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Microbiology Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Microbiology Case Study

You are working as an emergency room nurse in Topeka when a mother brings in her 8 year old son because of severe, bloody diarrhea. When questioned, the boy said that it hurts when he goes to the bathroom and his mother said he had vomited in the previous two days. When asked about their previous movements, the mother and son both mentioned a backyard barbeque that had taken place 6 days earlier. The boy complained that his mother made him eat a “pink” hamburger that was not thoroughly cooked. A physical examination of the boy revealed nothing out of the ordinary except dehydration from the diarrhea. Lab tests showed that he had 13,000 white blood cells/microliter of blood, and…

Triple Sugar Test in Microbiology

Triple sugar-iron (TSI) agar test- designed to differentiate among the different groups or genera of the Enterobacteriaceae, which are all gram-negative bacilli capable of fermenting glucose with the production of acid a. Differentiation is made on the basis of differences in carbohydrate fermentation patterns and hydrogen sulfide production. To facilitate observation of carbohydrate utilization patterns- TSI agar slants contain lactose and sucrose (1%) concentrations and glucose (0.1%) concentration which permits detection of the utilization of this substrate only. The acid base indicator phenol red- also incorporated to detect carbohydrate fermentation that is indicated by a change in color of the medium from orange-red to yellow in the presence of acids. a. Method to inoculate slant: stab and streak procedure which…

Adhd: Universal Precautions

Universal Precautions Universal precautions refers to the practice, in medicine, of avoiding contact with patients’ bodily fluids, by means of the wearing of nonporous articles such as medical gloves, goggles, and face shields. The practice was introduced in 1985–88.[1][2] In 1987, the practice of universal precautions was adjusted by a set of rules known as body substance isolation. In 1996, both practices were replaced by the latest approach known as standard precautions (health care). Nowadays and in isolation, practice of universal precautions has historical significance. Historical significance of universal precautions Under universal precautions all patients were considered to be possible carriers of blood-borne pathogens. The guideline recommended wearing gloves when collecting or handling blood and body fluids contaminated with blood,…

Identifying Salmonella Choleraesuis

The purpose of this study was to determine what an unknown bacteria was using several different microbiology lab techniques including an API test, an oxidase test, a gram stain, a hanging drop slide, and morphology identification. The unknown bacterium, which was contaminated with Serratia marcescens, was isolated by streaking the bacteria solution to single colonies. The isolated unknown white bacteria, had the appearance of circular form, convex elevation, entire margin, elongated cocci. The tests than showed that the bacteria was gram-negative, non-motile, and was identified as a Salmonella species bacteria, Salmonella choleraesuis. Introduction When applying biology to real world cases, it takes numerous tests to be able to identify exactly what a type of bacteria an unidentified bacterium is, whether…

The Great Qualities of Alexander Fleming

In the novel Of Mice and Men, George and Lennie demonstrate many qualities of friendship. Three qualities that can help cultivate a sincere friendship are intelligence, bravery, and selflessness. Alexander Fleming was a biologist who lived from 1881 to 1955. Though his early education, and his achievements in his research, he lived out the qualities of intelligence, bravery, and selflessness, and therefore would have absolutely made for a very true friend. Alexander Fleming showed much intelligence in his early life after he was transferred to the Kilmarnock Academy. He entered the school when he was twelve years old and only stayed there for one year. Throughout his early and later education, Fleming greatly enjoyed competition with other people. He always…

Yogurt

There are thousands of microorganisms present at almost every surface. Some of them are pathogenic which causes diseases but most of them are useful especially in the food industry (Lasztity, n.d.). Microorganisms have been used for preparing food products such as cheese, bread, yogurt, etc, for a long period of time without even knowing that the process involves fermentation of the starting material (Pai, 2003). Fermentation is the process of utilizing nutrients anaerobically (D’Souza & Killedar, 2006). Yogurt is a product of fermentation brought by adding Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus to ferment the milk and turn it into a thickened acidic food ( Lee & Lucey, 2010). These bacteria partially digest milk and produce lactic acids which makes it…

Disease Caused by Environmental Exposure

Environmental Diseases In epidemiology, environmental disease is disease caused by environmental factors that are not transmitted genetically or by infection. Apart from the true monogenic genetic disorders, environmental diseases may determine the development of disease in those genetically predisposed to a particular condition. Stress, physical and mental abuse, diet, exposure to toxins, pathogens, radiation, and chemicals found in almost all personal care products and household cleaners are possible causes of a large segment of non-hereditary disease. If a disease process is concluded to be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factor influences, its etiological origin can be referred to as having a multifactorial pattern. There are many different types of environmental disease including: * Lifestyle disease such…

