2020. Emerging trends for future uses of biometric technology seem to lean more towards law enforcement, homeland security, and security within certain types of private industry such as in airport security or finance. Many credit card companies such as Mastercard and Visa are beginning to implement biometric authentication methods to verify card users. Also, the Immigration and Naturalization Service may begin implementing biometric technologies to identify illegal immigrants.
Certain types of biometric technology which are becoming more widespread include access control facial recognition technology which is used to permit only authorized individuals to enter upon certain facilities, facial recognition passive surveillance technology which is used to monitor premises in order to identify possible terrorists or suspect individuals, and alert management which includes the use of real-time technology in association with biometric technology to provide security alerts of potential security breaches. Applications which use biometric technology will also have an effect on commerce, particularly in e-commerce to provide extra security for online purchases, and installation within certain personal items such as cars and cell phones.
Although not that long ago, the concept of having biometric technology as a part of our mainstream society may have been seen as a science-fictional impossibility, technological innovation has grown to the point where it is becoming more and more of a reality. Although we are not quite ready for widespread implementation of this technology, as the need for better hi-tech security increases, research as well as investor and consumer confidence and innovation within the biometric industry is also expected to improve. Although no single biometric system method is without flaws, combinations of these various methods and technologies may provide the ideal security that we hope to attain one day.
There was difficulty in determining the real students of the University of Baguio because of the hard-headed students who cannot abide with the simple rules and regulations which was the reoccurring problems of the security. Due to this problem, the “mandos” and “magnas” can easily enter the school’s premises victimizing a lot of students. This was one of the reasons why such simple violations became a huge problem for the school.
Regarding this matter, the group came up with an idea for a topic for their action research. Before they finalize their topic, the group went to the Office of the Student Affairs and interviewed the dean to know which rules are commonly violated by the students. After the interview, the group determined that the rules which are commonly violated are: a) wearing of I.Ds inside the school campus; and b) wearing of uniforms on the designated days.
The group then convened and finalized their topic that would focus on “A proposed Biometric ID system to control the reoccurring violations by University of Baguio students.” Since there was already a topic to be talked about in the research, the group started to gather data which were relevant to the research proper like that of related studies and researches and terms that are significant to the study. After collecting relevant information for the research, the group prepared communication letters addressed to the deans of the different schools of the University and respondents likewise with the survey questionnaire. Upon approval of the deans of the different schools, the group administered the questionnaires to the respondents.
The survey forms were distributed to the eleven schools of the University having ten (10) respondents each to see which results have the same percentage which were used to know the reasons behind these actions. After distributing the survey questionnaires, the group then retrieve the questionnaires and start tabulating the results. The tabulated data showed the reasons why the students violate these simple policies of the school.
The result of the survey supported the proposal that were passed to the Board of Directors. The group then proposed the biometric ID system that will be put up in every entrances and exits of the buildings in the University. The biometric ID system will most likely be very costly but disregarding such amount, the administration will approve it and immediately ordered the said system. By the time the systems that had been ordered arrive, the people designated by the higher ops will put up such systems on the designated areas to make the University a safe and humane place to study.
In light of the findings, the following conclusions are hereby presented: Not wearing of ID has been a habit of the students. Sometimes the teachers themselves forget to check their students ID. The security guard also are not lenient in checking the IDs of these students. Because of this attitude most number of the student no longer uses their IDs. The students think that it is just fine not use their IDs.
The researchers are found out that the school really need a biometric ID system. Approximately, one unit of the biometric system will cost more or less two hundred fifty thousand pesos. In such case the University of Baguio can still afford this system since it does not only help the students but it can also secure their safety
With the help of this proposal it will lessen the burden of the security personnel. This proposal can also lessen the number of students violating the proper use of IDs. In such situation students can no longer use any ID because of the presence of finger prints. The students whether they like it or not would still be forced to use their IDs. Also, this proposal can help in the security of the school campus because outsiders can no longer come in because of the presence of finger prints.
Drawing from the conclusions that the researchers arrived at, the following recommendations are forwarded. The researchers would recommend the strict implementation of the rules and regulations of the university and the maintenance of the biometric ID system. In addition, each of the gates should be closed. Also, the lenient checking on the wearing of IDs should be done. The guards should monitor every student entering the university. In case the students lost their IDs, we recommend that a password that would allow them to enter would be provided by the OSA during the time of the ID’s loss.
* Addiction Today, Sept. 27, 2008. “Prisons Use Biometrics to Manage Methadone.” * Germain, Jack M., Sept. 11, 2003. “Beyond Biometrics: New Strategies for Security. * New York Times, Nov. 15, 2008. “Technology and Media, a Surge in the Demand to use Biometrics. * Osborn, Alice, Aug. 17, 2005. “Future of Biometrics-Trends and Emerging Uses for Biometric Technology. * Panko, Raymond R., Corporate Computer and Network Security. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2004. * Risk Management, Mar. 15, 2005. “Biometrics: The Future is Now. * Technology and Human Values Senior Seminar, 2008. “Biometrics. * Tilton, Catherine J., Feb. 2006. “The Role of Biometrics in Enterprise Security. * Wikepedia, Nov. 13, 2008. “Biometrics.”
* http://www.addictiontoday.org/addictiontoday/2008/09/prisons-use-bio.html. * http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/31547.html?wlc=1226777438 * .http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F06E0DB163EF934A25751C1A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=1 * http://www.video-surveillance-guide.com/future-of-biometrics.htm * http://www.riskmanagementmagazine.com.au/articles/FF/0C02DDFF.asp?Type=124&Category=1240 * http://www.dell.com/downloads/global/power/ps1q06-20050132-Tilton-OE.pdf >. * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biometrics#cite_note-jain_short_article-20 >.