Root Tip – tip of a plant root that protects the growing tip and secretes mucilage to ease the movement of the root through soil Zone of Elongation – absorbs food & water, cell growth pushes root tip down, elongating the root Zone of Maturation – Zone where root cells differentiate, or form different kinds of tissues that make up a mature root Xylem – transports water up from roots through the plant Phloem – transports the nutrients made from photosynthesis to all parts of the plant as needed Primary Root Develops into either “tap root” or “fibrous roots”; Other smaller roots branch off;
Develops from hypocotyl; Roots provide water and minerals to the plant from the soil Adventitious Roots – Additional roots that emerge from parts of the plant other than the root system; Burrow into the ground for nutrients Leaves
Plumule – Also known as “epicotyl”, emerges after primary root is established and becomes the “shoot” system above ground Stem – Also known as “axis”; The main “stalk” of a branch or of the whole plant Apical Bud – a.k.a. “terminal bud”; At the tip of a growing plant; Contains actively dividing cells called apical meristem; Growth here lengthens the plant; grows upward Node – point on the axis, or stem, where the leaf, petiole, another axis, or flower attaches Internode – distance between two nodes
Petiole – Stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem
Axillary Bud – Bud located between the stem (axis) and the petiole; Can develop into a new branch, leaf or flower Leaf Blade – Flattened, green site of photosynthesis Sessile leaves – attaches directly to the stem with no petiole Flowers
Sepal – Provide protection for flower bud; supports petals after flower blooms calyx – many sepals
Petals – Often brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators corolla – many petals
Stamen – male flower part
Anther: pollen-producing reproductive organ
Filament: support structure for anther; Produces male gametes, or spores (plant version of sperm) Carpel – Also called pistil; Female reproductive organ in flowers that produces seeds; Consists of ovary, ovule, stigma, and style Stigma – Sticky, receptive tip of a carpel; The stigma receives pollen from bees Style – pillar-like stalk through which pollen tubes grow to reach the ovary Ovary – Pollen fertilizes eggs here and develop into seeds; develops into the pericarp Pericarp – The outer layer In fleshy fruits; Often edible for human and animals; Develops from the ovary wall of the flower; Surrounds the seeds.
“Now that everyone’s here, let’s leave!”
Invite students to travel outside and collect a plant sample that they would like to identify. State Objective – Tell students that they are going to be learning about their samples, to identify their parts, and to learn their functions. Model:
I will show a Microsoft PowerPoint slideshow with pictures or plant structures, their names, and descriptions of their functions. (ESOL Strategy for Edith: Use of visuals) Slideshow will contain brief and simple definitions for structures. (ESOL Strategy for Edgar: Describing items in simple terms; Bulleted lists rather than extended texts) I will point to the structures as I say their names out loud. (ESOL Strategy for Edith: Pointing/Gesturing)
There will be an individual slide for each important structure with additional information, synonyms and pictures (ESOL Strategy for Edgar: Expand vocabulary through paraphrasing) I will try to repeat the names of the structures as many times as I can instead of saying “it” to aid in pronunciation and understanding. (ESOL Strategy for Edith: Repetition) Input – I will ask students if they can provide me with any examples of various structures from their experiences, diets, etc.
For example, carrots are tap roots. (ESOL Strategy for Tasir: Linking content to student’s personal life) Guided Practice – I will provide some of my own plant samples and place them under the dot cam. I will then dissect samples and state the names of various structures. (ESOL Strategy for Edgar: Correcting Phonological Errors) (ESOL Strategy for Edith: Repetition) Check for Understanding – I will ask students to present their samples in groups on the dot cam and name their structures without my assistance. (ESOL Strategy for Tasir: Group Activities with Comprehension Checks) Independent Practice: Student will be asked to fill out a worksheet as homework.
The students will be required to label unlabeled plant illustrations, and answers questions about the functions of each structure.
Briefly review the material with students. This time without the visual aid, ask students if they can reiterate or paraphrase the purposes and functions of various structures. Ask students to relate reproductive structures to the embryonic structures they create, and then the embryonic structures to the adult structure they develop into. Assign homework.
Give students something to look forward to for the next class, ex: interesting fact about photosynthesis. “I hope you have a wonderful afternoon! See you tomorrow!”
Resources and References:
Vajravelu, R. (2009). Ethnobotany: A Modern Perspective. (1st ed., pp. 20-35). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt. Microsoft PowerPoint (OR) Linux LibreOffice Impress
Samples from Landscaping and/or School Garden
Evaluation: Upon being presented with an unlabeled plant sample or illustration, students should be able to identify the name each structure. Students should be able to recognize correlations between different structures for plants in different stages of the life cycle (Example: hypocotyl and primary root). Students should be able to understand what
functions each structure has that contribute to the survival of the plant.
For Edith, who is at the beginning level of language development, used multiple visual aids for each structure. I will state the name of each structure while pointing to the structure, being sure to clearly enunciate, and will repeat the names of the structures as many times as possible. I have placed arrows and animations on the PowerPoint slides for things that I am not able to reach, point to, etc. A real life example that she has collected personally, and can touch and play with at her desk, will be useful as another visual aid. For Edgar, who is in the intermediate levels of language acquisition, I have provided very simplified definitions and brief bulleted lists of additional information.
Animations in slides and gestures to structures coupled with me carefully enunciating while I speak the vocabulary words should help to clear up any phonological errors he may experience. Tasir, who is at the advanced levels of language acquisition, will benefit from note-taking in the classroom. Having the correctly spelled vocabulary words provided on the screen next visual examples will help her to spell them correctly in her notes, which will in turn build up her writing skills. Having me read aloud the words on the screen may help her with her reading skills.
Peer review in group activities and guided practice will help correct any errors. Her spelling on her homework will help me to assess her level of success. I will link concepts to her personal life, such as tap roots and carrots, to help her understand that improvement in class will lead to skills she will use in life.
Copy of PowerPoint is attached.