Microbiology and Bacteria

Microbiology is the study of microorganisms which must be viewed with the aid of a microscope or electron microscope. The importance of microbiology includes: used in biomedical research, creation of medicines, environmental applications and new research tools. Disease causing organisms include: protists, bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms. Bacteria are important for fixing N2 in a usable form for plants. Bacteria and some fungi are important in decomposition and recycling of raw materials. Industry applications of microbiology: waste management, food industry, mining, medicine, research and biotechnology. 1660’s Robert Hooke observed microorganisms for the first time with a microscope and coined the term “cell”. 1632-1723 Anton van Leeuwenhoek credited with having observed the first bacteria. 1828-1898 Ferdinand Cohn developed the first classification…

Ah Antimicrobial Investigation

This is a project starter, suitable for Advanced Higher biology investigations or A-level extended projects. Don’t forget to credit this resource in your bibliography by including the title, the website, the web address and the date you accessed it. Background information One often sees claims that a wide range of products, both synthetic and natural, are antibacterial, antifungal or both. Disc diffusion tests provide a simple and reliable method of testing antibacterial or anti-yeast properties. Sterile discs of filter paper can be impregnated with standard quantities of the substance to be tested. They are then placed on a freshly spread lawn plate of the test organism. After incubation, the effectiveness of the substance is determined by measuring the area of…

Review of Microbiology

Nature has its own methods of survival and too much of human interference disturbs its mechanism . The over exploitation and improper use of the natural environment is one of the major problems the world faces today. If pollution continues to incur at this rate, the day is not too far when most life forms shall be on the verge of extinction. If land is a pre requisite to man’s existence ,water is the most crucial element . Water bodies such as ponds, rivers, lakes, seas and oceans are being polluted at an increasingly rapid rate . The condition of sea waters and oceans is fragile and concerns most environmentalists today. Marine pollution may occur due to unfavorable alterations. The…

Microbiology

1.List five environments where you are likely to find microbial growth: Lakes, soil, oceans, tundras, deserts 2.How do microbes contribute to soil fertility? The decomposition that microbes take part in help release mineral nutrients, such as potassium and nitrogen, from dead organic matter and allowing primary producers the nutritional access. They also produce CO2 and CH4 to release into the soil and atmosphere. 3.Describe the growth you observed in each of your samples: Soil: I chose an area of soil outside of my apartment to do my soil sample. I noticed that there were a few prominent growth in this dish. The majority of them seemed to grow in a snowflake shape and were mainly white. Whether they were different…

Microbiology and Bacteria

Microbiology is the study of microorganisms which must be viewed with the aid of a microscope or electron microscope. The importance of microbiology includes: used in biomedical research, creation of medicines, environmental applications and new research tools. Disease causing organisms include: protists, bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms. Bacteria are important for fixing N2 in a usable form for plants. Bacteria and some fungi are important in decomposition and recycling of raw materials. Industry applications of microbiology: waste management, food industry, mining, medicine, research and biotechnology. 1660’s Robert Hooke observed microorganisms for the first time with a microscope and coined the term “cell”. 1632-1723 Anton van Leeuwenhoek credited with having observed the first bacteria. 1828-1898 Ferdinand Cohn developed the first classification…

Public Health in Microbiological Labs in Middle East

The focus of public health intervention is to improve health and quality of life through the prevention and treatment of diseases and other physical and mental health conditions, through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors .and because the field playing challenges and professionals to meet the complex health issues. I wish to apply for PhD in public health. Because intended to build on the current health-for-all strategy and act as a blueprint for gathering and using information for health to guide policy-makers and service providers of a future health system. Its main theme is the orientation or reshaping of health services so that improving people’s health and quality of life becomes the primary and unifying focus of…

Introduction to Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that can survive in extreme environments. Bacteria is the more numerous type of prokaryotes. The group hypothesizes that the samples taken from different environments will all cultivate diverse morphology in fast growing rates in each environment. The aseptic technique was used to cultivate bacteria from different environments. The diversity of morphology and the growing rate of the bacteria was different in each environment. Introduction Prokaryotes are the oldest known life-forms, having existed for the last 3. 5 billion years. Microscopic in size, they are single-celled organisms. Prokaryotic species can survive in extreme habitats that the other life-forms are not capable of inhabiting. Prokaryotes have different shapes, the three most common shapes are spherical (cocci), rod shaped…

Introduction to the microbial world history of microbiology

Part A. This letter is in response to your story which was published in your website and broadcasted in your stations regarding Edward Jenner as the most prolific microbiologist that ever lived and have contributed much to the improvement of microbiology and public health. I would like to make a point that several other scientists have contributed much to that of the works of Jenner on eradicating small pox virus by vaccination. He may have started the use of vaccines which led to its eradication years later; however, it should not be mistaken to be the most significant microbiological contribution. Take an example the work of Joseph Lister on 1867 regarding antiseptics (Prescott et al., 2005). Like any other scientist…

