Carbohydrates are the best basis of energy for the body. They made from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The main group of carbohydrate in foods are sugar, starches and cellulose. We can find Carbohydrate in rice, potatoes, bread, pasta and cereals. The Carbohydrate make people fat, and they are the most source of energy for body.
Fats are complex of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. We need fat for hormone metabolism, to have healthy skin and hair, it also helps to, repair the tissue .it helps to shape to your body. Sometimes it helps to protect the organs which are inside the body like kidneys. The main two types of fats are saturated and unsaturated. You can find saturated fat in animal products like, milk, cheese, meat with fat, cream….fat is the important source of calories and energy for body also it could be so dangerous for your health if you use it too much.fat provide healthier skin and helps the body to use vitamins like A, D E and K because these are fat soluble.
Proteins are built up longs chain of amino acids. We have got two types of amino acids essential and non-essential amino acids and both of them are necessary for body. We have got two types of protein, animal protein and plant protein. You can find the best source of protein in fish, meat and dairy produce, cereals, rice and eggs… Some of your hormones, organs and muscles are made up with protein, and the most responsibility for protein is delivering the oxygen to blood cells. Also protein is needed for growing and repairing tissue and replacement.
4-Vitamins and Minerals:
Vitamins and minerals are nutrients which your body require to grow and develop normally.Vitamins are very important for body they help enzyme to work properly, we have two different type of vitamins: water soluble (B vitamins and vitamin C) and fat soluble (A, D, E and K).body can’t make the vitamins so we need to get this from the food because it is necessary for body. We need vitamin A to have healthy eyes; this vitamin is necessary for body growth and repair. They are important to have healthy life, too little amount of vitamins cause health problems also too much of vitamins cause of some disease. Minerals: you can find minerals in earth and sea. they can be found in water, root plants and animals. Some of them are needed for body like iron, magnesium, zinc, aluminium, calcium,… For example we need iron to make homeoglobine, and calcium is required for healthy teeth and skin and bones. Amounts needed for most of minerals are very small and too much amounts can be toxic to your body.
The most important nutrient in your body is water, your body is mostly made up from water, more than half of your body weight is water, you can live for many days without food but you can’t be alive without water more than a few days.It transmits oxygen and nutrients into all your cells. Also helps control your body temperature. It also helps to your metabolism work properly. We need to drink six or eight glasses of water a day. If the urine is dark in colour, this means that you need to increase your fluid levels. Illness and fever also increase your water necessity, and water replacement is necessary part of much medical treatment
P2: Identify different dietary needs at each life stage
The babies only need milk to get the nutrients and breast milk is the best food for them because it contains all nutrients the baby needs. Some mothers are not able to breastfeed so they can feed by cow’s milk but this must be sterilized to prevent infection. Before six months we just suggest rice, other cereal grains like oats, wheat, and barely can be given after six months. For the first few months of their life they get all of the nutrients he needed from their mother’s milk. However, babies are growing very quickly, and at about 6 months of age breast milk could no longer meet all they needs, they have to give them solid foods. We should be careful not to give them too many foods high in salt and sugar. Solid foods provide extra energy and nutrients which are needed at this time like Iron and Zinc.
You can give them one new food at a time and wait two or three days to see the reaction and find out if they have any allergy or also you can see how well the new food is digested. By about 12-18 months the toddler can eat the same food as the rest of the family, with less salt or sugar. Try to give those different fruit and vegetable as they all have different nutrients and also include some at each meal and offer them as snacks. Make sure your toddler get enough calories. For children between 1 – 3 years old energy requirements increases because children are more active and growing rapidly. Protein requirements do not increase much. Vitamins need to be increased. They need slightly lower amount of calcium and iron. They need more mineral at this stage.
Childhood (4-10 years)
In this stage the children are very active. Many children, especially those who are not physically active, tend to eat too many calories. Children aged 2 to 3 years, 4 to 6 years, and 7 to 10 years require approximately 1300, 1800, and 2000 calories, respectively. In these ages they need to eat healthy food like fish, meat, pasta, eggs, and potato, they should not eat too many crisp fizzy drinks sweets and biscuits because these cause tooth problems and obesity. Protein is necessary for body growth, so protein requirements for children are higher than for adults.
They should take full fat milk and skimmed milk should not be given to children under 5 years of age. After the age of 4 children need more energy and protein, most vitamins and all the minerals except iron. Vitamin C remains the same as they were younger. By the age of 7 – 10 years old their energy and protein intake still increases the requirement for most vitamins and minerals increased except vitamin A and C. dairy products should be mixed up in diet to boost calcium intake for strong bones. We have to give them vitamin D because it helps them to build strong bones and teeth.
