1. What are the fundamental questions which ethics tries to resolve? Ethics seeks to resolve questions dealing with human morality—concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime. 2. Distinguish a human act from act of man. The difference between human acts and man acts is that human acts are a free will decision. This includes knowledge, freedom and voluntarism When modifiers come into play, then it makes the act become the act of man. The elements are ignorance, passion, fear, violence and habits. You act simultaneously with your feelings.
A human act is an action that is considered to be carried out voluntarily, whereas an act of man is an involuntary action. The distinctions and nuances between an act of man and a human act are often a focus of philosophical debate. 3. What is morality? Morality is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good orright and those that are bad, evil or wrong. Morality can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy,religion, or culture, or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be universal. 4.
Distinguish moral, immoral, and amoral. Moral concerned with the principles of right and wrong behavior and the goodness or badness of human character. Immoral actions or events: those areas of interest where moral categories do apply and of are such a kind as to be evil, sinful, or wrong according to some code or theory of ethics. Amoral actions or events: those areas of interest exhibiting indifference to and not abiding by the moral rules or codes of society. 5. How will you determine the goodness and badness of human act?
An event which is caused solely by the effect of nature or natural causes and without any interference by humans whatsoever. 6. What qualities of human act have ethical in form? The qualities of human act that have ethical in form are the actions that are free and deliberate, those that proceeds from the free and conscious acts of man and the act that is always done for a purpose.
7. What are different connotations of the term moral? The term “morality” can be used either 1. descriptively to refer to some codes of conduct put forward by a society or, a. some other group, such as a religion, or b. accepted by an individual for her own behavior or 2.normatively to refer to a code of conduct that, given specified conditions, would be put forward by all rational persons. 8. Why is Ethics important?
Ethics is a requirement for human life. It is our means of deciding a course of action. Without it, our actions would be random and aimless. There would be no way to work towards a goal because there would be no way to pick between a limitless number of goals. Even with an ethical standard, we may be unable to pursue our goals with the possibility of success.
To the degree which a rational ethical standard is taken, we are able to correctly organize our goals and actions to accomplish our most important values. Any flaw in our ethics will reduce our ability to be successful in our endeavors. 9. Why should ethics always be treated a way of life? Ethics, sometimes known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophythat involves systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The superfield within philosophy known as axiology includes both ethics and aesthetics and is unified by each sub-branch’s concern with value.
Philosophical ethics investigates what is the best way for humans to live, and what kinds of actions are right or wrong in particular circumstances. Ethics may be divided into three major areas of study. Meta-ethics, about the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions and how their truth values (if any) may be determined. Ethics seeks to resolve questions dealing with human morality—concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime.
10. How is responsibilities entaill in a human act? Responsibility for own existence is grounded on self-awareness and personal freedom to make choices. By exercising freedom to choose man becomes totally responsible for himself. But his responsibility does not stop there; it extends to other people so that at the end it assumes the form of universal responsibility. There are at least three circles in the extension of our responsibility. The Individual responsibility, if existence precedes essence man is responsible for his own actions.
Total Responsibility, If man is free to choose what he is going to make of himself, he is entirely responsible for what he is becoming. Universal Responsibility, If man is fully responsible for what he is presenting as the image of man, he is responsible for all men.
11. What are the different approaches in dealing with the problem of moral principles? ?The Utilitarian Approach Utilitarianism was conceived in the 19th century by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill to help legislators determine which laws were morally best. Both Bentham and Mill suggested that ethical actions are those that provide the greatest balance of good over evil. ?The Rights Approach The second important approach to ethics has its roots in the philosophy of the 18th-century thinker Immanuel Kant and others like him, who focused on the individual’s right to choose for herself or himself.
?The Fairness or Justice Approach The fairness or justice approach to ethics has its roots in the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who said that “equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally. ” ?The Common-Good Approach This approach to ethics assumes a society comprising individuals whose own good is inextricably linked to the good of the community. Community members are bound by the pursuit of common values and goals. ?The Virtue Approach The virtue approach to ethics assumes that there are certain ideals toward which we should strive, which provide for the full development of our humanity.
These ideals are discovered through thoughtful reflection on what kind of people we have the potential to become. 12. Research on the following: a. The problem of Moral Principles Now, such principles come in two distinct forms: formal principles (i. e. moral principles without specific action-guiding content) and substantive principles (i. e. moral principles with specific action-guiding content). In what follows, I consider substantive principles first, then formal. Both forms of principles, I argue, are incapable of providing the sort of moral guidance necessary to achieve mature moral judgments (i. e.judgments that are appropriate to the situations they are judgments of).
The problem is that such principles are unable to provide information about what actually would, in a given situation, uphold justice or maximize utility. That is, formal principles fail to provide moral agents with the tools necessary to evaluate the complex details particular situations confront them with, or to develop appropriate moral solutions. b. The problem of Scope Morality Scope of morality are moral concept which are mixed modes, are transparent, we cannot reduce the descriptions of our moral life, that is the descriptions using our moral vocabulary, to some substantial residue or some real objects. c.
The problem of Moral Obligation Moral obligations are standards that do not merely advise or recommend our conformity, but demand it. Moral obligations come from the demands or expectations of society d. The problem of Freedom Freedom naturally occurs in nature, but only becomes an issue in the way that humans view themselves, their surroundings and others. Freedom grants one the right to behave without fear or punishment i. e. go anywhere they wish, do anything they wish or say anything they wish. Of course there are always limits imposed on freedom.
We are all born free, but as we grow we learn the physical limits of our surroundings. We learn about the limits imposed on us by gravity or by our physical surroundings such as walls. The thing is, freedom can only exist if you recognize its existence and then exercise it while at the same time acknowledging and tolerating others freedom. e. The problem of Moral Practice Since cultures and individuals differ in certain moral practices, there are no objective moral values. Several objections can be made to this argument. First, the fact that people disagree about something does not mean there is no objective truth.
If you and I disagree about whether or not the earth is round, for example, this is not proof that the earth has no shape. In moral discussion, the fact that a skinhead and I may disagree about whether we should treat people equally and fairly is not sufficient evidence to say that equality and fairness have no objective value. f. The problem of Casuistry. A bias is an unwarranted inclination or a special perspective that disposes us to mistaken or one-sided judgments.
The potential for bias arises at each stage of a case method of reasoning including in describing, framing, selecting and comparing of cases and paradigms. A problem of bias occurs because to identify the relevant features for such purposes, we must use general views about what is relevant; but some of our general views are biased, both in the sense of being unwarranted inclinations and in the sense that they are one of many viable perspectives. 13. Is it right to say that “What is right for me to do is what I really want to do” and why? No,it’s not right to say it that way because you are only thinking about yourself. And sometimes even it is right for you its not what you really want to do because you’re also thinking about the others, what will be the effect of this to them and whatsoever.
14. What is basic substanceof the problem freedom. “Freedom” is one of those slippery words, difficult to define because it is an ambiguous and abstract man-made concept. It naturally occurs in nature, but only becomes an issue in the way that humans view themselves, their surroundings and others. Freedom is only an issue in the presence of oppression, and oppression only exists among humans as a result of their perceptions of the world around them.
The thing is, freedom can only exist if you recognize its existence and then exercise it while at the same time acknowledging and tolerating others freedom. 15. Distinguish between moral principles and moral rules. Moral principle – the principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group; “the Puritan ethic”; “a person with old-fashioned values”. Moral Rules- they come out into the open only when the person is questioned. Very often one of the rules contradicts another, thus enabling the user to resort first to one and then to the other to suit his convenience or to accord with his pre-existing prejudices. These rules are usually those they have been taught to believe.