Identification of Two Unknown Bacteria

In the field of microbiology, being able to effectively identity bacteria from a given sample is indeed of vital importance. To further expound, in relation to medical applications, the identification of bacteria from clinical samples is essential in order to determine whether the treatment being given or to be given for an infection would indeed be effective (Crowley, 2010). In relation to this, if the pathogenic bacteria have not been appropriately identified then it would be logical to assume that the disease would not be effectively treated let alone the possibility of further worsening the patient’s health. Furthermore, if antibiotics are mistakenly administered due to errors in identification, then it would be possible that resistance might be developed as one…

Proteus Mirabilis

The genus Proteus, according to Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, is a group of straight rod Gram negative bacteria around 0.4-0.8 μm in diameter and 1-3 μm in length. In the microscopic test done, it was seen that the unknown culture contained rods that are on the shorter side, thus was identified as bacteria that appear to be coccobacilli. Because of the presence of peritrichous flagella, species included this genus are motile and most strains swarm in periodic cycles, producing a characteristic concentric swarming pattern, or spread in a uniform film over nutrient media solidified with agar or gelatin, which is evident in the streak plates done over the course of a few weeks, the streak plates showing the bacteria…

The History of Microbiology

I. Introduction. Microbiology is the study of living microorganisms. The term micro means extremely small, and with regards to biology, this refers to minute living things that are individually too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope. These invisible microorganisms include bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoan and other microscopic organisms. The study of microorganisms is very important because it helps explains why people get sick and who or what is responsible for it. Prior to the development of microbiology, thousands (and sometimes millions) of people die in devastating epidemics as medical doctors stand helplessly at the side, fully ignorant of the reasons or causes of the disease. Most people believed that these diseases were sent as a punishment…

Difference between an obligate and facultative aerobe

A. Describe the difference between an obligate and facultative aerobe. An obligate aerobe is a microorganism that must have oxygen for growth and will grow at the top of the test tube. A facultative aerobe prefers oxygen but it is not necessary for growth. Many of these microorganisms will grow at the top of the tube, but will also be dispersed throughout as well. B. Discuss the temperature requirements of the organisms (you grew) in this lab. Both Staphylococcus epidermis and Lactobacillus acidophilus are mesophiles. Mesophiles grow best between 25- 45 degrees Celsius (Alonzo, n.d.). In this experiment both bacteria have grown easily at a maintained room temperature of 26 Celsius. C. Discuss under what conditions you would want to…

Biology: Book and Lab Coat

Guidelines for Biology Experiments 1. 0 Attendance 1. 1 Attendance to practical sessions is COMPULSORY. 1. 2 If you cannot come to the class due to ill health or emergency excuses, please inform the lecturer EARLIER, so that another practical session can be arranged for you ON THE SAME WEEK. 2. 0 Lab coat 2. 1 Wearing lab coat is COMPULSORY. 2. 2 Put on the lab coat throughout the class. 3. 0 Jotter 3. 1 Jotters should contain the summary on the PROCEDURES you are going to perform during the experiment. 3. 2 It can be in the form of short notes, flow charts, mind maps, diagrams or any other forms of summary. 3. 3 Jotter should also include…

Micro Lab Unknown Report

There are many types of microorganisms and ways to treat each one. Knowing the differences of each is vital to treat a patient correctly. The purpose of this report is to explain the process and steps used to identify a certain microorganism referred to as the unknown. Materials and Methods A test tube with an unknown microorganism will be retrieved. Once the test tube is retrieved, a steak for isolation will be completed in order to produce isolated colonies of the organism on an agar plate. The unknown test tube with the bacteria is flame sterilized using a Bunsen burner. Once the bacterium test tube has been flame sterilized, a flame sterilized inoculating loop will be used to gather some…

Lab Report Microbiology

Abstract Dairy food staff such as soft cheese,cream cheese,raw milk,sour cream,yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt products can be a rich source of diverse lactic acid bacteria.The objective of this lab practical was to isolate lactic acid bacteria(LAB) form raw milk,establishment of pure cultures of LAB,identify LAB and phage recovery and enumeration of recoverd phage.Raw milk was chosen as a sample so as to have a more positive result.To identify bacteria Lab isolated from raw milk,biochemical,morphological ,physiological and cultural characteristics were employed. The purification of isolates was done by moving Gram +ve ro ds and cocci shaped bacteria to selective media MRS and M-17 plates. The isolates were sub cultured till pure isolates were got. From 20 raw milk samples a total…

Unknown Lab Report Microbiology

There are numerous reasons for identifying unknown bacteria. Some of these organisms have distinct qualities that set them apart from one another, such as the exposure to certain environments. Through out the semester in the laboratory, we are able to encounter some of the few microorganisms that we as humans have come into contact with. With the knowledge gained from the sessions in the laboratory, we can now integrate what we have learned to the process of finding out the unknowns given. Materials and Methods The professor gave out the unknown specimens. It contained one-­‐gram positive and one-­‐gram negative bacteria from the given list. I was assigned unknown A. The process of identification was achieved by utilizing procedures learnt during…

