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Mid-term Exam Essay

What were some of the changes that took place in Europe between the years 1000 and 1492, and why did those changes lead to European exploration and overseas expansion? From Leif Eriksson being the first European to sail to North America to Marco Polo making his first trip to china were the few things that were going on in the European discovery. During the 1100 the crusades joined the holy war to regain capture of Palestine which was taken away by the Muslims. As the crusades war was going on, the Europeans introduced new and exotic goods to such as spices, silk and jewels. This opened up a whole new opportunity for the Europeans as the demands and the trade grew, Ships were departing from towns in Italy and Asia. Christopher Columbus discovered North American in 1492.

Columbus sailed east from Europe trying to find a route to the east. He failed to sail east because of the landmass that was in his way. Columbus believe he sailed to India because of the landmass and called the land the “West Indies” and the people he found there as “Indians”. This led to the exploration and overseas expansion to North America from Europe. The expansion grew as the growth of expanding trade grew out of Europe. The discovery of the New World took a rise as the transfer of plants, animal’s food demanded the human population to expand. All these things that took place from 1000-1492 changed Europe forever. The demands in trade gave Europeans the opportunity for new forms of employment and ability to travel out of Europe for work.

What were the major problems facing American leaders during the 1780s? What were the main weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? How did those weaknesses prevent the new government from dealing with the new nation’s major problems? How did the Constitution of 1787 alter the structure and operation of the national government to more effectively deal with those problems? This period was called the “Critical Periods”, it was a time right after the American Revolution war that took place in 1783. George Washington became the president of this time in 1789. After the war the economic problems just grew. The British navy destroyed most of the American ships and also taking over there flow of trade. The farmers suffered tremendously due to the army steeling from their farms in order to eat.

Once the war was over in 1781 the exports to Brittan was restricted, British created a law that prohibited trade with the remaining sugar colonies that were in the Caribbean. The articles of confederation was a document signed by all 13 original colonies that put together the United States of America. The confederation left most of the power to the state governments. The weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation was that the states could not be forced by the government to obey its laws. Also it did not have the power to enforce any type of laws. The congress lacked the strong leadership and there was no system of national courts. In order for a change to be made to the articles 9 out of the 13 states had to approve the law before it could be passed on with no army to protect the nation.

Compare and contrast the northern, middle, and southern colonies by 1760. What experiences were unifying the colonies? How were the British colonies different from Spain’s colonies? All three colonies had major differences in there economic activity and their culture. The resentment of the British held them together as they were suffering hard times as Brittan kept on restraining trade, shipping and manufacturing. The Northern Colonies was largely religious. Even though religion was practiced more in the Southern Colonies, a lot of people from the north were still very religious. Instead, there main focus was never on gaining wealth. The South was mostly agricultural and a big part of the workers were African American slaves. Tabaco was the main export of the Southern economy. In the Northern Colonies farming was usually just done to provide just for the family. The economy of New England, Northern, and colonies was based on the rivers and forests for the most part and the southern colonies were more focused on farming. There are only a couple of similarities and differences in the colonies. People beginning a new life for themselves was a similarity both regions had. These regions were founded for many different reason including political freedom, religion, conquest and economy.

The British colonies were recruited from farmers, artisans and tradesmen. Immigrants from other countries were welcomed. In the Spanish colonies it contained more soldiers, conquistadores and mission Aries were the primary source of people. The farmers and traders come at a later date. The government for the English colonies allowed colonist to set up local governments and representative assemblies and to make sure to tax themselves as long as they did not take up arms against the crown. In the Spanish colonies they were governed by the crown appointed governors. The settlers had to obey the laws the king set since the settlers could make laws on their own. The religion for the English was mostly non-Catholics. The puritans in Massachusetts established an autocratic and restrictive religious leadership. For the Spanish colonies the settlers were restricted to Catholics. The people that protested were persecuted and driven out. The economy on the British colony was rice, tobacco, timber and fish. The economic activities were farming, trading and also fishing. In the Spaniard colonies it was a more largely trading economy. It was controlled by the Spaniards and the board of trade.

What major challenges did Americans face during the War for Independence, and how did they overcome those challenges and defeat Great Britain? The British always seemed unbeatable. During the previous 100 years, the British had enjoyed victory after victory from countries that were powerful like Spain and France. The odds never looked good for the Americans on this war. Brittan had the best military in the world, their soldiers were well fed, paid good money and also well disciplined. The British military was also very well equipped unlike the American. Funds were so much easily raised by the empire then by the continental congress. A lot of those funds were used to hire Hessian Mercenaries to fight of the Americans. The Americans always had a difficult time being able to raise enough funds to purchase the basic supplies for the troops like shoes and blankets. The British always had a winning tradition, most Indians sided with Brittan who promised them protection over their land. The downfall for the Brittan was that they were fighting a war that was far from home. Their supplies that they needed sometimes took months to reach their destination. The British objective for this war to persuade the American to give up their claims for independence. Americans were fighting for their rights, independence and liberty. The soldiers and the leaders were unexperienced but always seemed competent. This war was very expensive, this war gave Americans courage which gave Americans a favor.

Describe and explain the roles played by loyalists, African Americans, women, and American Indians during the Revolutionary War. How did the outcome of the war affect them? The principle is this was freedom which motivated the black slaves to join the Patriot or the British army. Approxitmaly 5 percent of the American soldiers in the battle of Bunker Hill were black. They received the same pas as whites although they never held a high rank. The blacks in the war served in integrated units. An estimated 100, 00 African Americans died or were killed during the war. They thought the concept of using slaves in the army would mean that the economy would collapse without slavery. Women in the revolutionary war took many different roles. They were nurses, cooks and maids and sometimes even secret soldiers and spies. Many of the women nurses were camp followers, wives, daughters and even mothers of the soldiers. The most common role the women played were cooks, maids, laundresses and water bearers for the army. This was the first time women took a role in the war since these duties were reserved for male soldiers. Women were not allowed to serve in the military but they still served as secret soldiers.

They would disguise themselves by cutting their hair and using masculine names to blend in. A lot of the motivation for joining the army is unknown but most of these women were poor and needed to earn money for their families. They also worked as spies, most of the female spies worked as maids or cooks for the British and had a lot of insight about the movements, military plans and supply shortages and the deliveries. The loyalist supported the British. They were mostly older, educated and wealthier than most Americans. The life for the loyalist was difficult during the war. Loyalist who lived in the area that was being controlled by the patriots lost their businesses and homes. After the war was over a lot of them lost their fortunes and their land. The British government paid them for their loyalty, but it was not nearly as much as they had lost. Many of the Indians had to choose between the loyalist and patriots or somehow try to maintain a neutral stance. They had issues trying to hold their homelands as well as try to maintain access to trade supplies as war was in there lands too. On September 4, 1783 the peace treaty of Paris was signed.

“An Encyclopedia of American Women at War: From the Home Front to the Battlefields”; Lisa Tendrich Frank; 2013 “Women Soldiers, Spies, and Patriots of the American Revolution”; Martha Kneib; 2004 “The Revolutionary War”; Charles Patrick Neimeyer; 2007

National Women’s History Museum: The American Revolution: http://www.nwhm.org/online-exhibits/spies/2.htm Army.Mil: Early History of Women in the U.S. Army: http://www.army.mil/women/history.html United States Army: Early Women Soldiers: http://www.army.mil/women/history.html History.org: Women’s Service in the Revolutionary Army: http://www.history.org/history/teaching/enewsletter/volume7/nov08/women_revarmy.cfm

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