International migration has been on the rise in the recent past and the trend is unlikely to change even in the future. It is estimated that more than 150 million people do not reside in their countries of birth or nationality. This figure is expected to continue rising in the future. Migration is the movement of people from their country of origin to live in another country. Migration can either be voluntary or involuntary which depends on the prevailing conditions in ones native country or those of the desired country.
Voluntary migration is attributed and encouraged by the establishment of well developed networks which creates labor for both the skilled and unskilled people (Spener para 1, 2). Forced or involuntary immigration on the other hand is brought about by unfavorable living conditions and abuse in human rights. Conflicts and political repressions also contribute to this form of migration. These two forms are hard to distinguish because those subjected to forced migration will look for livelihood in the other country to cater for their needs.
Countries have a duty to protect and assist immigrants especially when the migration is involuntary (Spener para 3). Search for labor a major contributor to increased cross border migration The migration of Mexicans to America started in the late 1880s during the construction of railroad linking these two countries. The Americans encouraged the Mexicans to migrate by employing the as day laborers. This was followed by the establishment of the Bracero programs which simply translated to manual laborers (Rodriguez-Scott para 2).
Migration act was also formulated during this time allowing Mexicans to work in America. This trend continued as the Mexican population continued to grow making the number of Mexican immigrants to be alarming. The improved living standards of the Mexicans working in America has also contributed to the rise of immigrants in the country. This has led to the formulation of migration act to regulate immigration in the u. s like the immigration reform act. Implementation has however been unsuccessful since Mexicans offer cheaper labor thus employers are unwilling to comply with the regulations.
Introduction of guest workers programs in the u s to restrict illegal migration has been criticized as more Mexican take longer holidays in America so as to work there. Illegal migration has also been encouraged by companies who smuggle the Mexicans to work for them at a cheaper pay. However, the American and Mexican government are working together to come up with policies so as to reduce the strain caused by the migration issue on the relationship of these two countries (Rodriguez-Scott para 4).
Migration has also been an issue in Asia with the Asians migrating to other neighboring Asian states. Most Asians like the Mexicans have been reported to have migrated to their neighboring states to seek for employment. Asians provide semi-skilled and unskilled labor which their neighboring states require. Like in America, these states have come up with laws to cub the influx of the immigration rates. Immigration work permits have been introduced to ensure that no illegal immigrant is working in these states.
Labor related migration is the most common type in the Asia and in Mexico. However, there are other forms of migration and the work permits enables the government to distinguish between refugees and voluntary immigrants (Manning, para 3). There are other reason for migration other than employment and forced immigration. For example, Muslims are not allowed by their religion to live in a non-Muslim country (Lewis para 2). They preserve their identity and their faith thus does not realize multiculturalism as an acceptable culture to practice.
However, a Muslim is allowed to be in another country on special circumstances one of which may be that he is a captive or has gone to negotiate the release of captives (Lewis para 6). He is required to keep his faith even when he is in a country of unbelievers. A convert to Islamic doctrine living in unbelieving country is required to leave the country as soon as possible. In the recent past however, most Muslims from North Africa and Middle East have been migrating to Europe which is a non Muslim country. Some of the muslin faithful have migrated due to job opportunities in Europe enabled by the multiculturalism notion of Europe.
Some analysts however are more skeptical about this movements arguing that it is in line with the muslins believe of global Muslim community. Another reason for the migration of Muslims to Europe is that religious discrimination in Europe is not so high like in other parts like America. This has been contributed to the increase in the numbers of Muslims in Europe (Grillo & Soares, para 5). Migration all over the world recently has been characterized by similar trend with the main aim being employment opportunities for the immigrants.
In America for example, the Americans have been educated and are unwilling to take up the unskilled labor. On the other hand, Mexicans has an excess of labor supply which is usually semi skilled and unskilled. They thus migrate to America to take up the jobs available in the factories. This is similar in the Asia whereby the neighboring Asian countries have a shortage of labor while Asia has an excess of it (Passel, para 4). This creates a surplus on one country while on the other country there is a deficit of labor. This has encouraged immigration amongst these states.
Globalization and the improvement in technology have also led to an increase in migration. Migration has also served to enhance the relationships among different countries. This is evident with the many immigration agreements which had been signed by involved states to regulate it. Cultural diversity has been enhanced as migration has taken root. Different races are intermingling freely thus racial discrimination is declining. Migration of the Muslims to Europe is also seen as a major breakthrough to cub religious animosity in the world (Pew global attitudes project para 5).
Conclusion In the past, migration was not seen as being detrimental but as being beneficial to the countries involved. With the increase in population, this has gradually changed as the number of immigrants is on the rise. This has led to improvisation of immigration acts and work permit system to regulate it. However, since immigrants offer cheap labor compared to the citizens, smuggling of laborers has been on the rise in America. It has been reported that immigrants prefer settle in these countries thus increasing the populations of the country.
This has called for introduction of laws to discourage this settlement. Work cited Grillo Ralph & Soares Benjamin F. : Transnational Islam in Western Europe 2002. Retrieved on 19th November 2008 from; http://www. isim. nl/files/Review_15/Review_15-11. pdf. Lewis Bernard: For Fanatical Muslims, Migration Is Part Of “Third Wave” Attack On Europe 2007. Retrieved on 19th November 2008 from; http://www. islam-watch. org/Others/Muslims-Migration-Third-Attack-Europe. htm Manning Chris: The East Asian Economic Crisis and Labor Migration: A Set-Back for International Economic Integration?
(n. d). Retrieved on 19th November 2008 from; http://rspas. anu. edu. au/economics/publish/papers/wp2001/Manning%202001_03. Passel Jeffrey: Mexican Immigration to the US: The Latest Estimates 2004. Retrieved on 19th November 2008 from; http://www. migrationinformation. org/usfocus/display. cfm? ID=208. Pew global attitudes project: Muslims in Europe: Economic Worries Top Concerns About Religious and Cultural Identity 2006. Retrieved on 19th November 2008 from; http://pewglobal. org/reports/display. php? ReportID=254
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