Cellular Components

1 What cellular components do some bacterial cells have that make them powerful pathogens? Explain your answer. Pili that allows the structure to attach onto other cells like a leech. The capsule which protects the cells from the white blood cells that attack foreign invaders. Endospores which allow them to survive rough conditions. 2 Why are penicillins often more effective against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria? It is more effective against Gram positive because it has only one layer of the cytoplasmic membrane whereas the Gram negative bacteria has two layers of the member which makes it harder for the penicillin to synthesize. 3 Why is it important to understand the structure of a bacterial cell when developing…

Bacteria Lab Report

The most common way of alleviating the specific symptoms arrived from diseases is to ingest antimicrobial drugs. Chemotherapeutical antimicrobial agents are chemical compounds intended to inhibit or kill rapidly dividing microorganisms. In order to derive an antimicrobial drug, different chemical compounds must be synthetically formed. Among these specific chemical compounds is a compound famously known as the antibiotic. The antibiotic is classified as an antimicrobial drug because it’s a chemical that is produced by either a bacterium or fungus, which has the ability to regulate the growth of other microorganisms. The validity of antibiotics as a category of antimicrobial drugs was determined by a method that was developed by Kirby and Bauer, and standardized by the World Health Organization in…

Does Cerumen have a risk for transmission of diseases?

I learned in the A & P course that ear wax (or cerumen) is a waxy secretion by ceruminous gland (= modified sebaceous gland), mixed with sloughed epithelial cells, which inhibits the growth of certain bacteria due to its acidic pH. It also protects the skin of the external auditory canal by providing a waterproof layer, so, it’s something beneficial to us. Sure enough, there appear to be a number of articles written to support this – “Bactericidal activity of cerumen”, Chai & Chai (ref 1), “Bactericidal activity of wet cerumen”, Stone & Fulghun (ref 2), etc. (though this concept is refuted by a later study! (ref 3))On the other hand, I could find only very few articles that discuss…

Cholera and Ebola

Cholera, aka Asiatic Cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. From the family Vibrionaceae, the bacterium is characterized as a gram-negative rod. As with other gram-negative rods, Vibrio cholerae produces an endotoxin, known as cholera toxin. This bacterium is mobile due to the presence of a single polar flagellum and is highly infectious. The Vibrio cholerae bacterium grows in both freshwater and marine habitats and also in association with aquatic animals. Originally discovered in 1824 by the Italian Anatomist, Filippo Pacini, Vibrio cholera most likely originated in India with the Ganges River serving as the primary contamination reservoir. Nearly 30 years later bacteriologists Robert Koch and John Snow found…

Groundwork Preparation for Wet Mounts

Through processes know as wet mounts and simple stains, observing living microorganisms through a compound microscope can generate a clearer understanding of their appearances and movements. Microorganisms are living things that for the most part cannot be seen through the naked eye. They live on and among humans, as well as plants, animals, and all that is a part of the Earth. Harmless as most seem to be to humans, microorganisms are an important relevance of study for human interest in varied perplexities and can dictate a human life’s progress or deterioration; thus the significance to humans is vital (Talaro 6). The discovery of the microscope introduced a new branch of science called microbiology. The microscope, a major instrument in…

Salmonella: A Food Borne Illness

As an important health problem in the United States and many European countries, Salmonella can affect you at anytime or any place. But, there are ways to avoid it. You first must know the background and exactly what salmonella is. Salmonella was discovered by a pioneering American Veterinary Scientist named Daniel E. Salmon. He discovered the first strain of this bacterium in the intestine of a dead pig. He named it salmonella after his last name, Salmon. The full scientific name is Salmonelliosis. You may have heard a lot about salmonella in a recent Hoards Dairyman magazine, or on the news. Salmonelliosis is an infection with a bacterium called salmonella. The salmonella germ is a microscopic living creature that passes…

Introduction to Microbiology

Abstract: This experiment is directed to investigate the various physical factors affecting the growth of microbes: temperature, pH of the extracellular environment and the requirement of atmospheric oxygen. Consequently this experiment consists of three parts: 1st part is about investigating the effect of temperature on microbial growth by varying the temperature range: 4oC, 20oC, 37oC and 60oC; 2nd part is directed to determine the effect of pH on growth of microorganisms by varying the pH ranges: pH3, pH6, pH7, pH9; the last part is about effect of oxygen requirement on growth of microbes, where the microorganisms grow depending on oxygen demand. Introduction: Microorganisms are classified depending on growth requirements. In this laboratory the microorganisms are divided due to effect of…