sample
Haven't found the Essay You Want?
GET YOUR CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE
For Only $12.90/page

Module 08 Case Study: CNS Movement Disorders Essay

1. What condition or conditions (disease/diseases) could Harry have as described in this case? Which one would be your primary diagnosis? In a very general explanation, describe this condition/disease. (1 point) Harry suffers from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. This disease affects a person’s motor neurons affecting voluntary motor control by damaging both the upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron.

2. Which patient findings/observations lead you to your primary diagnosis? How do they relate to the primary diagnosis? (1 point) It was Harry’s general weakness his clumsiness, and his suffering from extreme fatigue and weight loss and his weakened motor controls, slurred speech and displays an abnormal Babinski reflex that led me to his primary diagnosis.

3. How does this condition (pathophysiology) affect the body and lead to the observable symptoms and dysfunction? Be specific in the areas of the CNS it affects. (1 point) Because motor neurons degenerate with ALS, they can no longer send impulses to the muscle fibers that normally result in muscle movement. Early symptoms of ALS often include increasing muscle weakness, especially involving the arms and legs, speech, swallowing or breathing. When muscles no longer receive the messages from the motor neurons that they require to function, the muscles begin to become smaller. Therefore limbs begin to look “thinner” as muscle tissue atrophies.

4. What treatment options are available for this condition? (1 point) Drugs can be prescribed to treat the mentioned symptoms and combat further damage to the motor neurons. Baclofen could be prescribed in response to his abdominal spasticity to relax his skeletal muscles. Riluzole is believed to work to reduce the damage to motor neurons through a decrease in the release of gultamate. As well, physical and speech therapy were recommended.

5. What is the prevalence and prognosis of this condition? Is it an inheritable (genetic) condition/disease? (1 point) The cause of ALS is not known, however there are genes and hereditary factors that can modify the disease and its susceptibility. Although there is no current cure for ALS, with treatment such as aggressive nutritional intervention has provided significant improvements in the morbidity and mortality. Also there are symptom specific treatments and a multidisciplinary approach utilizing occupational and physical therapists, speech therapists, nutritionists, and nurse specialists that have led to improved quality of life and maximization of function in the person living with ALS.

6. What types of care and health care support will Harry have to possibly depend upon in the future? What preparations should Harry make? (1 point) Harry will have the support of occupational and physical therapists as well as speech therapists, nutritionist and nurse specialists that will help him live a better future.

Part II—”Keith” Questions

1. What condition or conditions (disease/diseases) could Keith have as described in this case? Which one would be your primary diagnosis? In a very general explanation, describe this condition/disease. (1 point) Keith has Huntington disease, which is a a devastating, hereditary, degenerative brain disorder.

2. Which patient findings/observations lead you to your primary diagnosis? How do they relate to the primary diagnosis? (1 point) Pretty much all of Keith’s symptoms match up with this disease such as personality change, the finger twitching, facial contortions as well as the random arm jerks.

3. How does this condition (pathophysiology) affect the body and lead to the observable symptoms and dysfunction? Be specific in the areas of the CNS it affects. (1 point) The part of the brain most affected by HD is a group of nerve cells at the base of the brain known collectively as the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia is what controls muscle movements which is what was affected on Kenny with the twitching and arm spasms. The basal ganglia in HD patients shrinks because HD attacks and kills the nerve cells.

4. What treatment options are available for this condition? (1 point) Research has yet to find a means of curing or even slowing the deadly progression of HD although some medications can relieve some of the symptoms in certain individuals.

5. What is the prevalence and prognosis of this condition? Is it an inheritable (genetic) condition/disease? (1 point) At this time, there is no way to stop or reverse the course of HD. There is no current treatment to halt the progression, which leads to death after ten to twenty-five years. However, research has identified and located the gene for HD, so it is inheritable, but hopefully this identified gene can help researchers learn more about this horrific disease.

6. What types of care and health care support will Keith have to possibly depend upon in the future? What preparations should Keith make? (1 point) Keith will have to depend greatly on others, which is why he was placed in the nursing home.

Part III—”Jim” Questions

1. What condition or conditions (disease/diseases) could Jim have as described in this case? Which one would be your primary diagnosis? In a very general explanation, describe this condition/disease. (1 point) I believe Jim has Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder, meaning that symptoms continue and worsen over time.

2. Which patient findings/observations lead you to your primary diagnosis? How do they relate to the primary diagnosis? (1 point) It was Jim’s symptoms of uncontrollable hand and arm shaking along with his voice tremor and minor bradykinesia that led me to his diagnosis.

3. How does this condition (pathophysiology) affect the body and lead to the observable symptoms and dysfunction? Be specific in the areas of the CNS it affects. (1 point) Scientists believe that loss of cells in areas of the brain and body contributes to Parkinson’s. It is the death of these neurons in the brain that leads to loss of movement and coordination.

4. What treatment options are available for this condition? (1 point) There are many medications to treat only the symptoms of Parkinson’s, but none yet that can actually reverse the effects of the disease.

5. What is the prevalence and prognosis of this condition? Is it an inheritable (genetic) condition/disease? (1 point) Parkinson’s is chronic and slowly progressive, meaning that symptoms continue and worsen over a period of years. However these symptoms vary from patient to patient some can decrease slowly or rapidly. The cause of Parkinson’s has yet to be discovered although there are scientist that believe that it could be inherited by genes as well as some who believe that it could be from environmental factors or both.

6. What types of care and health care support will Jim have to possibly depend upon in the future? What preparations should Jim make? (1 point) Depending on the severity and progression of the disease some people could suffer from inconvenience while others may depend greatly on others to the point where they cannot live alone. In Jim’s case his inability to cutting his own food and serving his morning cup leads me to believe that he will soon need to prepare to depend on someone full time to care for him.

Part IV—”Mike” Questions

1. Based upon the findings presented, which doctor made the correct initial prediction? (1 point) It is my belief that Dr. Green is correct.

2. Based upon previous knowledge of brain function, what results from the testing were consistent with a brain injury? (2 points) The positive Babinski in the right foot and the abnormal reflex are consistent with a brain injury as well as the reported dizziness and nausea.

3. Based upon previous knowledge of spinal cord function, what results from the testing were consistent with a spinal cord injury? (2 points) The decrease in sensation in the upper and lower right extremities as well as the decrease temperature discrimination as well as the decreased strength and movements of muscles are consistent with a spinal cord injury. 4. Based upon previous knowledge of CNS function, what results could be consistent with both types of injury? (2 points) The decrease in sensation in the upper and lower right extremities and the pupil response as well as the abnormal reflex response could be consistent with both types of injuries.


Essay Topics:


Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. Please, specify your valid email address

We can't stand spam as much as you do No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own