1. PUE (Power usage effectiveness), the ratio of total facility energy to IT equipment energy within a data computer, which measures how much of the power is actually used by the computing equipment. It is an important place to start when considering how to reduce data center power consumption because it is one of the most effective metrics for measuring data center energy efficiency. PUE is calculated by taking the total power of consumed by a data center facility then dividing by the power consumed by the IT equipment. In practical terms, a PUE value of 1 means that all power going into the data center is being used to power IT equipment. Anything above a value of 1 means there is data center overhead required to support the IT load. Having a holistic understanding of a data center’s energy consumption is a key first step in being able to determine the appropriate steps necessary to consider how to reduce data center power consumption. Therefore, the understanding how efficiently a data center operates is critical to ensure cost-effective operation. Since we pay for every watt of power entering the data center, every watt of overhead represents an additional cost. Reducing this overhead will reduce the overall operating costs for the data center. That is the reason why a data center manager should strive for in order to minimize cost of an operation.
2. Five methods recommended by Google for reducing power consumption: * Measure PUE: make sure that instrumentation in place is ready to work. Try to get PUE as close to 1.0 as possible and measure PUE as fast and frequently as possible. PUE measures the amount of non-computing overhead energy to the amount of energy used to power the actual machines. * Focus on the management of the air flow: to eliminate the mixing of the hot and the cold air is the most important thing and then increase the temperature of cold aisle. Good air flow is fundamental to efficient data center operation. For healthy server and computer function, the internal temperature of the data center is to be kept at the right level. The blanking panels (or flat sheets of metal) is used to close off empty rack slots and prevent hot aisle air from seeping into to the cold aisle while the plastic curtains (like those used in refrigerators) is hung to seal off the cold aisle. Besides that, areas with components that run hotter, such as power supply units or PSUs are enclosed with plastic curtains. * Adjust thermostat: a thermostat is a control unit for a heating or cooling system or a component part of a heater or air conditioner.
In order to maintain the system’s temperature near a desired set point, they have to sense the temperature of the system and the energy intensive air conditioning is eliminated by raising the cold aisle of the data center to 80◦F or higher, so this helps to reduce energy use significantly. * Utilize free cooling: Free cooling is removing heat from a data center without using a large air-conditioner, or chiller: cold outside air, water evaporation, or thermal reservoirs are used to cool the equipment. On the other hand, avoiding the need for mechanical chillers is one of the best way for energy and cost savings. * Optimize power distribution: To optimize power distribution, Google use high-efficiency power supplies, minimize the number of times power is being converted from one type of electrical current to another, and keep power supplies as close to the load as possible. The servers lose only a little over 15% of the electricity they pull from the wall during power conversion steps—less than half of what is lost in a typical server.
3. Of the world’s global greenhouse gases are the result of computing, there are around 2% of the global greenhouse gas emissions are a result of computing. In this 2%, 15% constitutes data centers and 5 % includes large internet data centers.
Several factors that affect data center power consumption both globally and in the United States Audio and Video Factors that accelerate power consumption:
* Cloud computing.
* Advancements in IT
Factors that reduce power consumption:
* Air management
* This technique allows servers to perform multiple tasks at once *
Distributing datacenters worldwide
4. Data center power consumption will be high in developed countries because most of the major data centers are located in these countries. These days, in order to reduce data center power consumption, companies are preferring places with lower ambient temperatures. This includes, Iceland and Scandinavia. Google, for example, has a large number of data centers are located in North America and Europe. This will include most of the developed countries. 5. If a firm share its techniques, the rest of the industry can also be more efficient centers, and decrease global emissions of greenhouse gases. Google is considered to be an industry leader in data center efficiency. It builds its own custom data centers. But Google will not share its virtualization technology. Google takes many other steps to share its energy efficient best practices with other firms and the public
6. A government or an industry association should regulate the carbon emissions of the data center industry as they do for other industries. Such an association can make the companies aware about the importance of ‘going green’ and thereby reducing emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency, in 2007, projected that the power requirements of data centers would double from 2005 to 2010. There is plenty of incentive for online e-commerce companies to reduce their data center power consumption. In addition, competition among the industry’s largest providers of data centers are incentivized to help their customers “go green” and reduce costs.
(2) 2 sources that talk about Data centers in companies and how they relate to “greening” a company
Volvo Environmental Sustainability through the use of Unified Communications (Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BA4QZe-SsCk)
Microsoft thought about how to make most energy-efficient place in the world. In the past five to six years ago, as they have known for more towards Africa, they wanted to make sure that the delivered any clean sustainable environment. They have built recital transactions which is effectively using outside a record of the error, pure hydro-electric racial integration and facility great power costs ecologically. Microsoft has made a major contribution in sharing the air experiences with many customers and their competitors in terms of how the operative as risk for energy efficiency.
Greening IBM’s Demo Central datacenter with energy management solutions (Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KZg_Ow1jtjQ)
The data center that they built is probably one of the most instrumented data centers in the world. They have everything that is equipped in the data center. They measure air velocity, power, flow rates and voltages. They intend to use it as a living test bed in which they can try various technologies and optimize technologies in real time instead of using it as a production data center. Besides that, IBM provided more than $5 million dollars in software, design services. One of the most efficient features is trigeneration (electricity, heating and cooling all from a single burn of natural gas. IBM and Syracuse University will use the knowledge gain from the new operation to help clients have an opportunity to learn about sustainability: sustainable data centers, sustainable buildings. The process in terms of modelling and understanding energy use is one that applies not only to data center but to buildings in general
Homework C – Friedman 4 flatteners
1. Outsourcing: Outsourcing is well known as a common way for many companies to hire efficient employees for a very profitable cost 2. Offshoring: The sixth reason for the world becoming flat is because of offshoring. Offshoring is when a big country sets up factories in other countries. 3. Supply-chaining: Supply Chaining is a method of collaborating horizontally – among suppliers, retailers, and customers – to create value. It is a huge flattener because as supply chains proliferate, the acceptance of standard protocols between different unit increases. It helps bringing different companies to the same level. 4. Insourcing: This is a huge flattener because it makes small companies become big and thus levels the competitive field even more. It helps big businesses become small by reducing the delivery and the processing time for goods.