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Methods of Research Essay

1. Define research in the light of the growing need for its conduct, exposition, and application. (5 points) Research is an process to collect and analyze information to increase our topic understanding for problem,it has three steps: pose a question,collect data and present an answer to the question. Research is an process to collect and analyze information to increase our topic understanding for problem,it has three steps: pose a question,collect data and present an answer to the question.

2. Explain the need for the discussion of the sampling technique. (5 points) Sampling technique is necessary in order to avoid bias in impact research assessment.many evluations and even research projects commonly suffer from a number of biases which reduce investigation to improve data. Sampling technique is necessary in order to avoid bias in impact research assessment.many evluations and even research projects commonly suffer from a number of biases which reduce investigation to improve data.

3. Differentiate the following with not more than 50 words per item (6 points each): a. Theoretical framework and conceptual framework;

A conceptual framework occurs when a researcher links concepts from literature to establish evidence to support the need for the research question. If somebody else has already linked these concepts with valid research, they made a theoretical framework which can be used as a “ready made map” for other scientists to guide their own research questions. A conceptual framework occurs when a researcher links concepts from literature to establish evidence to support the need for the research question. If somebody else has already linked these concepts with valid research, they made a theoretical framework which can be used as a “ready made map” for other scientists to guide their own research questions.

b. Primary and secondary sources;
Primary source are very close to the origin of a particular topic,issue or situation being written about. Secondary sources are at least one step removed from the described topic,are reports that draw on research and other references to make interpretive,analytical or synthesized claims.and they are best used for representing significant points of view. Primary source are very close to the origin of a particular topic,issue or situation being written about. Secondary sources are at least one step removed from the described topic,are reports that draw on research and other references to make interpretive,analytical or synthesized claims.and they are best used for representing significant points of view.

c. Quantitative and qualitative research;
In quantitative method,the researcher makes some type of comparison and attempts to discover relationships between or among variables. In qualitative method,the researcher is concerned in employing different approaches to discover non-quantitative relationships between or among existing variables.

In quantitative method,the researcher makes some type of comparison and attempts to discover relationships between or among variables. In qualitative method,the researcher is concerned in employing different approaches to discover non-quantitative relationships between or among existing variables.

d. Statistical treatment and statistical tools; and Statistical treatment refers to some collection of methods which is used to process large amounts of data. Statistical tools have a multitude of different way that is available to comparison of data,or sets of data,quantify accuracy or precision,some of them simple,some complicated,and often very specific for certain purposes Statistical treatment refers to some collection of methods which is used to process large amounts of data. Statistical tools have a multitude of different way that is available to comparison of data,or sets of data,quantify accuracy or precision,some of them simple,some complicated,and often very specific for certain purposes

e. Random and non-random sampling;
A simple random sample uses randomization to pick your sample,that can be done in a number of ways. Non-random samples do not use randomization.

In a word,Simple random samples are random samples,but random samples are not necessarity simple random samples. A simple random sample uses randomization to pick your sample,that can be done in a number of ways. Non-random samples do not use randomization.

In a word,Simple random samples are random samples,but random samples are not necessarity simple random samples.

4. How the internal and external criticisms of literatures are done? Explain with clarity and conviction. (10 points) Internal criticism refers to the reliability or accuracy of the information contained in the source,so it’s process involves evaluating the accuracy and worth of state ments contained in a historical document.before start research,researchers must ask these questions in evaluating as follow:1.is it probable that people would act in the way described by the writer? 2.is it physically possible for the events described to have occurred this close together in time. 3.do the budget figures mentioned by the writer seem reasonable.

External criticism refers to the validity,trustworthiness,or authenticity of the source, so it’s process is used to determine whether the apparent or claimed origin of a historical document corresponds with the actual origin, for example does the following items match:1.Author,2.Place,3.Date,4.Circumstances of publication Internal criticism refers to the reliability or accuracy of the information contained in the source,so it’s process involves evaluating the accuracy and worth of state ments contained in a historical document.before start research,researchers must ask these questions in evaluating as follow:1.is it probable that people would act in the way described by the writer? 2.is it physically possible for the events described to have occurred this close together in time. 3.do the budget figures mentioned by the writer seem reasonable.

External criticism refers to the validity,trustworthiness,or authenticity of the source, so it’s process is used to determine whether the apparent or claimed origin of a historical document corresponds with the actual origin, for example does the following items match:1.Author,2.Place,3.Date,4.Circumstances of publication

5. Evaluate Wikipedia as a tertiary source of information. (5 points) The Wikipedia is not a primary source and a secondary source, is an encyclopedia,so it’s main namespace is an encyclopedia. Wikipedia as a tertiary source, because all the summarizes descriptions,interpretations and analyses are summaried on tertiary sources,which is as close as possible to the primary sources on the described topic. The Wikipedia is not a primary source and a secondary source, is an encyclopedia,so it’s main namespace is an encyclopedia. Wikipedia as a tertiary source, because all the summarizes descriptions,interpretations and analyses are summaried on tertiary sources,which is as close as possible to the primary sources on the described topic.

6. Enumerate (in proper sequence) the different parts or components of Chapter 3 (saved at least by JRU standards). – 5 points

1.Research method,descriptive,experimental.

2.Population,sample size and sampling technique,it explains the methods in selecting the sample. 3.Description of the respondents,it describes the respondents

4.The research instrument,for example,survey,questionnaire,test,interview.

5.Validation of the research instrument,the researcher explains how the research instrument used is validated.

6.Data-gathering procedure,for example,asking permission,writing a letter,distributing the questionnaire,and the like.

7.Statistical treatment of data,it makes clear how each datum gathered are explained and interpreted through statistics.

8.Statistical tools,it shows the formulas and sources of the statistics used in the research undertaking.

1.Research method,descriptive,experimental.
2.Population,sample size and sampling technique,it explains the methods in selecting the sample. 3.Description of the respondents,it describes the respondents 4.The research instrument,for example,survey,questionnaire,test,interview. 5.Validation of the research instrument,the researcher explains how the research instrument used is validated. 6.Data-gathering procedure,for example,asking permission,writing a letter,distributing the questionnaire,and the like. 7.Statistical treatment of data,it makes clear how each datum gathered are explained and interpreted through statistics. 8.Statistical tools,it shows the formulas and sources of the statistics used in the research undertaking.


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