When the children get to ages between 11 – 14 years they need more energy and their protein requirement increases by %50. At the age of 11 vitamin and mineral requirement differs for boys and girls. Boys need more vitamin and mineral but there is no change for some of the vitamins. Girls have to take minerals and iron when the menstruation starts. Between the age of 15 – 18 boys need more energy and protein. They need more B vitamins, C, A and minerals such as magnesium, potassium, zinc and iodine. They need high amounts of calcium because of their skeletal development. Requirement for some B vitamins like B1, B3, B6, C and some minerals like magnesium, potassium and iodine. Boys and girls have the same requirement for B12 and vitamin C, magnesium, sodium and potassium.
Girls need more iron but lower requirement for zinc and calcium. Teenagers should be pushed to choose a mixture of foods from the other basic food groups: A lot of starchy carbohydrates – bread, rice, pasta, breakfast cereals, and potatoes. Plenty of fruit and vegetables, Two to three portions of dairy products, like milk, yoghurt and pasteurised cheeses, Two servings of protein, such as meat, fish, eggs, beans and pulses. Many teenagers, mainly girls, don’t get enough iron in their diet, so we should make sure they get plenty of meat, fish and leafy green vegetables. Protein is important, especially during a teenager’s growth spurt, as is calcium and vitamins C and D. Because they are so active, they need lots of energy in their diet. Foods like pasta and bread are good foods as they are high in carbohydrate.
Adulthood (19- 65years):
In adulthood age 19 – 50 years the energy requirement is less for both women and men, because they are not as physically active as they were and their metabolic rates slow down. Their requirement for calcium is lower Women start losing calcium from bones during and after the beginning of menopause for about five years, after which the rate of calcium loss is reduced until about age seventy-five or eighty. So, it is important for women to eat foods high in calcium up to the age of thirty-five, also women need less magnesium and men need lower amount of iron.
Their requirement for protein and most of vitamins and minerals remain the same in comparison to adolescents. Best recommend for food could be: Whole, enriched, and fortified grains and cereals like brown rice and 100% whole wheat bread, vegetables such as carrots and broccoli, low- and non-fat dairy products like yogurt and low-lactose milk, dry beans and nuts, fish, lean meat and eggs, fluid intake (water is best).women have to increase iron to their diet. They should not eat too many high fat foods.
Old age (+ 65years):
After the age of 65 we need less energy because people get less active after this age. Men need less protein than women and their requirements for vitamins and minerals stay the same for both men and women as it was in their adulthood. After the menopause, women need less iron. The reduction in energy needs, coupled with unchanged requirement for vitamins and minerals means that the nutrient density of the diet becomes more important. Nutrient density means the quantity of vitamins and minerals in relation to the amount of energy supplied by the foods and drinks consumed.
With the advancement of age, the capacity to digest and eating large meals often decreases. So, the amount of food given at a time needs to be decreased. If required number of meals can be increased as per the individual’s tolerance. They should avoid food rich in fat, cholesrtol and animal fats, especially saturated fats, because they cause some cardio-vascular disease. They can use sunflower oil or soya bean oil to prevent heart disease. It’s better to add vitamin D to their diet.also they have to eat foods which are easy to digest, and eats plenty of fibre
P3: explain two medical conditions related to unbalanced diets: You are a key worker at Happy Day Nursery in Sutton. You are looking after two children who recently joined the nursery. Aisha is 4 years of age and she is severely overweight and you are discussing Aisha’s dietary needs with her parents.Shareef is 3 years of age and suffers from anemia.Explain the two medical condition related to unbalanced diets:
Obesity is when a person is carrying too much body fat for their height and sex. Aisha is a person considered obese because she has a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or more. The problems can cause by obesity is like difficulty breating, difficulty walking or running, increase sweating, high cholesterol…
She has to reduce fat intake and sugary food stuff .It helps in reducing a lot of calories and, in turn her weight. She has to select foods with low, light or reduced calories or fat, including milk products. Also she needs to take foods that include starches and dairy products
She has to take plenty of vegetables, fruits, grain products and whole grains each day. Dairy products should not be missed out. Low-fat, no-fat and reduced-fat milk, yogurts, cheese, ice creams and many other such products available in the market provide a good taste of things to the dieters. With proper nutrition, exercises and support Aisha can lose weight and develop healthy habits for her life.
Over nutrition results from eating too much, eating too many of wrong things, not exercising enough, or taking too many vitamins or other dietary replacement. Tooth decay is a symptom of malnutrition. The enamel of the teeth can be dotted with white patches. The bone and teeth become easily breakable. Tooth decay is one of the most common of disorders. It usually occurs in children and young adults, but can affect any person. It is the most important causes of teeth loss in younger people.
