Moral courage is a concept means doing the right thing, it means listening to conscience that what does it saying. Standing on what believe. Moral courage has three major elements witch are principle, endurance and danger. it means moral courage and doing right things make us in the risk, we may face fear and danger for example with losing o job and security, reputation or etc. But falling in the risk is not matter because we follow our conscience and it is important because I believe that conscience is based on values and show us the way to be human. Moral courage is standing up for values such as honesty, fairness, compassion, respect and responsibility but just having these values are not enough we have to try to put them into practice and we have to commitment to moral principles as well, so in the practice we may face with danger and we have to confidence to endure hardship, suffer and sacrifice. In this sense we can see moral courage in action. According to Kennedy (1956) moral courage is “the Basis of All Human Morality.” he mentioned that Courageous men do as they do because they love themselves, they respect themselves and their reputation for integrity and their personal standard of their ethics all are more important than their popularity with others or desire to maintain their offices. For having these all values they have to fall in the risk as it done with senator George Norris, with Nelson Mandela and Malala Youssafzai, that all of them stood on what they believed and what they knew that is right.
They struggled for higher purpose and having greater values such as human rights and for justice and they found these straggle as their duty to fulfill their obligation. So as consequence we saw that all of them faced with challenges and danger and they endured hardship situation but they could to have significant acheivement. for World War 1 that was started in 1914, US government declared that they would remain neutral but in reality it was not like this and US supported England by carrying guns through Armed Merchant ships and was against German so after German submarines sank three American Merchant Ships in 1917, president Wilson declared for entering into WW1 and asked for congressional approval. Senator Norris was opposing of US entre into World Ward 1 so he filibustered the Armed merchant Ship bill and he faced with very hardship situation and condemned by American press but he didn’t gave up and he believed on the rightness of his course, he was not care about holding his office he just listened to his conscience and tried to say truth to people. So finally he did and informed people about the reality that is behind of this policy he said that these ships used for carrying war supplier to England and country try to enter in the war because of financial benefits of a certain groups of people. Senator Norris did a moral courage action because he said the truth to the people he knew about the terrible result of involving in the WW1 and he believed that war brings no prosperity to great mass of people so his consciences made him to make judgment although his political career was under risk but he pursued justice. Regarding Nelson Mandela, I have to say that he struggled against apartheid and racial discrimination and inequality.
Many movements and protests were raised with his leadership against Apartheid and he also joint to Afghan National Congress and tried to provide equality for the black people and give them their rights but he understood that these kind of nonviolent protests or movements do not work in the society that is commanded by group of people who doesn’t follow their conscience so he decided to involve in sabotage and planned for armed struggle. When he arrested by state, he and his fellows didn’t deny his involvement in sabotage and armed struggle he said the truth and he indicted state for discrimination, for inequality, for abuse of black people’s right and freedom. He said that state should feel guilty. Mandela wanted a light future for black people and the basic rights which were neglected by state. He wanted a society that all people can live together in a peace and harmony. In the court he spoke up with integrity and truth as a result he could bring prosperity for black people. He suffered and endured 27 years of his life in prison for his vision and when he was elected as a president, he focused on fostering racial reconciliation and forgiving his oppressors in Apartheid regime. Above all show his moral courage struggle and even after he came to power as president. Malala Youssafzai also was another example who stood on women right for education as it was banded by Talban regime. First she understood that it is her right to continue her education and wanted this right for other girls as well so she tried to speak up and stand on her right. She followed and listed to her conscience and believed that this is right. She had many speeches to explain and inform others that what is happening under Taliban regime and as a result she shot by Taliban and had very hardship situation but after recovery she didn’t give up and straggled for women’s right until she could influence on girl’s accessibility to education in Pakistan.