Anaemia is a lack of red blood cells. Anaemia can be described as the loss of red blood cells or haemoglobin in blood. Haemoglobin is the carrier of oxygen to the various part of our body. Decrease in red blood cells means decrease in the carrying capacity of the blood. Anaemia is primarily the result of nutritional deficiency in our body. The most common symptoms of anaemia are weakness, breathlessness, lack of energy, depression, numbness, tingling sensation, irritability and memory loss. A person with anaemia will feel tired and week because the body’s tissues are being starved oxygen. In fact weakness is the main symptoms of most types of anaemia. Mild anaemia can occur without symptoms and may detect only during a medical exam that includes a blood test.
Weakness, fainting, breathlessness, heart palpitations (rapid or irregular beating), dizziness, headache, ringing in the ears, difficulty sleeping, difficulty concentrating, abnormal menstruation are symptoms of anaemia. A proper, well balanced diet is very beneficial for anaemic people. They have to include cereals, rice, pasta, dairy products (milk, yogurt and cheese), dry beans, eggs, vegetables and fruits, meat, poultry, fish and nuts. Beet root is one of the best home solutions for anaemia you can eat them as a cooked vegetable or in salad or even beet root juice for the purpose. Also the good sources of iron are: Liver, green leafy vegetables, beets, dried fruits, brown flakes, brown rice, raisins and prunes.
While anaemic people are recommended to have food reach in iron content, vitamin C is required for the absorption of iron. Include citrus fruits like orange and lemon to your diet. Anaemia affects all population groups. However the most susceptible groups are pregnant women and young children. In pregnant women the baby needs extra iron so that the baby has a sufficient blood supply and receives all of the necessary oxygen and nutrients. Low birth weight in infants, young children and women of child bearing age are particularly at risk of anaemia. Women of child bearing age need to absorb 2-3 times the amount of iron required by men or older women. Lack of folic acid, vitamin A or B12 is the case of anaemia in people who are living in developing country.
M1: Discuss how to components of a balanced diet contribute to an individual’s health at different life stage:
In infancy a baby’s kidneys are not as yet developed strongly enough to hold the high protein and mineral content fully until that age, the same applies to solid foods. After 6 months we can add some solid food to their diet because they are ready to digest the food.
During childhood, children’s food needs change usually, depending on their growth and their stage of physical activity and energy needs, a child’s full protein, vitamin and mineral requirements boost with age. Perfectly, children should be building up stores of nutrients in preparation for the quick growth experienced during adolescence. In adulthood they need to eat more fruits and vegetables the good source to take vitamins, minerals and fibre which also help prevent heart diseases, cancers and many health conditions that come up with age, it is encouraged that eat 5 portions of fruit or vegetables each day.
Elderly adults should eat a well-balanced diet and exercise frequently; spend some time outside to make better the vitamin D for healthy skin and bones; limit fat and sugar eating such as cakes biscuits and so on; eat foods high in fibre to help bowel health; reduce on salt; eat from a wide range of food and to share mealtimes with friends and family, The amount of food may cut because of the advancing of age effects the capacity to digest food and tolerate large meals.
P4: Identify two service users with specific dietary needs:
You are working as a nurse in St.Helier Hospital. You are looking after several patients. One of your patients, Mr.Abdi Hailu suffers from a coronary heart disease. Another patient, Miss Talia Kaunu is lactose intolerant. Identify two service users with specific dietary needs.
Mr Abdi has got Coronary heart disease. It is a narrowing of the blood vessels that provide oxygen and blood to the heart. Coronary heart disease is a major cause of illness and death. Coronary heart disease is generally make happen by atherosclerosis – when plaque gather on the artery walls, make them to narrow, resulting in less blood run to the heart. Sometimes a clot may form which can stop the flow of blood to heart muscle. Coronary heart disease normally causes chest pain, shortness of breath, heart attack and other symptoms. So he should change his diet to prevent other damage to the heart. He has to eat lots of fruits and vegetables during the day. Decrease the amount of salt in his food and add some nuts and seeds to their diet and decrease the amount of fat in their diet. Therefor he has to change his life style like stop smoking, have some exercise during the day, have healthy diet and don’t be in stress and reduce emotional.
Miss Talia Kaunu:
Miss Talia is not able to digest lactose, the sugar found in milk and milk products. It is caused by lack of lactose in her body. So she is not supposed to eat milk and she has to find some alternative like yoghurt and cheese. she might feel uncomfortable after having milk and milk products. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, abdominal bloating, gas, diarrhoea, and nausea. The best management for this situation is: she has to slowly put in small amounts of food and drinks which include lactose to determine the tolerance level or she can drink milk with a meal or with other food. Also there is some lactose enzyme in tablet form; she can take them before eating.
When she doesn’t drink milk it can lead her to lack of calcium, vitamin D and protein, so she should find new way to get these, she can take calcium supplements and drink orange juice and have some food which have more calcium, dark green vegetables like spinach and fish with soft bones such as salmon and sardines are high in calcium.
Courtney from Study Moose
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